On malfunctioning software

Synthese 192 (4):1199-1220 (2015)
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Abstract

Artefacts do not always do what they are supposed to, due to a variety of reasons, including manufacturing problems, poor maintenance, and normal wear-and-tear. Since software is an artefact, it should be subject to malfunctioning in the same sense in which other artefacts can malfunction. Yet, whether software is on a par with other artefacts when it comes to malfunctioning crucially depends on the abstraction used in the analysis. We distinguish between “negative” and “positive” notions of malfunction. A negative malfunction, or dysfunction, occurs when an artefact token either does not or cannot do what it is supposed to. A positive malfunction, or misfunction, occurs when an artefact token may do what is supposed to but, at least occasionally, it also yields some unintended and undesirable effects. We argue that software, understood as type, may misfunction in some limited sense, but cannot dysfunction. Accordingly, one should distinguish software from other technical artefacts, in view of their design that makes dysfunction impossible for the former, while possible for the latter.

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Author Profiles

Giuseppe Primiero
Università degli Studi di Milano
Nir Fresco
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Luciano Floridi
Oxford University

References found in this work

The philosophy of information.Luciano Floridi - 2011 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Functions.Larry Wright - 1973 - Philosophical Review 82 (2):139-168.
In defense of proper functions.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (June):288-302.
Teleological theories of mental content.Peter Schulte & Karen Neander - 2022 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
The philosophy of information.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 50:42-43.

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