Abū Hāšim’s Theory of States: The Middle Between Existence and Non-existence

In this article, I present a formal semantics for Abū Hāšim’s theory of states. According to Hāšim al-Ǧubbāī (d. 933), there is a middle between existence and non-existence, and some entities, namely states, are neither existent nor non-existent. Moreover, states, which their objecthood follows from Abū Hāšim’s definition of objects, are not themselves objects. Roughly speaking, states explain the similarities and differences between objects in general and accidents in particular. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct the theory of states in the context of contemporary logic. This has been done by a formal semantics based on LP.
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