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Simon J. Handley [22]Simon Handley [6]SimonJ Handley [1]
  1.  14
    Uncontrolled logic: intuitive sensitivity to logical structure in random responding.Stephanie Howarth, Simon Handley & Vince Polito - 2022 - Thinking and Reasoning 28 (1):61-96.
    It is well established that beliefs provide powerful cues that influence reasoning. Over the last decade research has revealed that judgments based upon logical structure may also pre-empt deliberative reasoning. Evidence for ‘intuitive logic’ has been claimed using a range of measures (i.e. confidence ratings or latency of response on conflict problems). However, it is unclear how well such measures genuinely reflect logical intuition. In this paper we introduce a new method designed to test for evidence of intuitive logic. In (...)
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  2.  8
    Uncontrolled logic: intuitive sensitivity to logical structure in random responding.Stephanie Howarth, Simon Handley & Vince Polito - 2022 - Thinking and Reasoning 28 (1):61-96.
    It is well established that beliefs provide powerful cues that influence reasoning. Over the last decade research has revealed that judgments based upon logical structure may also pre-empt deliberative reasoning. Evidence for ‘intuitive logic’ has been claimed using a range of measures (i.e. confidence ratings or latency of response on conflict problems). However, it is unclear how well such measures genuinely reflect logical intuition. In this paper we introduce a new method designed to test for evidence of intuitive logic. In (...)
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  3.  23
    Suppositions, extensionality, and conditionals: A critique of the mental model theory of Johnson-Laird and Byrne (2002).Jonathan St B. T. Evans, David E. Over & Simon J. Handley - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):1040-1052.
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  4.  27
    Frequency versus probability formats in statistical word problems.Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Simon J. Handley, Nick Perham, David E. Over & Valerie A. Thompson - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):197-213.
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  5.  23
    The logic sense: exploring the role of executive functioning in belief and logic-based judgments.Stephanie Howarth, Simon Handley & Clare Walsh - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 25 (4):416-448.
    The Default Interventionist account suggests that by default, we often generate belief-based responses when reasoning and find it difficult to draw the logical inference. Recent research, h...
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  6.  22
    When can we say ‘if’?Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Helen Neilens, Simon J. Handley & David E. Over - 2008 - Cognition 108 (1):100-116.
  7.  39
    : Working memory, inhibitory control and the development of children's reasoning.Simon J. Handley, A. Capon, M. Beveridge, I. Dennis & J. St B. T. Evans - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):175-195.
  8.  20
    Reasoning from Suppositions.Ruth M. J. Byrne, Simon J. Handley & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (4):915-944.
    Two experiments investigated inferences based on suppositions. In Experiment 1, the subjects decided whether suppositions about individuals' veracity were consistent with their assertions—for example, whether the supposition “Ann is telling the truth and Beth is telling a lie”, is consistent with the premises: “Ann asserts: I am telling the truth and Beth is telling the truth. Beth asserts: Ann is telling the truth”. It showed that these inferences are more difficult than ones based on factual premises: “Ann asserts: I live (...)
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  9.  54
    Better but still biased: Analytic cognitive style and belief bias.Dries Trippas, Gordon Pennycook, Michael F. Verde & Simon J. Handley - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (4):431-445.
    Belief bias is the tendency for prior beliefs to influence people's deductive reasoning in two ways: through the application of a simple belief-heuristic and through the application of more effortful reasoning for unbelievable conclusions. Previous research indicates that cognitive ability is the primary determinant of the effect of beliefs on accuracy. In the current study, we show that the mere tendency to engage analytic reasoning is responsible for the effect of cognitive ability on motivated reasoning. The implications of this finding (...)
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  10.  14
    Eye Movements, Pupil Dilation, and Conflict Detection in Reasoning: Exploring the Evidence for Intuitive Logic.Zoe A. Purcell, Andrew J. Roberts, Simon J. Handley & Stephanie Howarth - 2023 - Cognitive Science 47 (6):e13293.
    A controversial claim in recent dual process accounts of reasoning is that intuitive processes not only lead to bias but are also sensitive to the logical status of an argument. The intuitive logic hypothesis draws upon evidence that reasoners take longer and are less confident on belief–logic conflict problems, irrespective of whether they give the correct logical response. In this paper, we examine conflict detection under conditions in which participants are asked to either judge the logical validity or believability of (...)
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  11.  16
    Illusory intuitive inferences: Matching heuristics explain logical intuitions.Omid Ghasemi, Simon J. Handley & Stephanie Howarth - 2023 - Cognition 235 (C):105417.
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  12.  54
    Frequency versus probability formats in statistical word problems.Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Simon J. Handley, Nick Perham, David E. Over & Valerie A. Thompson - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):197-213.
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  13.  46
    Individual differences in strategies for syllogistic reasoning.Alison Bacon, Simon Handley & Stephen Newstead - 2003 - Thinking and Reasoning 9 (2):133 – 168.
    Current theories of reasoning such as mental models or mental logic assume a universal cognitive mechanism that underlies human reasoning performance. However, there is evidence that this is not the case, for example, the work of Ford (1995), who found that some people adopted predominantly spatial and some verbal strategies in a syllogistic reasoning task. Using written and think-aloud protocols, the present study confirmed the existence of these individual differences. However, in sharp contrast to Ford, the present study found few (...)
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  14.  40
    Fluency and belief bias in deductive reasoning: new indices for old effects.Dries Trippas, Simon J. Handley & Michael F. Verde - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  15.  60
    Working memory and reasoning: An individual differences perspective.Alison Capon, Simon Handley & Ian Dennis - 2003 - Thinking and Reasoning 9 (3):203 – 244.
    This article reports three experiments that investigated the relationship between working memory capacity and syllogistic and five-term series spatial inference. A series of complex and simple verbal and spatial working memory measures were employed. Correlational analyses showed that verbal and spatial working memory span tasks consistently predicted syllogistic and spatial reasoning performance. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that three factors best accounted for the data--a verbal, a spatial, and a general factor. Syllogistic reasoning performance loaded all three factors, whilst spatial (...)
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  16.  14
    Using forced choice to test belief bias in syllogistic reasoning.Dries Trippas, Michael F. Verde & Simon J. Handley - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):586-600.
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  17.  66
    Supposition and representation in human reasoning.Simon J. Handley & Jonathan StB. T. Evans - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):273-311.
    We report the results of three experiments designed to assess the role of suppositions in human reasoning. Theories of reasoning based on formal rules propose that the ability to make suppositions is central to deductive reasoning. Our first experiment compared two types of problem that could be solved by a suppositional strategy. Our results showed no difference in difficulty between problems requiring affirmative or negative suppositions and very low logical solution rates throughout. Further analysis of the error data showed a (...)
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  18.  28
    Illusory intuitions: Challenging the claim of non-exclusivity.Simon J. Handley, Omid Ghasemi & Michal Bialek - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e125.
    A person who arrives at correct solutions via false premises is right and wrong simultaneously. Similarly, a person who generates “logical intuitions” through superficial heuristics can likewise be right and wrong at the same time. However, heuristics aren't guaranteed to deliver the logical solution, so the claim that system 1 can routinely produce the alleged system 2 response is unfounded.
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  19.  22
    Suppositions, Conditionals, and Causal Claims.Aidan Feeney & SimonJ Handley - 2011 - In Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Sarah R. Beck (eds.), Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation. Oxford University Press. pp. 242.
  20.  40
    Autism and performance on the suppression task: Reasoning, context and complexity.Rebecca McKenzie, Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Simon J. Handley - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (2):182 - 196.
  21.  29
    Alleviating the concerns with the SDT approach to reasoning: reply to Singmann and Kellen.Dries Trippas, Michael F. Verde & Simon J. Handley - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  22.  28
    Semifactual: Byrne's account of even-if.Simon J. Handley & Aidan Feeney - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):458-459.
    Byrne's approach to the semifactual conditional captures the reasoning data. However, we argue that it does not account for the processes or principles by which people arrive at representations of even-if conditionals, upon which their reasoning is said to be based. Drawing upon recent work on the suppositional conditional we present such an account.
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  23.  18
    Autism and performance on the suppression task: Reasoning, context and complexity.Rebecca McKenzie, Jonathan St Bt Evans & Simon J. Handley - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (2):182-196.
  24.  77
    Effects of training and instruction on analytic and belief-based reasoning processes.Helen L. Neilens, Simon J. Handley & Stephen E. Newstead - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37 – 68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers. Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based responding as a function of (...)
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  25.  40
    Effects of training and instruction on analytic and belief-based reasoning processes.Stephen E. Newstead, Simon J. Handley & Helen L. Neilens - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37-68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers. Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based responding as a function of (...)
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  26.  87
    Predicting the difficulty of complex logical reasoning problems.Stephen E. Newstead, Peter Bradon, Simon J. Handley, Ian Dennis & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2006 - Thinking and Reasoning 12 (1):62 – 90.
    The aim of the present research was to develop a difficulty model for logical reasoning problems involving complex ordered arrays used in the Graduate Record Examination. The approach used involved breaking down the problems into their basic cognitive elements such as the complexity of the rules used, the number of mental models required to represent the problem, and question type. Weightings for these different elements were derived from two experimental studies and from the reasoning literature. Based on these weights, difficulty (...)
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  27.  44
    Investigating reasoning with multiple integrated neuroscientific methods.Matthew E. Roser, Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Nicolas A. McNair, Giorgio Fuggetta, Simon J. Handley, Lauren S. Carroll & Dries Trippas - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.