Abstract
Human actions and behavior are formed based on their internal events. Among these behaviors, some arise specifically under the influence of one character and emotions instantly and without undergoing the stages of thought and reflection; even though they use a knowledgeable source of the category of imagination. Similarly, sometimes particular qualities affect human souls that are subject to passivity that is acquired for the benefit of beneficial and harmful affairs in some faculties. These states of the soul are called human emotions; happiness and joy, grief and sorrow, fear and hope, fervor and ecstacy, and wrath and anger are all of this class. Here, the question arises as to what the position of the character and emotions is in the human existence according to Mulla Sadra? What factors are influential in creating the states and emotions of the soul? In this study, employing the descriptive-analytic method and using sources of Sadrian philosophy, we conclude that the presence of the character necessitates that when the will to act is formed, action is produced without any difficulty, thought, and contemplation. In reality, the characteristics of the soul originate from human perception and manifest their influence in actions. The repetition and exercise of this perception and the actions related to them create the grounds for the formation of a habit in human beings that gives rise to vocation and industry. There is a strong relationship between the habits of the soul and human states and actions. Similarly, there is a special relationship between inner characteristics and emotion and the human physical condition. Based on this relationship, just as behavior is influenced by characteristics, characteristics are also affected by behavior; however, this influence is indirect. It is noteworthy that the attributes and characteristics that are activated in human beings from intellection and reasoning are never themselves the cause of the suspension of thought. On the contrary, with their activity the performance of the aforementioned faculties is elevated in terms of quality and speed. When weak souls are engaged in intellection, their emotions become chaotic or when their emotions are engaged, their mind is disturbed. However, strong souls combine the attributes of perceptions and stimulations and create a balance. The noble soul is similar to the incorporeal beings in terms of instincts and nature from a wisdom and freedom perspective. In reality, the evolution and perfection of the soul from the stage of potential to the stage of actualized intellect do not create any obstacles for the form and states of the soul. The different physical states and circumstances and their effect on the vaporous soul in terms of fineness and subtlety or roughness and density of the soul results in the intensification of the potential of emergence of different and proportional states of the soul. However, Mulla Sadra does not believe that physical states and attributes have an existential affect on the soul and spirit because such a thing is impossible and is similar to the effect of something lower on the higher. Rather, specific physical conditions create the grounds and help the emergence or intensify the potential of the manifestation of a specific state of the soul and characteristic. In all these instances, those that have a direct influence on creating the state of the soul are the human perceptive faculties including sense, imagination, and reasoning, that is, first thought and conception are formed in human beings and the states and feelings of the soul emerge after that. However, he does not believe in the direct effect of the emotions on the functioning of the reason and perceptive faculties; however, he does not deny the indirect and preparatory role of the states of the soul on human reasoning and thought. In this way, this situation itself provides the grounds for the creation of new thoughts and ideas.
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