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Ludger Jansen
PTH Brixen College
  1.  66
    Calculus CL as a Formal System.Jens Lemanski & Ludger Jansen - 2020 - In Ahti Veikko Pietarinen, Peter Chapman, Leonie Bosveld-de Smet, Valeria Giardino, James Corter & Sven Linker (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Diagrams 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12169. 2020. 93413 Cham, Deutschland: pp. 445-460.
    In recent years CL diagrams inspired by Lange’s Cubus Logicus have been used in various contexts of diagrammatic reasoning. However, whether CL diagrams can also be used as a formal system seemed questionable. We present a CL diagram as a formal system, which is a fragment of propositional logic. Syntax and semantics are presented separately and a variant of bitstring semantics is applied to prove soundness and completeness of the system.
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  2. Tendencies and Other Realizables in Medical Information Sciences.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - The Monist 90 (4):534-554.
    In order to develop the ontology of tendencies for use in the representation of medical knowledge, tendencies are compared with other kinds of entities possessing the realizable-realization structure, specifically: dispositions, propensities, abilities and virtues. The peculiarities of tendencies are discussed and a standard schema of tendency ascription is developed in order to represent the relations between the ascriptions of tendency tokens to particulars and the ascriptions of tendency types to universals. Two nonstandard cases and their epistemic variants are discussed.
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  3. A non-hylomorphic account of formal causation.Petter Sandstad & Ludger Jansen - 2021 - In Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Formal Causation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
     
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  4. Unity and Constitution of Social Entities.Ludger Jansen - 2009 - In Benedikt Schick, Edmund Runggaldier & Ludger Honnefelder (eds.), Unity and Time in Metaphysics. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 15-45.
    Is a bank note identical with the piece of paper of which it consists? On the one hand, John Searle, in his reply to Barry Smith, suggests that they are “one and the same object” that is a social or non-social object only under certain descriptions. On the other hand, Lynne Rudder Baker puts forward the claim that bank note and paper are distinct entities that are bound together by the relation of material constitution. I suggest two possible analyses for (...)
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  5.  16
    Social Entities with and without Explicit Establishment.Ludger Jansen - 2023 - In Jenny Pelletier & Christian Rode (eds.), The Reality of the Social World: Medieval, Early Modern, and Contemporary Perspectives on Social Ontology. Springer Verlag. pp. 139-157.
    Much work in social ontology analyzes how social entities are based on collective intentionality. A neglected perspective is, however, the distinction between those social entities that are explicitly established (often called formal institutions, like marriages), those that are established but not explicitly (informal institutions, like friendships), and those that are not established at all (social macro entities, like episodes of inflation). To shed more light on this trichotomy, a collection of examples taken from the works of John Searle will be (...)
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  6.  32
    Representing Dispositions.Johannes Röhl & Ludger Jansen - 2011 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2 (4).
    Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will (...)
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  7. Kinds and Explanations.Petter Sandstad & Ludger Jansen - 2022 - In Mirosław Szatkowski (ed.), E. J. Lowe and Ontology. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 165-187.
    Sparrows fly because they are birds. This mushroom is poisonous because it is an Amanita muscaria. Pointing out the kind to which things belong explains many of their properties. Jonathan Lowe’s four-category ontology and his account of laws of nature provide a framework to account for the explanatory appeal of referring to kind membership. For Lowe, “Electron has Unit-negative charge” is a typical example for a law of nature: a kind universal characterized by a property universal. We present both Lowe’s (...)
     
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  8.  24
    Functions, Malfunctioning, and Negative Causation.Ludger Jansen - 2018 - In Antonio Piccolomini D’Aragona, Martin Carrier, Roger Deulofeu, Axel Gelfert, Jens Harbecke, Paul Hoyningen-Huene, Lara Huber, Peter Hucklenbroich, Ludger Jansen, Elizaveta Kostrova, Keizo Matsubara, Anne Sophie Meincke, Andrea Reichenberger, Kian Salimkhani & Javier Suárez (eds.), Philosophy of Science: Between the Natural Sciences, the Social Sciences, and the Humanities. Cham: Springer Verlag. pp. 117-135.
    Functional explanations apply not only in cases of normal functioning, but also in the case of malfunctioning. According to a straightforward analysis, a bearer of the function to F is malfunctioning if and only if it does not F although it should do so. This makes malfunctions and malfunctionings analogous to negative causation and thus peculiarly problematic, because they seem to involve absent dispositions and absent processes. This analysis seems also to require that the function to F cannot be identical (...)
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  9. Aristotle’s Categories.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):153-158.
    Being an "untimely review", this paper reviews Aristotle's 'Categories' as if they were published today, in the era of computerised information, where categorisation becomes more and more essential for information retrieval. I suggest a systematic ordering of Aristotle's list of categories and argue that Aristotle's discussion of ontological dependency and his focus on concrete entities are still a source of new insight and can indeed be read as a contribution to the emerging field of applied ontology and ontological engineering.
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  10. Molecular Interactions. On the Ambiguity of Ordinary Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2009 - Applied ontology (4):21-34.
    Statements about the behavior of biochemical entities (e.g., about the interaction between two proteins) abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that have to be taken into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering: Such statements can not only be understood as event reporting statements, but also as ascriptions of (...)
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  11.  80
    Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Formal Causation.Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad (eds.) - 2021 - Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
    Introducing formal causation / Ludger Jansen and Petter Sandstad -- Form, intention, information : from scholastic logic to artificial intelligence / Gyula Klima -- Formal causation : accidental and substantial / David S. Oderberg -- A non-hylomorphic account of formal causation / Petter Sandstad and Ludger Jansen -- Formal causes for powers theorists / Giacomo Giannini and Stephen Mumford -- Away with dispositional essences in trope theory / Jani Hakkarainen and Markku Keinänen -- Functional powers / Michele Paolini Paoletti -- (...)
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  12.  63
    A Plural Subject Approach to the Responsibilities of Groups and Institutions.Ludger Jansen - 2014 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38 (1):91-102.
    Margaret Gilbert has defended the claim that her plural subject theory can give a reasonable account of retrospective (or backward-looking) collective responsibility. On one occasion, publishing in this periodical, she writes that she deliberately left out the discussion of prospective (or forward-looking) collective responsibility, or the “responsibilities” of a collective. In the present paper, I want to show that plural subject theory, in fact, also allows accounting for prospective responsibilities of groups and institutions. In order to do so, I will (...)
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  13.  64
    Proving God without Dualism: Improving the Swinburne-Moreland Argument from Consciousness.Ludger Jansen & Ward Blondé - 2021 - Metaphysica 22 (1):75-87.
    With substance dualism and the existence of God, Swinburne (2004, The Existence of God, Oxford University Press, Oxford) and Moreland (2010, Consciousness and the Existence of God, Routledge, New York) have argued for a very powerful explanatory mechanism that can readily explain several philosophical problems related to consciousness. However, their positions come with presuppositions and ontological commitments which many are not prepared to share. The aim of this paper is to improve on the Swinburne-Moreland argument from consciousness by developing an (...)
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  14.  60
    Classifications.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - Applied Ontology: An Introduction.
    It has long been a standard practice for the natural sciences to classify things. Thus, it is no wonder that, for two and a half millennia, philosophers have been reflecting on classifications, from Plato and Aristotle to contemporary philosophy of science. Some of the results of these reflections will be presented in this chapter. I will start by discussing a parody of a classification, namely: the purportedly ancient Chinese classification of animals described by Jorge Luis Borges. I will show that (...)
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  15. The Ontology of Tendencies and Medical Information Sciences.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - In Ingvar Johansson, Bertin Klein & Thomas Roth-Berghofer (eds.), WSPI 2006: Contributions to the Third International Workshop on Philosophy and Informatics. pp. 1-14.
    In order to develop the ontology of tendencies for use in the representation of medical knowledge, tendencies are compared with other kinds of entities possessing the realizable-realization-structure, specifically: dispositions, propensities, abilities and virtues. The peculiarities of tendencies are discussed and a standard schema of tendency ascription is developed in order to represent the relations between the ascriptions of tendency tokens to particulars and the ascriptions of tendency types to universals. Two non-standard cases and their epistemic variants are discussed.
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  16. On Ascribing Dispositions.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - In Gnassounou Bruno & Kistler Max (eds.), Dispositions and Causal Powers. Ashgate. pp. 161-177.
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  17. The Diachronic Identity of Social Entities.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - In Kanzian Christian (ed.), Persistence. Ontos. pp. 49-71.
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  18. Dispositions, Laws, and Categories.Ludger Jansen - 2007 - Metaphysica 8 (2):211-220.
    After a short sketch of Lowe’s account of his four basic categories, I discuss his theory of formal ontological relations and how Lowe wants to account for dispositional predications. I argue that on the ontic level Lowe is a pan-categoricalist, while he is a language dualist and an exemplification dualist with regard to the dispositional/categorical distinction. I argue that Lowe does not present an adequate account of disposition. From an Aristotelian point of view, Lowe conflates dispositional predication with hôs epi (...)
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  19. Introducing formal causation.Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad - 2021 - In Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Formal Causation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
     
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  20.  69
    Categories: The top-level ontology.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - In Katherine Munn & Barry Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction. Ontos. pp. 173--196.
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  21.  31
    Constructed Reality.Ludger Jansen - 2017 - In Katharina Neges, Josef Mitterer, Sebastian Kletzl & Christian Kanzian (eds.), Realism - Relativism - Constructivism: Proceedings of the 38th International Wittgenstein Symposium in Kirchberg. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 255-268.
    A popular argument goes thus: This is a construction, hence it is not real. Adding an appropriate adjective (social, mental, human, …) in front of “construction” or cognate terms like “(legal) fiction” yields a whole family of related arguments, all of which, or so I will argue, are fallacious. Contrary to popular opinion, these arguments fail both on the epistemic and the ontic sense of construction. Ontic constructions exist at least at one point in time, while epistemic constructions may well (...)
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  22. Konstitution und Dauer sozialer Kontinuanten.Ludger Jansen - 2011 - In Gerhard Schönrich & Pedro Schmechtig (eds.), Persistenz – Indexikalität – Zeit­erfahrung. Ontos. pp. 103-128.
    The constituents of social entities (and of social continuants in particular) determine whether or not a social thing comes to be, persists and perishes. John Searle hints at two very different accounts for the persistence of social entities, a mere past related account and an acceptance theoretic account, whereas Margaret Gilbert's account is based on deontic entities like obligations or joint commitments. I demonstrate that Gilbert's account can also accommodate Searle's examples. While oblivion, protests or violence can be historical causes (...)
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  23.  48
    Peter van Inwagen: Materialism, Free Will and God.Ludger Jansen & Paul M. Näger (eds.) - 2018 - Cham: Springer.
    This book discusses the philosophy of influential contemporary philosopher Peter van Inwagen. Looking at perennial philosophical problems from a modern point of view, Peter van Inwagen’s philosophy masterfully combines positions that have been considered irreconcilable: incompatibilism concerning free will, materialism, organicism, theism and realism concerning fictional entities. As readers will discover, his arguments are witty, surprising and deep. -/- The book includes Peter van Inwagen’s Münster Lecture of 2015 on free will, as well as eleven papers from the Münster colloquium (...)
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  24. Institutionen und die kategoriale Ontologie.Ludger Jansen - 2005 - In Gerhard Schönrich (ed.), Institutionen Und Ihre Ontologie. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag. pp. 45-57.
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  25.  51
    Functions and Kinds of Art Works and Other Artifacts.Amrei Bahr, Massimiliano Carrara & Ludger Jansen - 2019 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 96 (1):1-18.
    Currently, there is not yet a full-fledged philosophical sub-discipline devoted to artifacts. In order to establish such a general philosophical discourse on artifacts, two topics are of special importance: artifact functionality and artifact categorization. Both are central to the question of what artifacts are in general and in particular. This introduction first presents the current state of the art in the debates on functions, both in general and in the domain of artifacts in particular. It then unfolds the three debates (...)
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  26.  7
    Artefact Kinds Need Not Be Kinds of Artefacts.Ludger Jansen - 2013 - In Christer Svennerlind, Almäng Jan & Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (eds.), Johanssonian Investigations: Essays in Honour of Ingvar Johansson on His Seventieth Birthday. Ontos Verlag. pp. 317-337.
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  27. Permanent generic relatedness and silent change.Niels Grewe, Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith - 2016 - In Niels Grewe, Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith (eds.), Formal Ontology and Information Systems. CEUR, Vol. 1060. pp. 1-5.
    Given the assertion of a relation between two types, like: “Epidermis has part some Keratinocyte”, we define silent change as any kind of change of the instance-relata of the relation in question that does not change the truth-value of the respective type-level assertion. Such assertions are notoriously difficult to model in OWL 2. To address this problem, we distinguish different modes of type-level relatedness giving rise to this problem and describe a conservative extension to the BFO top-level ontology that allows (...)
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  28. Aristoteles’ Kategorie des Relativen zwischen Dialektik und Ontologie.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - Philosophie­Geschichte Und Logische Analyse 9.
    Like the doctrine of the categories in general, Aristotle’s category of the relative fulfils disparate functions: On the one hand, the category of the pros ti fulfils a dialectic or logical function that aims at the avoidance of fallacies. On the other hand, the category respects the peculiar mode of being of the relative. Taking these two different functions into consideration helps with the interpretation of Aristotle’s two definitions of the relative and his treatment of the properties of the relative (...)
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  29. Aristoteles’ Kategorie des Relativen zwischen Dialektik und Ontologie.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 9.
    Like the doctrine of the categories in general, Aristotle’s category of the relative fulfils disparate functions: On the one hand, the category of the pros ti fulfils a dialectic or logical function that aims at the avoidance of fallacies. On the other hand, the category respects the peculiar mode of being of the relative. Taking these two different functions into consideration helps with the interpretation of Aristotle’s two definitions of the relative and his treatment of the properties of the relative (...)
     
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  30. Staatliche Toleranz und staatliche Wertorientierung.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - In Starck Christian (ed.), Wo hört die Toleranz auf? Wallstein. pp. 20-62.
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  31.  35
    Grains, Components and Mixtures in Biomedical Ontologies.Ludger Jansen & Schulz Stefan - 2011 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2 (4).
    BACKGROUND -/- In biomedical ontologies, mereological relations have always been subject to special interest due to their high relevance in structural descriptions of anatomical entities, cells, and biomolecules. This paper investigates two important subrelations of has_proper_part, viz. the relation has_grain, which relates a collective entity to its multiply occurring uniform parts (e.g., water molecules in a portion of water), and the relation has_component, which relates a compound to its constituents (e.g., molecules to the atoms they consist of). -/- METHOD -/- (...)
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  32. In Silico Approaches and the Role of Ontologies in Aging Research.Georg Fuellen, Melanie Börries, Hauke Busch, Aubrey de Grey, Udo Hahn, Thomas Hiller, Andreas Hoeflich, Ludger Jansen, Georges E. Janssens, Christoph Kaleta, Anne C. Meinema, Sascha Schäuble, Paul N. Schofield, Barry Smith & Others - 2013 - Rejuvenation Research 16 (6):540-546.
    The 2013 Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research was again dedicated to dissecting the aging process using in silico means. A particular focus was on ontologies, as these are a key technology to systematically integrate heterogeneous information about the aging process. Related topics were databases and data integration. Other talks tackled modeling issues and applications, the latter including talks focussed on marker development and cellular stress as well as on diseases, in particular on diseases of kidney (...)
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  33. We are no plural subject.Ludger Jansen - 2018 - ProtoSociology 35:167-196.
    In "On Social Facts" (1989) and subsequent works, Margaret Gilbert has suggested a plural subject account of the semantics of ‘we’ that claims that a central or standard use of ‘we’ is to refer to an existing or anticipated plural subject. This contrasts with the more general approach to treat plural pronouns as expressions referring to certain pluralities. I argue that (i) the plural subject approach cannot account for certain syntactic phenomena and that (ii) the sense of intimacy, which Gilbert (...)
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  34. Was hat der inkarnierte Logos mit Aristoteles zu tun? Thomas von Aquins Gebrauch der Philo­sophie in der Auslegung des Johannesprologs und eine ‚holistische‘ Interpretation seiner Schrifthermeneutik.Ludger Jansen - 2000 - Theologie Und Philosophie 80.
    Taking Thomas Aquinas's interpretation of the prologue of St John's gospel (in his Lectura super loannem Evangelium) as example, I first discuss eight differences between medieval biblical interpretation and modern exegesis, especially Aquinas's frequent use of philosophical opinions in interpreting the Bible, taken mostly from Aristotle. Second, I account for these differences by reconstructing Aquinas's hermeneutics, hinging, as is shown, upon the assumption that scripture was authored by God infallible and, therefore, only contains true statements. From this starting point Aquinas (...)
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  35.  8
    Chapter 8: Categories: The Top-Level Ontology.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - In Katherine Munn & Barry Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction. Ontos. pp. 173-196.
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  36. Aristotle's Theory of Dispositions From the Principle of Movement to the Unmoved Mover.Ludger Jansen - 2009 - In Gregor Damschen, Robert Schnepf & Karsten Stueber (eds.), Debating Dispositions. Issues in Metaphysics, Epistemology and Philosophy of Mind. de Gruyter. pp. 24-46.
    No one influenced and shaped our thinking about dispositions and causal properties more than Aristotle. What he wrote about power (dynamis), nature (physis) and habit (hexis) has been read, systematised and criticised again and again during the history of philosophy. In this chapter I sketch Aristotle's thoughts about dispositions and argue that his theory can still be regarded as a good one.
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  37. Die Struktur der Substanz bei Thomas von Aquin.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - In Gianluigi Segalerba, Antonella Lang-Balestra & Holger Gutschmidt (eds.), Substantia – Sic et Non. Eine Geschichte des Substanzbegriffs von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart in Einzelbeiträgen. Ontos. pp. 181-209.
    Starting from the early treatise "On Being and Essence", I review issues concerning substances composed of matter and form: their hylomorphic composition, individuation, essence as part and as whole, and the analogy between genus/difference and matter/form. Then I discuss substances separated from matter, which may range from human souls and angels (or intelligences) to God. I then turn to Aquinas's later 'Summa Theologica', where he argues that in the end God cannot possibly belong to the category of substance and discuss (...)
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  38. The so-called materially valid inferences and the logic of concepts.Ludger Jansen & Niko Strobach - 2003 - In Foundations of The Formal Sciences II. Applications of Mathematical Logic in Philosophy and Linguistics [Trends in Logic]. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 113-118.
    The so-called materially valid inferences have come to new prominence through the work of Robert Brandom. This paper introduces a fragment of a logic of concepts that does not reduce concepts to their extensions. Concept logic and ist semantics allow us to represent the conceptual knowledge used in material inferences and thus suggests a way to deal with them.
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  39. Die Wahrheit der Geschichte und die Tugenden des Historikers.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 62 (4):471-491.
    Zuweilen werden der Geschichtsschreibung der Wissenschaftscharakter und historischen Aussagen die Wahrheitsfähigkeit abgesprochen. Ich werde erstens zeigen, dass Aussagen über Vergangenes nicht nur wahrheitsfähig sind, sondern dass einige Aussagen über Vergangenes tatsächlich wahr sind. Zweitens argumentiere ich dafür, dass weder die Gebundenheit an Quellen und die Möglichkeit des Irrtums, noch die Zeit- und Standortgebundenheit historischer Aussagen und eine eventuelle Werthaltigkeit historischer Urteile eine zwingende Gefahr für den Wissenschaftscharakter der Geschichtsschreibung sind. Sie stellen aber besondere Ansprüche an die wissenschaftlichen Tugenden, die ein (...)
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  40. Dispositionen und ihre Realität.Ludger Jansen - 2004 - In Christoph Halbig & Suhm Christian (eds.), Was ist wirklich? Neuere Beiträge zu philosophischen Rea­lismusdebatten. Ontos. pp. 117-137.
  41. The ship of Theseus.Ludger Jansen - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  42. Sind nichtsequentielle mentale Aktivitäten möglich? Zu Kretzmanns und Stumps Ver­tei­di­gung der Ewigkeitsdefinition des Boethius.Ludger Jansen - 1999 - In Gerhard Leibold & Winfried Löffler (eds.), Vor­trä­ge des 5. Kongresses der ÖGP. Teil 2: Entwicklungslinien mittelalterlicher Philosophie. Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky. pp. 232-245.
  43. Die Ontologie des Geschlechts.Ludger Jansen - 2009 - In Hella Ehlers, Beate Rudlof, Heike Trappe, Gabriele Linke & Heike Kahlert (eds.), Geschlechterdifferenz – und kein Ende? Sozial- und geisteswissenschaftliche Beiträge zur Genderforschung. LIT-Verlag. pp. 19-39.
  44. Preface.Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad - 2020 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 23 (2):289-290.
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  45. Reading for the Good Life?Katharina Hanel & Ludger Jansen - 2001 - In Angela Kallhoff (ed.), Martha C. Nussbaum: Ethics and Political Philosophy: Lecture and Colloquium in Münster 2000. Distributed in North America by Transaction Publishers. pp. 4--119.
  46. Lmn-2 interacts with Elf-2. On the meaning of common statements in biomedical literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2006 - In KR-MED 2006 – Biomedical Ontology in Action. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Formal Knowledge Representation. MD. pp. 37-45.
    Statements about the behavior of biological entities, e.g. about the interaction between two proteins, abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that is necessary to take into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering. Several concurring formalizations are proposed. Emphasis is laid on the discussion of biological dispositions.
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  47. Zeit und Gemeinschaft. Soziale Geschichtlichkeit und geschichtliche Sozialität.Ludger Jansen - 2005 - In Friedrich Stadler & Michael Stöltzner (eds.), Zeit und Geschichte. Beiträge des 28. Internationalen Wittgenstein-Sym­posiums. ILWG. pp. 117-120.
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  48. Who has got our Group-Intentions?Ludger Jansen - 2004 - In Johann C. Marek & Maria E. Reicher (eds.), Erfahrung und Analyse. Beiträge des 27. Internationalen Wittgenstein-Sym­posiums. ILWG. pp. 151-153.
    There are group-actions, and if actions are intentional, there should also be group-intentions. Who has got these intentions? The groups? This seems to be the natural answer. But then: Groups do not have a mind or brain of there own to form any mental attitude. Different kinds of individualistic analyses of group-intentions have been suggested in the literature. On the one hand there are suggestions to reduce group intentions to a complex of different Iattitudes. John Searle, on the other hand, (...)
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  49.  8
    Aristoteles’ Kategorie des Relativen zwischen Dialektik und Ontologie.Ludger Jansen - 2006 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 9 (1):79-104.
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  50. Planners, Deciders, Performers. Aristotelian Reflections on the Ontology of Agents and Actions.Ludger Jansen - 2003 - In Christian Kanzian, Josef Quitterer & Edmund Runggaldier (eds.), Persons. An Interdisciplinary Approach. öbv & hpt. pp. 208-215.
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