Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (3):912-923 (1994)

Abstract
One of the basic theorems in universal algebra is Birkhoff's variety theorem: the smallest equationally axiomatizable class containing a class K of algebras coincides with the class obtained by taking homomorphic images of subalgebras of direct products of elements of K. G. Gratzer asked whether the variety theorem is equivalent to the Axiom of Choice. In 1980, two of the present authors proved that Birkhoff's theorem can already be derived in ZF. Surprisingly, the Axiom of Foundation plays a crucial role here: we show that Birkhoff's theorem cannot be derived in ZF + AC {Foundation}. even if we add Foundation for Finite Sets. We also prove that the variety theorem is equivalent to a purely set-theoretical statement, the Collection Principle. This principle is independent of $ZF \{\operatorname{Foundation}$ . The second part of the paper deals with further connections between axioms of ZF-set theory and theorems of universal algebra
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DOI 10.2307/2275917
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Set Theory.Keith J. Devlin - 1981 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (4):876-877.
Countable Algebra and Set Existence Axioms.Harvey M. Friedman - 1983 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 25 (2):141.

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