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  1.  75
    Gender Differences in Proclivity for Unethical Behavior.Michael Betz, Lenahan O'Connell & Jon M. Shepard - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):321 - 324.
    This paper explores possible connections between gender and the willingness to engage in unethical business behavior. Two approaches to gender and ethics are presented: the structural approach and the socialization approach. Data from a sample of 213 business school students reveal that men are more than two times as likely as women to engage in actions regarded as unethical but it is also important to note that relatively few would engage in any of these actions with the exception of buying (...)
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  2.  23
    The Proactive Corporation: Its Nature and Causes. [REVIEW]Jon M. Shepard, Michael Betz & Lenahan O'Connell - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (10):1001-1010.
    We argue that the stakeholder perspective on corporate social responsibility is in the process of being enlarged. Due to the process of institutional isomorphism, corporations are increasingly adopting organizational features designed to promote proactivity over mere reactivity in their stakeholder relationships. We identify two sources of pressure promoting the emergence of the proactive corporation -- stakeholder activism and the recognition of the social embeddedness of the economy. The final section describes four organizational design dimensions being installed by the more proactive (...)
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  3.  23
    An Organizational Field Approach to Corporate Rationality: The Role of Stakeholder Activism.Lenahan L. O’Connell, Carroll U. Stephens, Michael Betz, Jon M. Shepard & Jamie R. Hendry - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (1):93-111.
    This paper contends that rationality is more properly evaluated as a property of an organization’s relationships with its stakeholders than of the organization itself. We predicate our approach on the observation that stakeholders can hold goals quite distinct from those of owners and top managers, and these too can be rationally pursued. We build upon stakeholder theory and Weber’s classic distinction between wertrationalitat and zweckrationalitat, adding to them the “new institutionalist” concept of the organization field . Stakeholders employ a variety (...)
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