6 found
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  1.  49
    In AI We Trust Incrementally: a Multi-layer Model of Trust to Analyze Human-Artificial Intelligence Interactions.Andrea Ferrario, Michele Loi & Eleonora Viganò - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):523-539.
    Real engines of the artificial intelligence revolution, machine learning models, and algorithms are embedded nowadays in many services and products around us. As a society, we argue it is now necessary to transition into a phronetic paradigm focused on the ethical dilemmas stemming from the conception and application of AIs to define actionable recommendations as well as normative solutions. However, both academic research and society-driven initiatives are still quite far from clearly defining a solid program of study and intervention. In (...)
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  2.  19
    Transparency as Design Publicity: Explaining and Justifying Inscrutable Algorithms.Michele Loi, Andrea Ferrario & Eleonora Viganò - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):253-263.
    In this paper we argue that transparency of machine learning algorithms, just as explanation, can be defined at different levels of abstraction. We criticize recent attempts to identify the explanation of black box algorithms with making their decisions interpretable, focusing our discussion on counterfactual explanations. These approaches to explanation simplify the real nature of the black boxes and risk misleading the public about the normative features of a model. We propose a new form of algorithmic transparency, that consists in explaining (...)
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  3.  36
    Trust Does Not Need to Be Human: It is Possible to Trust Medical AI.Andrea Ferrario, Michele Loi & Eleonora Viganò - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (6):437-438.
    In his recent article ‘Limits of trust in medical AI,’ Hatherley argues that, if we believe that the motivations that are usually recognised as relevant for interpersonal trust have to be applied to interactions between humans and medical artificial intelligence, then these systems do not appear to be the appropriate objects of trust. In this response, we argue that it is possible to discuss trust in medical artificial intelligence, if one refrains from simply assuming that trust describes human–human interactions. To (...)
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  4.  14
    AI Support for Ethical Decision-Making Around Resuscitation: Proceed with Care.Nikola Biller-Andorno, Andrea Ferrario, Susanne Joebges, Tanja Krones, Federico Massini, Phyllis Barth, Georgios Arampatzis & Michael Krauthammer - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (3):175-183.
    Artificial intelligence systems are increasingly being used in healthcare, thanks to the high level of performance that these systems have proven to deliver. So far, clinical applications have focused on diagnosis and on prediction of outcomes. It is less clear in what way AI can or should support complex clinical decisions that crucially depend on patient preferences. In this paper, we focus on the ethical questions arising from the design, development and deployment of AI systems to support decision-making around cardiopulmonary (...)
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  5.  9
    Design Publicity of Black Box Algorithms: A Support to the Epistemic and Ethical Justifications of Medical AI Systems.Andrea Ferrario - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (7):492-494.
    In their article ‘Who is afraid of black box algorithms? On the epistemological and ethical basis of trust in medical AI’, Durán and Jongsma discuss the epistemic and ethical challenges raised by black box algorithms in medical practice. The opacity of black box algorithms is an obstacle to the trustworthiness of their outcomes. Moreover, the use of opaque algorithms is not normatively justified in medical practice. The authors introduce a formalism, called computational reliabilism, which allows generating justified beliefs on the (...)
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  6.  1
    In Search of a Mission: Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Ethics.Nikola Biller-Andorno, Andrea Ferrario & Sophie Gloeckler - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (7):23-25.
    Artificial intelligence has found its way into many areas of human life, serving a range of purposes. Sometimes AI tools are designed to help humans eliminate high-volume, tedious, routine tas...
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