Results for 'two-level utilitarianism'

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  1.  86
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism.Gary E. Varner - 2012 - , US: Oup Usa.
    Drawing heavily on recent empirical research to update R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism and expand Hare's treatment of "intuitive level rules," Gary Varner considers in detail the theory's application to animals while arguing that Hare should have recognized a hierarchy of persons, near-persons, & the merely sentient.
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  2.  11
    Applying Two-level Utilitarianism and the Principle of Fairness to Mandatory Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic: the Situation in South Korea.Sungjin Park - 2022 - Asian Bioethics Review 15 (1):81-92.
    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Korean society has sought to vaccinate most of its population. Consequently, the Korean government has attempted to make vaccination compulsory by promoting awareness of its benefits. The administration has pushed for mandatory vaccination by claiming that vaccination is more beneficial than harmful, based on a utilitarian view. However, this view is difficult to justify based on the two levels of utilitarianism presented by R. M. Hare. Compulsory vaccination cannot satisfy the universalizability, nor the (...)
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  3. Valuing humane lives in two-level utilitarianism.Nicolas Delon - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (3):276-293.
    I examine the two-level utilitarian case for humane animal agriculture (by R. M. Hare and Gary Varner) and argue that it fails on its own terms. The case states that, at the ‘intuitive level’ of moral thinking, we can justify raising and killing animals for food, regarding them as replaceable, while treating them with respect. I show that two-level utilitarianism supports, instead, alternatives to animal agriculture. First, the case for humane animal agriculture does not follow from (...)
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  4.  12
    A Study on the Two-level Utilitarianism of Mòzǐ’s Jiānàijiāolì. 박언진 - 2019 - Journal of Ethics: The Korean Association of Ethics 1 (125):129-152.
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  5. The Coherence of Two-Level Utilitarianism: Hare vs. Williams: Sanford S. Levy.Sanford S. Levy - 1994 - Utilitas 6 (2):301-309.
  6. Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism, by Gary E. Varner * The Philosophy of Animal Minds, edited by Robert W. Lurz.K. Andrews - 2014 - Mind 123 (491):959-966.
    A review of Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism, by Gary E. Varner. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. xv + 336. H/b £40.23. and The Philosophy of Animal Minds, edited by Robert W. Lurz. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Pp. 320. P/b £20.21.
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  7.  43
    Review of Gary E. Varner's< em> Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism[REVIEW]Tal Scriven - 2013 - Between the Species 16 (1):13.
  8.  16
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism.Robert Streiffer - 2016 - Environmental Ethics 38 (2):249-252.
  9.  71
    Review of Gary E. Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism[REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  10. Review of Gary Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism[REVIEW]Gary Comstock - 2013 - Environmental Values 22 (3):417-420.
    With his 1998 book, In Nature’s Interests? Gary Varner proved to be one of our most original and trenchant of environmental ethicists. Here, in the first of a promised two volume set, he makes his mark on another field, animal ethics, leaving an even deeper imprint. Thoroughly grounded in the relevant philosophical and scientific literatures, Varner is as precise in analysis as he is wide-ranging in scope. His writing is clear and rigorous, and he explains philosophical nuances with extraordinary economy (...)
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  11.  13
    Personhood, Ethics and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. By Gary E. Varner. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. xiv + 317. ISBN: 978-0199758784. [REVIEW]Robin Attfield & Rebekah Humphreys - 2013 - Philosophy 88 (3):493-498.
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  12. Critical-level utilitarianism and the population-ethics dilemma.Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David Donaldson - 1997 - Economics and Philosophy 13 (2):197-.
    Advances in technology have made it possible for us to take actions that affect the numbers and identities of humans and other animals that will live in the future. Effective and inexpensive birth control, child allowances, genetic screening, safe abortion, in vitro fertilization, the education of young women, sterilization programs, environmental degradation and war all have these effects. Although it is true that a good deal of effort has been devoted to the practical side of population policy, moral theory has (...)
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  13.  12
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism[REVIEW]Justin Moss - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (2):225-231.
    The insistence of utilitarian philosophers on the moral relevance of the fact that animals can suffer has made utilitarian moral thinking central to debates on animal ethics at least since Jeremy B...
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  14.  28
    Book Review: Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism, written by Gary E. Varner. [REVIEW]Adam Kadlac - 2015 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (2):247-250.
  15.  12
    Moral Thinking and Utilitarianism: R. M. Hare's Two Level Model and J. Greene's Dual Process Theory.Yang Sunmo - 2019 - Journal of Ethics: The Korean Association of Ethics 1 (126):237-257.
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  16. True and Useful: On the Structure of a Two Level Normative Theory.Fred Feldman - 2012 - Utilitas 24 (2):151-171.
    Act-utilitarianism and other theories in normative ethics confront the implementability problem: normal human agents, with normal human epistemic abilities, lack the information needed to use those theories directly for the selection of actions. Two Level Theories have been offered in reply. The theoretical level component states alleged necessary and sufficient conditions for moral rightness. That component is supposed to be true, but is not intended for practical use. It gives an account of objective obligation. The practical (...) component is offered as an implementable system for the choice of actions by agents lacking some relevant information. It gives an account of subjective obligation. Several different ways of developing Two Levelism are explained and criticized. Five conditions that must be satisfied if the practical level principle is to be a good match for a given theoretical level principle are stated. A better form of Two Levelism is presented. (shrink)
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  17. Utilitarianism: For and Against.J. J. C. Smart & Bernard Williams - 1973 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Bernard Williams.
    Two essays on utilitarianism, written from opposite points of view, by J. J. C. Smart and Bernard Williams. In the first part of the book Professor Smart advocates a modern and sophisticated version of classical utilitarianism; he tries to formulate a consistent and persuasive elaboration of the doctrine that the rightness and wrongness of actions is determined solely by their consequences, and in particular their consequences for the sum total of human happiness. In Part II Bernard Williams offers (...)
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  18. Autonomous Action: Self-Determination in the Passive Mode Autonomous Action: Self-Determination in the Passive Mode (pp. 647-691). [REVIEW]Two-Level Eudaimonism, Second-Personal Reasons Two-Level Eudaimonism, Second-Personal Reasons, Anita L. Allen, Jack Balkin, Seyla Benhabib, Talbot Brewer, Peter Cane, Thomas Hurka & Robert N. Johnson - 2012 - Ethics 122 (4).
     
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  19.  69
    Utilitarianism and the evolution of ecological ethics.Gary Varner - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):551-573.
    R.M. Hare’s two-level utilitarianism provides a useful framework for understanding the evolution of codes of professional ethics. From a Harean perspective, the codes reflect both the fact that members of various professions face special kinds of ethically charged situations in the normal course of their work, and the need for people in special roles to acquire various habits of thought and action. This highlights the role of virtue in professional ethics and provides guidance to professional societies when considering (...)
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  20. Utilitarianism with and without expected utility.David McCarthy, Kalle Mikkola & Joaquin Teruji Thomas - 2020 - Journal of Mathematical Economics 87:77-113.
    We give two social aggregation theorems under conditions of risk, one for constant population cases, the other an extension to variable populations. Intra and interpersonal welfare comparisons are encoded in a single ‘individual preorder’. The theorems give axioms that uniquely determine a social preorder in terms of this individual preorder. The social preorders described by these theorems have features that may be considered characteristic of Harsanyi-style utilitarianism, such as indifference to ex ante and ex post equality. However, the theorems (...)
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  21.  21
    Connecting the Individual and Cultural Level Value Analysis: The Case of Utilitarianism vs. Traditionalism.Martin Ehala - 2009 - Journal of Human Values 15 (2):107-118.
    The studies of cultural dimensions have often shown that the values that are conceptually oppositional behave independently in empirical studies. This article addresses this apparent controversy in an attempt to operationalize one such bipolar value dimension: the utilitarianism–traditionalism scale. The empirical study of this dimension in Estonian and Russian populations in Estonia showed that these value groups are not related on the individual level. It is suggested that the combination of these two values leads to a four-member typology (...)
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  22.  26
    When utilitarianism dominates justice as fairness: an economic defence of utilitarianism from the original position.Hun Chung - 2023 - Economics and Philosophy 39 (2):308-333.
    The original position together with the veil of ignorance have served as one of the main methodological devices to justify principles of distributive justice. Most approaches to this topic have primarily focused on the single person decision-theoretic aspect of the original position. This paper, in contrast, will directly model the basic structure and the economic agents therein to project the economic consequences and social outcomes generated either by utilitarianism or Rawls’s two principles of justice. It will be shown that (...)
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  23. Moral Rules, Utilitarianism and Schizophrenic Moral Education.Kevin McDonough - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 26 (1):75-89.
    R. M. Hare has argued for and defended a ‘two-level’, view of moral agency. He argues that moral agents ought to rely on the rules of ‘intuitive moral thinking’ for their ‘everyday’ moral judgments. When these rules conflict or when we do not have a rule at hand, we ought to ascend to the act-utilitarian,‘critical’ level of moral thinking. I argue that since the rules at the intuitive level of moral thinking necessarily conflict much more often than (...)
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  24.  83
    Research Ethics: A philosophical guide to the responsible conduct of research.Comstock Gary - 2013 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Education in the responsible conduct of research typically takes the form of online instructions about rules, regulations, and policies. Research Ethics takes a novel approach and emphasizes the art of philosophical decision-making. Part A introduces egoism and explains that it is in the individual's own interest to avoid misconduct, fabrication of data, plagiarism and bias. Part B explains contractualism and covers issues of authorship, peer review and responsible use of statistics. Part C introduces moral rights as the basis of informed (...)
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  25.  7
    “Me” versus “We” in moral dilemmas: Group composition and social influence effects on group utilitarianism.Petru Lucian Curşeu, Oana C. Fodor, Anișoara A. Pavelea & Nicoleta Meslec - 2020 - Business Ethics 29 (4):810-823.
    The paper is one of the first empirical attempts that builds on the moral dilemmas and group rationality literature to explore the way in which group composition with respect to group members’ individual choices in moral dilemmas and social influence processes impact on group moral choices. First individually and then, in small groups, 221 participants were asked to decide on 10 moral dilemmas. Our results show that emergent group level utilitarianism is higher than the average individual utilitarianism, (...)
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  26. Moral rules, utilitarianism and schizophrenic moral education.Kevin McDonough - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 26 (1):75–89.
    R. M. Hare has argued for and defended a ‘two-level’, view of moral agency. He argues that moral agents ought to rely on the rules of ‘intuitive moral thinking’ for their ‘everyday’ moral judgments. When these rules conflict or when we do not have a rule at hand, we ought to ascend to the act-utilitarian,‘critical’ level of moral thinking. I argue that since the rules at the intuitive level of moral thinking necessarily conflict much more often than (...)
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  27.  48
    High levels of psychopathic traits alters moral choice but not moral judgment.Sébastien Tassy, Christine Deruelle, Julien Mancini, Samuel Leistedt & Bruno Wicker - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Psychopathy is a personality disorder frequently associated with immoral behaviors. Previous behavioral studies on the influence of psychopathy on moral decision have yielded contradictory results, possibly because they focused either on judgment (abstract evaluation) or on choice of hypothetical action, two processes that may rely on different mechanisms. In this study, we explored the influence of the level of psychopathic traits on judgment and choice of hypothetical action during moral dilemma evaluation. A population of 102 students completed a questionnaire (...)
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  28.  30
    Superlongevity and utilitarianism.Mark Walker - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (4):581 – 595.
    Peter Singer has argued that there are good utilitarian reasons for rejecting the prospect of superlongevity: developing technology to double (or more) the average human lifespan. I argue against Singer's view on two fronts. First, empirical research on happiness indicates that the later years of life are (on average) the happiest, and there is no reason to suppose that this trend would not continue if superlongevity were realized. Second, it is argued that there are good reasons to suppose that there (...)
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  29.  4
    Duty of care trumps utilitarianism in multi-professional obesity management decisions.Toni McAloon, Vivien Coates & Donna Fitzsimons - 2022 - Nursing Ethics 29 (6):1401-1414.
    Background Escalating levels of obesity place enormous and growing demands on Health care provision in the (U.K.) United Kingdom. Resources are limited with increasing and competing demands upon them. Ethical considerations underpin clinical decision making generally, but there is limited evidence regarding the relationship between these variables particularly in terms of treating individuals with obesity. Research aim To investigate the views of National Health Service (NHS) clinicians on navigating the ethical challenges and decision making associated with obesity management in adults (...)
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  30. Two-level grammars: Some interesting properties of van Wijngaarden grammars.Luis M. Augusto - 2023 - Omega - Journal of Formal Languages 1:3-34.
    The van Wijngaarden grammars are two-level grammars that present many interesting properties. In the present article I elaborate on six of these properties, to wit, (i) their being constituted by two grammars, (ii) their ability to generate (possibly infinitely many) strict languages and their own metalanguage, (iii) their context-sensitivity, (iv) their high descriptive power, (v) their productivity, or the ability to generate an infinite number of production rules, and (vi) their equivalence with the unrestricted, or Type-0, Chomsky grammars.
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  31. Two Levels of Moral Thinking.Daniel Star - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 1:75-96.
    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a two level account of moral thinking that, unlike other accounts, does justice to three very plausible propositions that seem to form an inconsistent triad: (1) People can be morally virtuous without the aid of philosophy. (2) Morally virtuous people non-accidentally act for good reasons, and work out what it is that they ought to do on the basis of considering such reasons. (3) Philosophers engaged in the project of normative ethics (...)
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  32. Life Extension versus Replacement in Enhancing Human Capacities.Gustaf Arrhenius - 2011 - In Julian Savulescu, Ruud ter Meulen & Guy Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capabilites. Oxford, Storbritannien: pp. 368-385.
    It seems to be a widespread opinion that increasing the length of existing happy lives is better than creating new happy lives although the total welfare is the same in both cases, and that it may be better even when the total welfare is lower in the outcome with extended lives. I shall discuss two interesting suggestions that seem to support this idea. Firstly, the idea there is a positive level of well-being above which a life has to reach (...)
     
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  33.  11
    Perciving Two Levels of the Flow of Time.R. P. Gruber, M. Bach & R. A. Block - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (5-6):7-22.
    Many physicists regard the flow of time as an illusion. There is an upper level flow of time, the phenomenon of past/present/future; and there is a lower level flow of time which is really a flow of events. Perceptual completion accounts for the lower level flow of time in a few ways: apparent movement; amodal completion; and dynamic change as exemplified by a newly described modal completion that we called happening. It acts like an illusory percept connecting (...)
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  34. Two Levels of Metacognition.Santiago Arango-Muñoz - 2011 - Philosophia 39 (1):71-82.
    Two main theories about metacognition are reviewed, each of which claims to provide a better explanation of this phenomenon, while discrediting the other theory as inappropriate. The paper claims that in order to do justice to the complex phenomenon of metacognition, we must distinguish two levels of this capacity—each having a different structure, a different content and a different function within the cognitive architecture. It will be shown that each of the reviewed theories has been trying to explain only one (...)
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  35. A Two Level Account of Executive Authority.Michael Skerker - 2019 - In Michael Skerker & Claire Finkelstein (eds.), Sovereignty and the New Executive Authority. Oxford, UK:
    The suite of secretive national security programs initiated in the US since 9/11 has created debate not only about the merits of targeted killing, torture, secret detention, cyberwar, global signals intercepts, and data-mining, but about the very secrecy in which these programs were conceived, debated by government officials, and implemented. Law must be revealed to those who are expected to comply with its demands. Law is a mere pretext for coercion if the laws permitting the government to coerce people for (...)
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  36.  57
    A Two-Level Perspective on Preference.Fenrong Liu - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (3):421 - 439.
    This paper proposes a two-level modeling perspective which combines intrinsic 'betterness' and reason-based extrinsic preference, and develops its static and dynamic logic in tandem. Our technical results extend, integrate, and re-interpret earlier theorems on preference representation and update in the literature on preference change.
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  37. Two levels of semantics (Frege, Carnap).J. Peregrin - 2003 - Filosoficky Casopis 51 (4):547-565.
     
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  38. Two levels of indoctrination: A reply to Andrew Blair.T. Kazepides - forthcoming - Philosophy of Education.
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  39.  13
    TWO-LEVEL, OPEN, PLASTIC AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL HUMAN NATURE. AN ONTOLOGICAL RIDDLE.Małgorzata Czarnocka - 2016 - Dialogue and Universalism (1):19-30.
    I present—in an extremely sketchy form—a model of two-level, open, plastic and multidimensional human nature. Due to the included attribute of multidimensionality this model opposes the reductive conceptions of man dominating in today’s philosophy. The main objective of the paper is the ontological status of man, especially the ontic foundation of multidimensional man. I demonstrate that this status remains a riddle; one only knows that from the ontological perspective man is a wholly exceptional object, not explainable by to-date ontological (...)
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  40.  20
    Two-Level Domain Adaptation Neural Network for EEG-Based Emotion Recognition.Guangcheng Bao, Ning Zhuang, Li Tong, Bin Yan, Jun Shu, Linyuan Wang, Ying Zeng & Zhichong Shen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Emotion recognition plays an important part in human-computer interaction. Currently, the main challenge in electroencephalogram -based emotion recognition is the non-stationarity of EEG signals, which causes performance of the trained model decreasing over time. In this paper, we propose a two-level domain adaptation neural network to construct a transfer model for EEG-based emotion recognition. Specifically, deep features from the topological graph, which preserve topological information from EEG signals, are extracted using a deep neural network. These features are then passed (...)
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  41.  7
    Two Level Credibility-limited Revisions.Marco Garapa - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-21.
    In this paper, we propose a new kind of nonprioritized operator which we call two level credibility-limited revision. When revising through a two level credibility-limited revision there are two levels of credibility and one of incredibility. When revising by a sentence at the highest level of credibility, the operator behaves as a standard revision, if the sentence is at the second level of credibility, then the outcome of the revision process coincides with a standard contraction by (...)
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  42. Two levels of semantics (Frege, Carnap)-A comment.P. Kotatko - 2004 - Filosoficky Casopis 52 (2):299-306.
     
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  43. Two-Level Eudaimonism and Second-Personal Reasons.Bradford Cokelet - 2012 - Ethics 122 (4):773-780.
    In “Virtue Ethics and Deontic Constraints,” Mark LeBar claims to have discovered a two-level eudaimonist position that coheres with the claim that moral obligations are “real” and have “nonderivative normative authority.” In this article, I raise worries about how “real” second-personal reasons are on LeBar’s account, and then argue that second-personal reasons ramify up from the first to the second level in a way that LeBar denies. My argument is meant to encourage philosophers in the Aristotelian tradition to (...)
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  44.  32
    Two-Level Luck Egalitarianism: Reconciling Rights, Respect, and Responsibility.Johann Go - 2020 - Journal of Value Inquiry 55 (3):543-566.
    Luck egalitarianism has come under a lot of criticism for its apparent harshness towards negligent victims of voluntary actions (the harshness objection) and its inability to respond to morally-acceptable voluntary acts that lead to disadvantage (the discrimination objection). This paper surveys a series of responses in the luck egalitarian literature, showing that for the most part each one is unable to respond, on its own, to the crux of the objections. These responses often face a dilemma: Either they must bite (...)
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  45.  33
    Generalized two-level quantum dynamics. II. Non-Hamiltonian state evolution.William Band & James L. Park - 1978 - Foundations of Physics 8 (1-2):45-58.
    A theorem is derived that enables a systematic enumeration of all the linear superoperators ℒ (associated with a two-level quantum system) that generate, via the law of motion ℒρ= $\dot \rho$ , mappings ρ(0) → ρ(t) restricted to the domain of statistical operators. Such dynamical evolutions include the usual Hamiltonian motion as a special case, but they also encompass more general motions, which are noncyclic and feature a destination state ρ(t → ∞) that is in some cases independent of (...)
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  46. Delusions: A two-level framework.Keith Frankish - 2009 - In Matthew R. Broome & Lisa Bortolotti (eds.), Psychiatry as Cognitive Neuroscience: Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 269--284.
    [About the book]: Neuroscience has long had an impact on the field of psychiatry, and over the last two decades, with the advent of cognitive neuroscience and functional neuroimaging, that influence has been most pronounced. However, many question whether psychopathology can be understood by relying on neuroscience alone, and highlight some of the perceived limits to the way in which neuroscience informs psychiatry. Psychiatry as Cognitive Neuroscience is a philosophical analysis of the role of neuroscience in the study of psychopathology. (...)
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  47. Two levels of pluralism.Susan Wolf - 1992 - Ethics 102 (4):785-798.
  48.  45
    Generalized two-level quantum dynamics. I. Representations of the Kossakowski conditions.James L. Park & William Band - 1977 - Foundations of Physics 7 (11-12):813-825.
    This communication is part I of a series of papers which explore the theoretical possibility of generalizing quantum dynamics in such a way that the predicted motions of an isolated system would include the irreversible (entropy-increasing) state evolutions that seem essential if the second law of thermodynamics is ever to become a theorem of mechanics. In this first paper, the general mathematical framework for describing linear but not necessarily Hamiltonian mappings of the statistical operator is reviewed, with particular attention to (...)
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  49.  4
    Life Extension versus Replacement.Gustaf Arrhenius - 2011 - In Julian Savulescu, Ruud ter Meulen & Guy Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capacities. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 368–385.
    It seems to be a widespread opinion that increasing the length of existing happy lives is better than creating new happy lives and that it may be better even when the total welfare is lower in the outcome with extended lives. The chapter discusses two interesting suggestions that seem to support this idea. The first is critical level utilitarianism (CLU) and the other is view comparativism. The chapter describes the pure case of life extension versus life replacement and (...)
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  50.  5
    Two levels in the feeling of familiarity.Sonia Maria Lisco & Francesca Ervas - 2024 - Theoria 89 (6):823-839.
    This paper explores the role of phenomenology in the understanding of the cognitive processes of coupling/decoupling, defending the Wittgensteinian idea that phenomenology can play a crucial role as a description of immediate (social) experience. We argue that epistemic feelings can provide a phenomenological description of the development of a subject's everyday experience, tracking the transition from the processes of coupling/decoupling and recoupling with the world. In particular, the feeling of familiarity, whose key features can be considered the core of epistemic (...)
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