In contrast to most publications on the ethics of paying research subjects, which start by identifying and analyzing major ethical concerns raised by the practice and end with a set of—more or less well-justified—ethical recommendations for using payment schemes immune to these problems, this paper offers a systematic, principle-based ethical analysis of the practice. It argues that researchers have a prima facie moral obligation to offer payment to research subjects, which stems from the principle of social beneficence. This principle constitutes an ethical “spine” of the practice. Other ethical principles of research ethics make up an ethical “skeleton” of morally sound payment schemes by providing additional moral reasons for offering participants recompense for reasonable expenses; and remuneration conceptualized as a reward for their valuable contribution, provided it meets standards of equality, adequacy and non-exploitation, and it is not overly attractive ; or remuneration conceptualized as a market-driven price, provided it is necessary and designed to help the study achieve its social and scientific goals, it does not reinforce wider social injustices and inequalities; it meets the requirement of non-exploitation; and it is not overly attractive. The principle of justice provides a strong ethical reason for not offering recompenses for lost wages.
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DOI 10.1007/s11019-022-10092-1
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How Payment For Research Participation Can Be Coercive.Joseph Millum & Michael Garnett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):21-31.

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