Gender and Society 7 (4):568-581 (1993)

Western ideology takes biology as the cause, and behavior and social statuses as the effects, and then proceeds to construct biological dichotomies to justify the “naturalness” of gendered behavior and gendered social statuses. What we believe is what we see—two sexes producing two genders. The process, however, goes the other way: gender constructs social bodies to be different and unequal. The content of the two sets of constructed social categories, “females and males” and “women and men,” is so varied that their use in research without further specification renders the results spurious.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories No categories specified
(categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1177/089124393007004006
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 72,564
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Sex Equality in Sports.Jane English - 1978 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 7 (3):269-277.

View all 16 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Trampled Autonomy: Women, Athleticism, and Health.Sylvia Burrow - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (2):67-91.

View all 19 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles

The Phoenix of Ideology.Gayil Talshir - 2005 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 8 (2):107-124.
Evolution and the Idea of Social Progress.Michael Ruse - 2010 - In Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.), Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. University of Chicago Press.
Im/Partial Science: Gender Ideology in Molecular Biology.[author unknown] - 1997 - Journal of the History of Biology 30 (1):142-144.
Darwin's Choice.Nicolaas Rupke - 2010 - In Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.), Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. University of Chicago Press.
Lessons From Biology for Philosophy of the Human Sciences.Alex Rosenberg - 2005 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (1):3-19.
The Analysis of Ideology.John L. Treloar - 1994 - Review of Metaphysics 47 (4):801-802.
Are Sexes Natural Kinds?Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2021 - In Shamik Dasgupta, Ravit Dotan & Brad Weslake (eds.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science. New York: Routledge. pp. 163-176.
The Woman in the Communist Regime. Meta-Analysis About a Gender Study.Lavinia Betea - 2006 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (14):31-40.


Added to PP index

Total views
26 ( #443,675 of 2,533,574 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
10 ( #74,400 of 2,533,574 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes