Authors
Elisabeth Lloyd
Indiana University, Bloomington
Abstract
Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast with Darwin’s own emphasis on the organismic level. But a piece of the argument has been missing, and individuals at levels distinct from organisms have been denied potency (although granted existence within the undeniable logic of the theory), because they do not achieve individuality with the same devices used by organisms and therefore seem weak by comparison. We show here that different features define Darwinian individuality across scales of size and time. In particular, species-individuals may develop few emergent features as direct adaptations. The interactor approach works with emergent fitnesses, not with emergent features; and species, as a consequence of their different mechanism for achieving individuality (reproductive exclusivity among subparts, that is, among organisms), express many effects from other levels. Organisms, by contrast, suppress upwardly cascading effects, because the organismic style of individuality (by functional integration of subparts) does not permit much competition or differential reproduction of parts from within. Species do not suppress the operation of lower levels; such effects therefore become available as exaptations conferring emergent fitness—a primary source of the different strength that species achieve as effective Darwinian individuals in evolution.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
Options
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

 PhilArchive page | Other versions
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

The Problem of Biological Individuality.Ellen Clarke - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (4):312-325.
Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”.Frédéric Bouchard - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (1):106-114.
Making the Most of Clade Selection.W. Ford Doolittle - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (2):275-295.

View all 25 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Gulliver’s Further Travels: The Necessity and Difficulty of a Hierarchical Theory of Selection.Stephen Jay Gould - 1998 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 353 (1366):307-314.
Individuality and Macroevolutionary Theory.Marc Ereshefsky - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:216 - 222.
Discussion: Leo Buss's the Evolution of Individuality.David B. Resnik - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (4):453-460.
Précis of Evolution and the Levels of Selection. [REVIEW]Samir Okasha - 2011 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (1):212-220.
Maynard Smith on the Levels of Selection Question.Samir Okasha - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):989-1010.
Against Darwinism.Jerry Fodor - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (1):1–24.
Gene Names as Proper Names of Individuals: An Assessment.Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):409-432.
Evolution and the Levels of Selection.Samir Okasha - 2006 - Oxford University Press.

Analytics

Added to PP index
2014-04-14

Total views
250 ( #44,756 of 2,519,512 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
23 ( #37,655 of 2,519,512 )

How can I increase my downloads?

Downloads

My notes