Hopping, skipping or jumping to conclusions? Clarifying the role of the JTC bias in delusions

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 12 (1):46-77 (2007)
  Copy   BIBTEX

Abstract

Introduction. There is substantial evidence that patients with delusions exhibit a reasoning bias—known as the “jumping to conclusions” bias—which leads them to accept hypotheses as correct on the basis of less evidence than controls. We address three questions concerning the JTC bias that require clarification. Firstly, what is the best measure of the JTC bias? Second, is the JTC bias correlated specifically with delusions, or only with the symptomatology of schizophrenia? And third, is the bias enhanced by emotionally salient material? Methods. To address these questions, we conducted a series of meta-analyses of studies that used the Beads task to compare the probabilistic reasoning styles of individuals with and without delusions. Results. We found that only one of four measures of the JTC bias—“draws to decision”—reached significance. The JTC bias exhibited by delusional subjects—as measured by draws to decision—did not appear to be solely an epiphenomenal effect of schizophrenic symptomatology, and was not amplified by emotionally salient material. Conclusions. A tendency to gather less evidence in the Beads task is reliably associated with the presence of delusional symptomatology. In contrast, certainty on the task, and responses to contradictory evidence, do not discriminate well between those with and without delusions. The implications for the underlying basis of the JTC bias, and its role in the formation and maintenance of delusions, are discussed.

Links

PhilArchive



    Upload a copy of this work     Papers currently archived: 92,227

External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

Similar books and articles

Delusions, Acceptances, and Cognitive Feelings.Richard Dub - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 94 (1):27-60.
From the internal lexicon to delusional belief.Max Coltheart - 2014 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies (3/2014):19-29.
Belief bias in informal reasoning.Valerie Thompson & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):278 - 310.

Analytics

Added to PP
2017-02-12

Downloads
29 (#553,855)

6 months
15 (#171,570)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

Author Profiles

Cordelia Fine
University of Melbourne
Ian Gold
McGill University
Jillian Craigie
King's College London

Citations of this work

Delusion.Lisa Bortolotti - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Delusional Inference.Ryan McKay - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (3):330-355.
Doctors without ‘Disorders’.Lisa Bortolotti - 2020 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 94 (1):163-184.

View all 13 citations / Add more citations

References found in this work

No references found.

Add more references