Evolutionary essentialism

British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):425-448 (2006)
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Abstract

According to Aristotelian essentialism, the nature of an organism is constituted of a particular goal-directed disposition to produce an organism typical of its kind. This paper argues—against the prevailing orthodoxy—that essentialism of this sort is indispensable to evolutionary biology. The most powerful anti-essentialist arguments purport to show that the natures of organisms play no explanatory role in modern synthesis biology. I argue that recent evolutionary developmental biology provides compelling evidence to the contrary. Developmental biology shows that one must appeal to the capacities of organisms to explain what makes adaptive evolution adaptive. Moreover, the specific capacities in question are precisely those that, according to Aristotle, constitute the nature of an organism. Essentialism 1.1 Aristotelian biological kinds Evolutionary anti-essentialism 2.1 Taxonomic anti-essentialism 2.2 Explanatory anti-essentialism Adaptation 3.1 Stability 3.2 Mutability 3.3 Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution The natures of organisms Conclusion.

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Denis Walsh
University of Toronto, St. George Campus

Citations of this work

Agential Teleosemantics.Tiago Rama - 2022 - Dissertation, Autonomous University of Barcelona
A plea for human nature.Edouard Machery - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):321 – 329.
Defending Intrinsic Biological Essentialism.Michael Devitt - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (1):67-82.

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References found in this work

Animal Species and Evolution.Ernst Mayr - 1963 - Belknap of Harvard University Press.
A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1974 - Systematic Zoology 23 (4):536–544.
The triple helix: gene, organism, and environment.Richard C. Lewontin - 2000 - Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Edited by Richard C. Lewontin.

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