56 found
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  1. Virtue Ethics and Professional Roles.Justin Oakley & Dean Cocking - 2001 - New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Dean Cocking.
    Professionals, it is said, have no use for simple lists of virtues and vices. The complexities and constraints of professional roles create peculiar moral demands on the people who occupy them, and traits that are vices in ordinary life are praised as virtues in the context of professional roles. Should this disturb us, or is it naive to presume that things should be otherwise? Taking medical and legal practice as key examples, Justin Oakley and Dean Cocking develop a rigorous articulation (...)
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  2. Morality and the emotions.Justin Oakley - 1992 - New York: Routledge.
    Introduction In recent years there has been a welcome reawakening of philosophical interest in the emotions. A significant number of contemporary ...
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  3.  50
    Payment in challenge studies: ethics, attitudes and a new payment for risk model.Olivia Grimwade, Julian Savulescu, Alberto Giubilini, Justin Oakley, Joshua Osowicki, Andrew J. Pollard & Anne-Marie Nussberger - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12):815-826.
    Controlled Human Infection Model (CHIM) research involves the infection of otherwise healthy participants with disease often for the sake of vaccine development. The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised the urgency of enhancing CHIM research capability and the importance of having clear ethical guidance for their conduct. The payment of CHIM participants is a controversial issue involving stakeholders across ethics, medicine and policymaking with allegations circulating suggesting exploitation, coercion and other violations of ethical principles. There are multiple approaches to payment: reimbursement, wage (...)
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  4.  8
    Morality and the Emotions.Justin Oakley - 1992 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 56 (3):598-600.
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  5.  28
    Expanded terminal sedation in end-of-life care.Laura Gilbertson, Julian Savulescu, Justin Oakley & Dominic Wilkinson - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (4):252-260.
    Despite advances in palliative care, some patients still suffer significantly at the end of life. Terminal Sedation (TS) refers to the use of sedatives in dying patients until the point of death. The following limits are commonly applied: (1) symptoms should be refractory, (2) sedatives should be administered proportionally to symptoms and (3) the patient should be imminently dying. The term ‘Expanded TS’ (ETS) can be used to describe the use of sedation at the end of life outside one or (...)
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  6. Varieties of virtue ethics.Justin Oakley - 1993 - Ratio 9 (2):128-152.
    The revival of virtue ethics over the last thirty‐five years has produced a bewildering diversity of theories, which on the face of it seem united only by their opposition to various features of more familiar Kantian and Utilitarian ethical theories. In this paper I present a systematic account of the main positive features of virtue ethics, by articulating the common ground shared by its different varieties. I do so not to offer a fresh defence of virtue ethics, but rather to (...)
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  7. Indirect consequentialism, friendship, and the problem of alienation.Dean Cocking & Justin Oakley - 1995 - Ethics 106 (1):86-111.
    In this article we argue that the worries about whether a consequentialist agent will be alienated from those who are special to her go deeper than has so far been appreciated. Rather than pointing to a problem with the consequentialist agent's motives or purposes, we argue that the problem facing a consequentialist agent in the case of friendship concerns the nature of the psychological disposition which such an agent would have and how this kind of disposition sits with those which (...)
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  8.  16
    Morality and the Emotions.Justin Oakley - 1992 - New York: Routledge.
    Originally published in 1992 this book attacks many recent philosophical and psychological theories of the emotions and argues that our emotions themselves have intrinsic moral significance. He demonstrates that a proper understanding of the emotions reveals the fundamental role they play in our moral lives and the practical consequences that arise from being morally responsible for our emotions.
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  9.  71
    Should the use of adaptive machine learning systems in medicine be classified as research?Robert Sparrow, Joshua Hatherley, Justin Oakley & Chris Bain - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics.
    A novel advantage of the use of machine learning (ML) systems in medicine is their potential to continue learning from new data after implementation in clinical practice. To date, considerations of the ethical questions raised by the design and use of adaptive machine learning systems in medicine have, for the most part, been confined to discussion of the so-called “update problem,” which concerns how regulators should approach systems whose performance and parameters continue to change even after they have received regulatory (...)
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  10.  35
    9 Virtue ethics and bioethics.Justin Oakley - 2013 - In Daniel C. Russell (ed.), The Cambridge companion to virtue ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 197.
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  11.  33
    Prospective Intention-Based Lifestyle Contracts: mHealth Technology and Responsibility in Healthcare.Emily Feng-Gu, Jim Everett, Rebecca C. H. Brown, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (3):189-212.
    As the rising costs of lifestyle-related diseases place increasing strain on public healthcare systems, the individual’s role in disease may be proposed as a healthcare rationing criterion. Literature thus far has largely focused on retrospective responsibility in healthcare. The concept of prospective responsibility, in the form of a lifestyle contract, warrants further investigation. The responsibilisation in healthcare debate also needs to take into account innovative developments in mobile health technology, such as wearable biometric devices and mobile apps, which may change (...)
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  12.  39
    Good medical ethics, from the inside out—and back again.Justin Oakley - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):48-51.
  13.  50
    Altruistic surrogacy and informed consent.Justin Oakley - 1992 - Bioethics 6 (4):269–287.
  14.  34
    Would you be willing to zap your child's brain? Public perspectives on parental responsibilities and the ethics of enhancing children with transcranial direct current stimulation.Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 9 (1):29-38.
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  15.  23
    Altruistic Surrogacy and Informed Consent.Justin Oakley - 2007 - Bioethics 6 (4):269-287.
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  16.  36
    A Virtue Ethics Approach.Justin Oakley - 1998 - In Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics. Malden, Mass., USA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 91–104.
    This chapter contains sections titled: The Rise of Virtue Ethics Essential Features of Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics Approaches to Bioethics Criticisms of Virtue Ethics Conclusion References Further reading.
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  17. Consequentialism, Moral Responsibility, and the Intention/ Foresight Distinction.Justin Oakley & Dean Cocking - 1994 - Utilitas 6 (2):201.
    In many recent discussions of the morality of actions where both good and bad consequences foreseeably ensue, the moral significance of the distinction between intended and foreseen consequences is rejected. This distinction is thought to bear on the moral status of actions by those who support the Doctrine of Double Effect. According to this doctrine, roughly speaking, to perform an action intending to bring about a particular bad effect as a means to some commensurate good end is impermissible, while performing (...)
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  18.  41
    Informed consent and surgeons' performance.Steve Clarke & Justin Oakley - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (1):11 – 35.
    This paper argues that the provision of effective informed consent by surgical patients requires the disclosure of material information about the comparative clinical performance of available surgeons. We develop a new ethical argument for the conclusion that comparative information about surgeons' performance - surgeons' report cards - should be provided to patients, a conclusion that has already been supported by legal and economic arguments. We consider some recent institutional and legal developments in this area, and we respond to some common (...)
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  19.  27
    Fair go: pay research participants properly or not at all.Olivia Grimwade, Julian Savulescu, Alberto Giubilini, Justin Oakley & Anne-Marie Nussberger - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12):837-839.
    We thank the authors of the five commentaries for their careful and highly constructive consideration of our paper,1 which has enabled us to develop our proposal. Participation in research has traditionally been viewed as altruistic. Over time, payments for inconvenience and lost wages have been allowed, as have small incentives, usually in kind. The problem, particularly with controlled human infection model research or ‘challenge studies’, is that they are unpleasant and time-consuming. Researchers want to offer carrots to incentivise participation. We (...)
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  20.  24
    Virtue Ethics and Public Policy: Upholding Medical Virtue in Therapeutic Relationships as a Case Study.Justin Oakley - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (4):769-779.
  21.  51
    Can self-preservation be virtuous in disaster situations?Justin Oakley - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):364-365.
  22.  22
    Practitioner Courage and Ethical Health Care Environments.Justin Oakley - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (3):40-42.
    In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Ann Hamric, John Arras, and Margaret Mohrmann highlight how contemporary accounts of the virtue of courage in health care often gloss over deeper problems in the underlying health care systems themselves. They express particular concerns about the appropriateness and personal costs of exhortations to health professionals to take courageous action in circumstances where this is “required only because of unethical institutional structures” (p. 39). They offer valuable points that are not adequately recognized (...)
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  23.  96
    Consequentialism, complacency, and slippery slope arguments.Justin Oakley & Dean Cocking - 2005 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (3):227-239.
    The standard problem with many slippery slope arguments is that they fail to provide us with the necessary evidence to warrant our believing that the significantly morally worse circumstances they predict will in fact come about. As such these arguments have widely been criticised as ‘scare-mongering’. Consequentialists have traditionally been at the forefront of such criticisms, demanding that we get serious about guiding our prescriptions for right action by a comprehensive appreciation of the empirical facts. This is not surprising, since (...)
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  24. A virtue ethics analysis of disclosure requirements and financial incentives as responses to conflicts of interest in physician prescribing.Justin Oakley - unknown
     
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  25. Creating regulatory environments for practical wisdom and role virtues in medical practice.Justin Oakley - 2018 - In David Carr (ed.), Cultivating Moral Character and Virtue in Professional Practice. New York: Routledge.
     
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  26.  43
    A Critique of Kantian Arguments against Emotions as Moral Motives.Justin Oakley - 1990 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 7 (4):441 - 459.
  27.  35
    Diagnosing true virtue? Remote scenarios, warranted virtue attributions, and virtuous medical practice.Justin Oakley - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (1):85-96.
    Immanuel Kant argues in the Foundations that remote scenarios are diagnostic of genuine virtue. When agents commonly thought to have a particular virtue fail to exhibit that virtue in an extreme situation, he argues, they do not truly have the virtue at all, and our propensities to fail in such ways indicate that true virtue might never have existed. Kant’s suggestion that failure to show, say, courage in extraordinary circumstances necessarily silences one’s claim to have genuine courage seems to rely (...)
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  28. Virtue Theory.Justin Oakley - unknown
     
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  29. Ethics of implicit persuasion in pharmaceutical advertising.Paul Biegler, Jeanette Kennett, Justin Oakley & Patrick Vargas - unknown
     
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  30. Informed consent and surgeons' performance.Stephen Clarke & Justin Oakley - unknown
     
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  31. Virtue ethics and utilitarianism.Justin Oakley - 2014 - In S. van Hooft, N. Athanassoulis, J. Kawall, J. Oakley & L. van Zyl (eds.), The handbook of virtue ethics. Durham: Acumen Publishing.
     
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  32.  12
    Expanding choice at the end of life.Dominic Wilkinson, Laura Gilbertson, Justin Oakley & Julian Savulescu - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (4):269-270.
    We are grateful to the commentators on our article1 for their thoughtful engagement with the ethical and clinical complexity of expanded terminal sedation (ETS) in end-of-life care. We will start by noting some points of common ground, before moving on to the more challenging ways in which TS might be permissibly expanded. First, several commentators pointed out, and we completely concur, that it is important to provide patients with full information about their end-of-life options, including the ‘outcomes, uncertainties and costs (...)
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  33.  9
    ‘After-birth abortion’ and arguments from potential.Justin Oakley - 2012 - Monash Bioethics Review 30 (1):58-60.
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  34. Professional interpretation and judgement, and the integrity of lawyers.Dean Cocking & Justin Oakley - unknown
     
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  35.  15
    When (if ever) may doctors discuss religion with their patients?Lauren Notini & Justin Oakley - 2022 - Bioethics 37 (1):72-80.
    There is ongoing debate within the bioethics literature regarding to what extent (if any) it is ethically justifiable for doctors to engage in religious discussion with their patients, in cases where patients cite religious considerations as influencing their medical decision-making. In this paper, we concede that certain forms of religious discussion between doctors and patients are morally permissible (though not necessarily morally obligatory), insofar as patients’ religious beliefs may comprise an important part of their overall wellbeing and can influence their (...)
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  36.  49
    ‘After-birth abortion’ and arguments from potential.Justin Oakley - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5):324-325.
    Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva reject arguments from claims that fetuses and newborn infants are potential persons, because they argue that potential persons cannot be harmed.1 But whether or not potential persons can be harmed, is it clear that potential persons are entirely lacking in moral status, of a kind that could count as a reason against bringing about their demise? We do not generally regard potential as entirely lacking in moral value until it is actualised. For example, parents who (...)
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  37. Accountability, Informed Consent and Clinician Report Cards.Justin Oakley & Steve Clarke - 2007 - In Steve Clarke (ed.), Informed Consent and Clinician Accountability: The Ethics of Report Cards on Surgeon Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-21.
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  38. 01 Editorial.Justin Oakley - 2010 - Monash Bioethics Review 29 (1).
     
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  39.  19
    Exhausted carers, neglected patients, and filial duties: when and how should health professionals intervene in family caregiving arrangements?Justin Oakley - 1999 - Monash Bioethics Review 18 (3):8-16.
    The many difficult ethical issues raised by family caregiving have been thrust into prominence by recent changes to hospital funding systems which encourage earlier discharge of patients. This paper investigates the sort of involvement that health professionals might justifiably have in family caregiving arrangements. It argues that the proper role of health professionals in protecting exhausted family caregivers can be clarified by considering some analogies with arguments about justifiable breaches of patient confidentiality. The paper also argues that health professionals who (...)
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  40.  12
    Islamic virtues and end‐of‐life decisions in clinical practice: A commentary on Mehrunisha Suleman, ‘The Balancing of Virtues—Muslim Perspectives on End of Life Care: Empirical research analysing the perspectives of service users and providers’.Justin Oakley - 2022 - Bioethics 37 (1):69-71.
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  41. Justice, post-retirement shame, and the failure of the standard conception of lawyers' roles.Justin Oakley - unknown
     
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  42.  11
    Max Charlesworth OA, FAHA.Justin Oakley - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):821-822.
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  43.  4
    MBR 35 Editorial.Justin Oakley - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 35 (1-4):1-1.
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  44. Moral philosophy in Australasia.Justin Oakley - unknown
     
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  45. Personal Relationships.Justin Oakley - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.
     
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  46.  19
    Reproductive cloning and arguments from potential.Justin Oakley - 2006 - Monash Bioethics Review 25 (1):42-47.
    The possibility of human reproductive cloning has led some bioethicists to suggest that potentiality-based arguments for fetal moral status become untenable, as such arguments would be committed to making the implausible claim that any adult somatic cell is itself a potential person. In this article I defend potentiality-based arguments for fetal moral status against such a reductio. Starling from the widely-held claim that the maintenance of numerical identity throughout successive changes places constraints on what a given entity can plausibly be (...)
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  47.  32
    Respecting Participant Autonomy and the Disclosure of Clinical Trial Results.Justin Oakley - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (8):38-38.
  48. Response to commentaries: sketch of a virtue ethics regulatory model.Justin Oakley - unknown
     
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  49. Role virtues, doctor-patience relationships, and virtuous policy.Justin Oakley - 2019 - In Tim Dare & Christine Swanton (eds.), Perspectives in Role Ethics: Virtues, Reasons, and Obligation. New York: Routledge.
     
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  50.  24
    Sketch of a virtue ethics approach to health care resource allocation.Justin Oakley - 1994 - Monash Bioethics Review 13 (4):27.
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