This paper provides an empirical account of commercial genetic testing in China. Commercial predictive genetic testing has emerged and is developing rapidly in China, but there is no strict and effective governance. This raises a number of serious social and ethical issues as a consequence of the enormous potential market for such tests. The paper demonstrates that the commercialization of genetic testing and the lack of adequate regulation have created an environment in which dubious advertising practices and misleading and unprofessional (...) medical advice are commonplace. The consequences of these ethically problematic activities for the users of predictive tests are unknown. The paper concludes with a bioethical and social science perspective on the ethical governance issues raised by the dissemination and utilization of commercial genetic testing in Chinese society. (shrink)
This paper provides an empirical account of commercial genetic predisposition testing in mainland China, based on interviews with company mangers, regulators and clients, and literature research during fieldwork in mainland China from July to September 2006. This research demonstrates that the commercialization of genetic testing and the lack of adequate regulation have created an environment in which dubious advertising practices and misleading and unprofessional medical advice are commonplace. The consequences of these ethically problematic activities for the users of predictive tests (...) are, as yet, unknown. The paper concludes with a bioethical and social science perspective on the social and ethical issues raised by the dissemination and utilization of genetic testing in mainland China. (shrink)
The essay takes its point of departure from Monod's reading of dialectical materialism in Chance and Necessity. A passage of Engels's Dialectics of Nature, which identifies Spinoza's concept of causa sui with the Hegelian concept of interaction [Wechselwirkung], provides the opportunity to examine the consequences of Monod's claims more closely. Using Spinoza's philosophy as a litmus test, the essay attempts to demonstrate the debt of Engels's materialism to Hegel's Science of Logic by tracing the development of the concept of Wechselwirkung (...) in classical German philosophy. A profound difference between the Spinozan and Hegelian concepts becomes apparent: while the concept of Wechselwirkung implies a totality present to itself as simultaneity, permitting the flow of a linear, homogenous and empty time upon which stages of development can be inscribed, the concept of causa sui implies a totality without closure, a totality whose eternity is identified with the necessary and infinite network of modal durations. The essay concludes by suggesting that Spinoza's concept of causa sui allows us to rethink the relation between freedom and necessity in the Marxist tradition in conjunctural and aleatory terms. (shrink)
Teachers have a very important role in determining the quality of the teaching-learning process and the students’ learning outcomes. Learning outcomes will optimally be achieved if it is supported by qualified teachers. One way to enhance the teachers’ performance is through instructional supervision which can be divided into two techniques, namely group and individual supervision techniques. Therefore, this study aims to find out the influence of instructional supervision techniques on the work motivation and performance of elementary school teachers. This study (...) was conducted in East Java, Indonesia, and an explanatory research design was used. The sample was taken from 80 elementary school teachers in Malang and Blitar using a multi-stage random sampling technique. Data were collected through the use of questionnaires and documentation, and then they were analyzed by using the structural equation modeling technique. The result of this study showed that group supervision has a significant effect on teachers’ performance, whereas individual supervision influenced teachers’ work motivation and it affected their performance. (shrink)
This article describes the creation of a lightweight ontology of European Union (EU) criminal procedural rights in judicial cooperation. The ontology is intended to help legal practitioners understand the precise contextual meaning of terms as well as helping to inform the creation of a rule ontology of criminal procedural rights in judicial cooperation. In particular, we started from the problem that directives sometimes do not contain articles dedicated to definitions. This issue provided us with an opportunity to explore a phenomenon (...) typically neglected in the construction of domain-specific legal ontologies. Whether classical definitions are present or absent, laws and legal sources in general are typically peppered with a number of hidden definitions (in the sense that they are not clearly marked out as such) as well as incomplete definitions, which may nevertheless help legal practitioners (and legal reasoning systems) to reason on the basis of analogy or teleology. In this article we describe the theoretical basis for building an analogical lightweight ontology in the framework of an EU project called _CrossJustice_. We present our methodology for collecting the data, extracting the data fields and creating the ontology with WebProtégé, followed by our conclusions and ideas for future work. (shrink)
The paper presents a critique of Marcuse’s theory of “false needs”. It aims to clear the theoretical ground necessary to sketch out an immanent critique of the socio-economical dynamics that dictate the exhausting, and oft endless postponement of the satisfaction of a multiplicity of mass needs and desires. The paper focuses its attention on some paradoxes produced by Marcuse’s theory, correlated in particular with the critique of the wellbeing of the masses, and with the manipulative superpower ascribed to ideology. These (...) paradoxes are interpreted as expressions of a radical distance between critic and the social reality and of a paternalistic drift, which can both be overcome by the introduction of a immanent critique. -/- Il contributo presenta una critica della teoria dei “falsi bisogni” di Marcuse. Tale critica è volta a liberare lo spazio teorico necessario per impostare una critica immanente delle dinamiche socio-economiche che impongono un estenuante e spesso infinito differimento della soddisfazione di una molteplicità di desideri e bisogni di massa. Ci si sofferma su alcuni paradossi generati dalla teoria di Marcuse, correlati in particolare alla critica rivolta al benessere raggiunto dalle masse, ed allo strapotere manipolatorio attribuito all’ideologia. Tali paradossi vengono interpretati come espressione di un radicale distacco tra il critico e la realtà sociale, e di una sua deriva paternalistica, che possono essere superati attraverso l’adozione di una critica di tipo immanente. (shrink)
[Without a theorising], a man might as well go into a gravel-pit and count the pebbles and describe the colours. How odd it is that anyone should not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service!Recent years have seen a steady shift of funding programs in biomedical research towards data collection, analysis, and management and its computational analysis. A sizable majority of new major funding opportunity announcements call for assembling (...) large sample banks and databases of molecular profiles of diseases or for computational tools for analysis, display, and distribution of the data. Large consortium projects, such as the Cancer Genome Atlas, the UK Biobank (Allen... (shrink)
In the tradition of Western medicine that goes back to Hippocrates, we teach medical students to see beyond the disease and to consider the patient as a whole—to take into account the broader context of family, lifestyle, and environmental exposures. For instance, when measuring blood pressure to diagnose hypertension, family history and situational stress must be considered. Moreover, repeated measurements at multiple time points must be performed to avoid a false-positive diagnosis due to temporary fluctuations of blood pressure. The diagnosis (...) then provides, in adherence to standard-of-care guidelines, the indication for antihypertensive therapy. The recommendations have been... (shrink)
It will be proved that the Shoenfield cupping conjecture holds in R/M, the quotient of the recursively enumerable degrees modulo the cappable r.e. degrees. Namely, for any [a], [b] ∈ R/M such that  $\prec$ [b] $\prec$ [a] there exists [c] ∈ R/M such that [c] $\prec$ [a] and [a] = [b] ∨ [c].
The project was partially supported by a NSF grant of China. The author was grateful to Professor S. Lempp for his encouragement and suggestion while the author was visiting the Department of Mathematics at the University of Wisconsin.
I consider the question of whether Annie Saumont is simply a disciple of Descartes in her fiction “You Should Have Changed at Dol.” Other interpretations are available according to which her commitments are more qualified.
Among the many features that go hand in hand with the recent onset of populism in many countries, an interesting phenomenon is surely the shift of public discourse in the direction of social media. Is there any-thing special about communication in social media that is particularly suitable for the development of such movements and ideas? In what fol-lows, I provide an attempt to read Facebook comments as showing an anaphoric structure. This analysis permits me to give emphasis on a number (...) of interesting features that such communications exhibit. Final-ly, I try also to highlight some of the main implications of this model in comparison with ordinary communication. (shrink)
In this paper, I elucidate the main points involved in the question of the non-triviality of the conventionality of simultaneity within the kinematics of special relativity. I argue that there is an important distinction to be made between the inherited component and the sui generis component of the conventionality of simultaneity. The factual core of the kinematics of special relativity is explored, and it is shown that the Round-Trip Clock Retardation effect obtains if, and only if Winnie's Passage Time Principle (...) holds. Some consequences of this fundamental fact are then explored. In particular, Grunbaum's view that the epistemological conventionality of simultaneity is logically prior to the physical inter-frame relativity of simultaneity is found to be based largely on what I call the inherited component of the former. Finally, a question is raised as to the very self-consistency of the claim, made by Ellis and Bowman, that standard signal synchrony and slow-transport synchrony are logically independent. In some concluding remarks, the author's general agreement with Grunbaum's conception of bridled conventionalism is indicated. (shrink)
L’article présente une reconstruction d’analyse husserlienne de l’éveil et démontre que, selon Husserl, seule une phénoménologie de l’attention est en mesure d’élucider les véritables caractéristiques de l’état d’éveil. Plus précisément, l’article démontre que, d’un point de vue husserlien, l’attention introduit une distinction entre thème et arrière-plan dans notre expérience et que cette différence est ce qui nous permettra de déterminer dans quelle mesure nous ne sommes jamais pleinement éveillés lorsque nous sommes éveillés (section 1 et 2), comment le sommeil au (...) sein de l’état d’éveil diffère du sommeil véritable (section 3), et, enfin, comment l’intentionnalité survenant lors du sommeil véritable, à l’instar des rêves, diffère radicalement de toute forme de conscience intentionnelle survenant lors de l’état d’éveil (section 4). (shrink)
The aim of this article is to consider, in the first place, the characteristic traits of ciceronian conception about “conservatio sui” in the context of ciceronian practical philosophy, differentiating between the components of stoic tradition and the position that Cicero proposes as its own. The article makes its center in the ciceronian exposition of De finibus III and IV and passages of other works that allow us to elaborate the links between natura, ratio and lex established by Cicero. In second (...) place, the article proposes a comparison of the ciceronian elaboration of “conservatio sui” with passages of the corpus of Thomas Aquinas, specially with Tractatus de legibus of Summa Theologiae. (shrink)