Results for 'signaling'

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  1. Virtue Signaling and Moral Progress.Evan Westra - 2021 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 49 (2):156-178.
    ‘Virtue signaling’ is the practice of using moral talk in order to enhance one’s moral reputation. Many find this kind of behavior irritating. However, some philosophers have gone further, arguing that virtue signaling actively undermines the proper functioning of public moral discourse and impedes moral progress. Against this view, I argue that widespread virtue signaling is not a social ill, and that it can actually serve as an invaluable instrument for moral change, especially in cases where moral (...)
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  2.  93
    Signaling Without Cooperation.Marc Artiga - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):357-378.
    Ethological theories usually attribute semantic content to animal signals. To account for this fact, many biologists and philosophers appeal to some version of teleosemantics. However, this picture has recently came under attack: while mainstream teleosemantics assumes that representational systems must cooperate, some biologists and philosophers argue that in certain cases signaling can evolve within systems lacking common interest. In this paper I defend the standard view from this objection.
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  3.  28
    Compositional Signaling in a Complex World.Shane Steinert-Threlkeld - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (3-4):379-397.
    Natural languages are compositional in that the meaning of complex expressions depends on those of the parts and how they are put together. Here, I ask the following question: why are languages compositional? I answer this question by extending Lewis–Skyrms signaling games with a rudimentary form of compositional signaling and exploring simple reinforcement learning therein. As it turns out: in complex worlds, having compositional signaling helps simple agents learn to communicate. I am also able to show that (...)
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  4.  7
    Signaling Theories of Religion: Models and Explanation.Carl Brusse - 2020 - Religion, Brain and Behavior 10 (3):272--291.
    The signaling theory of religion has many claimed virtues, but these are not necessarily all realizable at the same time. Modeling choices involve trade-offs, and the available options here have not traditionally been well understood. This paper offers an overview of signaling theory relevant to the signaling theory of religion, arguing for a narrow, “core” reading of it. I outline a broad taxonomy of the choices on offer for signaling models, and examples of how previous and (...)
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  5.  27
    Signaling Theory and Technologies of Communication in the Paleolithic.Steven L. Kuhn - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (1):42-50.
    Between 300,000 and 250,000 years ago early humans in Africa and Eurasia began to use durable material substances and objects as media for signaling. Initially material signals were confined to ochre and other pigments, but over time objects such as beads were also added as technologies for sending messages. Changes in the types of materials used, their durability and costs, and the contexts of their disposal indicate a series of transitions in how early humans employed signaling media. (...) theory from biology suggests that shifts in technologies over the course of the Pleistocene reflect problems in coordinating action and resolving conflicts within increasingly large and internally differentiated societies. (shrink)
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  6.  35
    Signaling Sustainability Leadership: Empirical Evidence of the Value of DJSI Membership. [REVIEW]Michael Robinson, Anne Kleffner & Stephanie Bertels - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (3):493-505.
    We explore the relationship between corporate sustainability, reputation, and firm value by asking whether signaling sustainability leadership through membership on a recognized sustainability index is value generating. Increasingly, stakeholders are demanding that firms demonstrate their commitment to sustainability. One signal that companies can send to stakeholders to indicate that they are sustainability leaders is membership on a recognized “best in class” sustainability index. This article explores both the short-term and the intermediary impact on North American firms of being included (...)
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  7. Signaling in the Brain: In Search of Functional Units.Rosa Cao - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):891-901.
    What are the functional units of the brain? If the function of the brain is to process information-carrying signals, then the functional units will be the senders and receivers of those signals. Neurons have been the default candidate, with action potentials as the signals. But there are alternatives: synapses fit the action potential picture more cleanly, and glial activities (e.g., in astrocytes) might also be characterized as signaling. Are synapses or nonneuronal cells better candidates to play the role of (...)
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  8. Moral Torch Fishing: A Signaling Theory of Blame.David Shoemaker & Manuel Vargas - 2019 - Noûs:online.
    It is notable that all of the leading theories of blame have to employ ungainly fixes to deflect one or more apparent counterexamples. What these theories share is a content‐based theory of blame's nature. Such approaches overlook or ignore blame's core unifying feature, namely, its function, which is to signal the blamer's commitment to a set of norms. In this paper, we present the problems with the extant theories and then explain what signaling is, how it functions in blame, (...)
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  9.  39
    The Signaling Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility in Emerging Economies.Weichieh Su, Mike W. Peng, Weiqiang Tan & Yan-Leung Cheung - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (3):479-491.
    What signals do firms in emerging economies send to stakeholders when they adopt corporate social responsibility practices? We argue that in emerging economies, firms that adopt CSR practices positively signal investors that their firms have superior capabilities for filling institutional voids. From an institution-based view, we hypothesize that the institutional environment moderates the signaling effect of CSR on a firm’s financial performance. Based on a sample of firms from ten Asian emerging economies, we find a positive relationship between CSR (...)
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  10. Superluminal Signaling and Relativity.Steven Weinstein - 2006 - Synthese 148 (2):381-399.
    Special relativity is said to prohibit faster-than-light (superluminal) signaling, yet controversy regularly arises as to whether this or that physical phenomenon violates the prohibition. I argue that the controversy is a result of a lack of clarity as to what it means to ‘signal’, and I propose a criterion. I show that according to this criterion, superluminal signaling is not prohibited by special relativity.
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  11.  59
    On Salience and Signaling in Sender–Receiver Games: Partial Pooling, Learning, and Focal Points.Travis LaCroix - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1725-1747.
    I introduce an extension of the Lewis-Skyrms signaling game, analysed from a dynamical perspective via simple reinforcement learning. In Lewis’ (Convention, Blackwell, Oxford, 1969) conception of a signaling game, salience is offered as an explanation for how individuals may come to agree upon a linguistic convention. Skyrms (Signals: evolution, learning & information, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010a) offers a dynamic explanation of how signaling conventions might arise presupposing no salience whatsoever. The extension of the atomic signaling (...)
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  12.  82
    Rationalizable Signaling.Gerhard Jäger - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S4):1-34.
    An important finding of the game theoretic research on signaling games is the insight that under many circumstances, a signal obtains credibility by incurring costs to the sender. Therefore it seems questionable whether or not cheap talk—signals that are not payoff relevant—can serve to transmit information among rational agents. This issue is non-trivial in strategic interactions where the preferences of the players are not aligned. Researchers like Crawford & Sobel, Rabin, and Farrell demonstrated, however, that even in the case (...)
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  13.  37
    Ambiguity in Cooperative Signaling.Carlos Santana - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (3):398-422.
    In game-theoretic signaling models, evolution tends to favor perfectly precise signaling systems, but in the natural world communication is almost always imprecise. I argue that standard explanations for this discrepancy are only partially sufficient, and I show that communication is often ambiguous because signal senders take advantage of context sensitivity. As evidence, I make two additions to the signaling model: a cost for more complex signaling strategies and the ability to combine information in signals with independent (...)
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  14.  13
    Signaling Intertrial Shocks Attenuates Their Negative Effect on Conditioned Suppression.Robert A. Rescorla - 1984 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (3):225-228.
  15.  24
    The Signaling Function of Sharing Fake Stories.Marianna Bergamaschi Ganapini - 2021 - Mind and Language.
    Why do people share or publicly engage with fake stories? Two possible answers come to mind: (a) people are deeply irrational and believe these stories to be true; or (b) they intend to deceive their audience. Both answers presuppose the idea that people put the stories forward as true. But I argue that in some cases, these outlandish (yet also very popular) stories function as signals of one's group membership. This signaling function can make better sense of why, despite (...)
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  16.  7
    Social Signaling and the Warrior-Big-Man among the Western Dani.Paul Roscoe, Richard J. Chacon, Douglas Hayward & Yamilette Chacon - 2019 - Human Nature 30 (2):176-191.
    We employ the Social Signaling Model and life history of a Western Dani big-man, Tibenuk, to analyze a neglected curiosity in the career of the big-man type. The big-man is renowned as an economic entrepreneur, the master of material displays. In New Guinea, however, big-men had invariably first gained fame and some influence as eminent warriors. The SSM accounts for this two-part career path by proposing that small-scale social organization rests on honest, competitive signaling of individual and collective (...)
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  17. Common Interest and Signaling Games: A Dynamic Analysis.Manolo Martínez & Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (3):371-392.
    We present a dynamic model of the evolution of communication in a Lewis signaling game while systematically varying the degree of common interest between sender and receiver. We show that the level of common interest between sender and receiver is strongly predictive of the amount of information transferred between them. We also discuss a set of rare but interesting cases in which common interest is almost entirely absent, yet substantial information transfer persists in a *cheap talk* regime, and offer (...)
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  18. Redefining Animal Signaling: Influence Versus Information in Communication.Michael J. Ryan - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (5):755-780.
    Researchers typically define animal signaling as morphology or behavior specialized for transmitting encoded information from a signaler to a perceiver. Although intuitively appealing, this conception is inherently metaphorical and leaves concepts of both information and encoding undefined. To justify relying on the information construct, theorists often appeal to Shannon and Weaver’s quantitative definition. The two approaches are, however, fundamentally at odds. The predominant definition of animal signaling is thus untenable, which has a number of undesirable consequences for both (...)
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  19.  81
    From Signaling and Expression to Conversation and Fiction.Mitchell S. Green - 2019 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 96 (3):295-315.
    This essay ties together some main strands of the author’s research spanning the last quarter-century. Because of its broad scope and space limitations, he prescinds from detailed arguments and instead intuitively motivates the general points which are supported more fully in other publications to which he provides references. After an initial delineation of several distinct notions of meaning, the author considers such a notion deriving from the evolutionary biology of communication that he terms ‘organic meaning’, and places it in the (...)
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  20.  7
    Signaling Emotion and Reason in Cooperation.Emma E. Levine, Alixandra Barasch, David Rand, Jonathan Z. Berman & Deborah A. Small - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147 (5):702-719.
  21. Signaling Systems and the Transcendental Deduction.A. Ahmed - forthcoming - In T. Goldschmidt K. Pearce (ed.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics.
    The paper offers a model of Kant's claim that unity of consciousness entails objectivity of experience. This claim has nothing especially to do with thought, language or the categories but is a general truth about arbitrary signaling systems of the sort modeled in the paper. In conclusion I draw some consequences for various forms of idealism.
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  22. Evolutionary Dynamics of Lewis Signaling Games: Signaling Systems Vs. Partial Pooling.Simon Huttegger, Brian Skyrms, Rory Smead & Kevin Zollman - 2010 - Synthese 172 (1):177-191.
    Transfer of information between senders and receivers, of one kind or another, is essential to all life. David Lewis introduced a game theoretic model of the simplest case, where one sender and one receiver have pure common interest. How hard or easy is it for evolution to achieve information transfer in Lewis signaling?. The answers involve surprising subtleties. We discuss some if these in terms of evolutionary dynamics in both finite and infinite populations, with and without mutation.
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  23.  9
    Costly Signaling and the Origin of Religion.Michael Murray & Lyn Moore - 2009 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 9 (3-4):225-245.
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  24.  25
    Charity, Signaling, and Welfare.Haley Brokensha, Lina Eriksson & Ian Ravenscroft - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (1):3-19.
    Voices on the political right have long claimed that the welfare state ought to be kept small, and that charities can take over many of the tasks involved in helping those at the bottom of society. The arguments in favor of this claim are controversial, but even if they are accepted at face value the policy proposal remains problematic. For the proposal presupposes that charities would, in fact, be able to raise enough money to provide adequate help to those in (...)
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  25.  9
    Signaling Positive Corporate Social Performance An Event Study of Family-Friendly Firms.Ray Jones & Audrey J. Murrell - 2001 - Business and Society 40 (1):59-78.
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  26.  94
    Determining Truth Conditions in Signaling Games.William F. Harms - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 147 (1):23 - 35.
    Evolving signaling systems can be said to induce partitions on the space of world states as they approach equilibrium. Formalizing this claim provides a general framework for understanding what it means for language to “cut nature at its seams”. In order to avoid taking our current best science as providing the adaptive target for all evolving systems, the state space of the world must be characterized exclusively in terms of the coincidence of stimuli and payoffs that drives the evolution (...)
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  27.  11
    Applying Signaling Theory to Traditional Cultural Rituals.Craig T. Palmer & Christina Nicole Pomianek - 2007 - Human Nature 18 (4):295-312.
    The branch of evolutionary theory known as signaling theory attempts to explain various forms of communication. Social scientists have explained many traditional rituals as forms of communication that promote cooperative social relationships among participants. Both evolutionists and social scientists have realized the importance of trust for the formation and maintenance of cooperative social relationships. These factors have led to attempts to apply signaling theory to traditional cultural rituals in various ways. This paper uses the traditional ritual of mumming (...)
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  28.  13
    Hormone Signaling in Evolution and Development: A Non‐Model System Approachs.Andreas Heyland, Jason Hodin & Adam M. Reitzel - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (1):64-75.
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  29.  18
    Molecular Signaling Mechanisms of Axon-Glia Communication in the Peripheral Nervous System.Tamara Grigoryan & Walter Birchmeier - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (5):502-513.
    In this article we discuss the molecular signaling mechanisms that coordinate interactions between Schwann cells and the neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Such interactions take place perpetually during development and in adulthood, and are critical for the homeostasis of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Neurons provide essential signals to control Schwann cell functions, whereas Schwann cells promote neuronal survival and allow efficient transduction of action potentials. Deregulation of neuron–Schwann cell interactions often results in developmental abnormalities and diseases. Recent (...)
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  30. Signaling Causal Coherence Relations.Eladio Duque - 2014 - Discourse Studies 16 (1):25-46.
    Signaling of relations is an open question in rhetorical structure theory. Discourse markers are the unmistakable signals of a relation. However, it may be argued that all relations – and not only those involving discourse markers – are signaled in some way. Based on this assumption, this article focuses on two causal relations, ‘Cause’ and ‘Result’, working on an RST double-annotated corpus in Spanish. The main objectives are to identify different signals of Cause and Result relations and to evaluate (...)
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  31.  9
    Signaling Pathways for Long-Term Memory Formation in the Cricket.Yukihisa Matsumoto, Chihiro S. Matsumoto & Makoto Mizunami - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  32.  7
    Language Signaling High Proportions and Generics Lead to Generalizing, but Not Essentializing, for Novel Social Kinds.Elena Hoicka, Jennifer Saul, Eloise Prouten, Laura Whitehead & Rachel Sterken - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (11):e13051.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 45, Issue 11, November 2021.
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  33. Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in Vertebrates: Testing the Integration of Protein, Complex, and Pathway Data in the Protein Ontology Framework.Cecilia Arighi, Veronica Shamovsky, Anna Maria Masci, Alan Ruttenberg, Barry Smith, Darren Natale, Cathy Wu & Peter D’Eustachio - 2015 - PLoS ONE 10 (4):e0122978.
    The Protein Ontology (PRO) provides terms for and supports annotation of species-specific protein complexes in an ontology framework that relates them both to their components and to species-independent families of complexes. Comprehensive curation of experimentally known forms and annotations thereof is expected to expose discrepancies, differences, and gaps in our knowledge. We have annotated the early events of innate immune signaling mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 3 and 4 complexes in human, mouse, and chicken. The resulting ontology and annotation data (...)
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  34.  5
    Toward Personalized Deceptive Signaling for Cyber Defense Using Cognitive Models.Edward A. Cranford, Cleotilde Gonzalez, Palvi Aggarwal, Sarah Cooney, Milind Tambe & Christian Lebiere - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (3):992-1011.
  35.  27
    The Application of Animal Signaling Theory to Human Phenomena: Some Thoughts and Clarifications.Lee Cronk - 2005 - Social Science Information 44 (4):603-620.
    Animal signaling theory has recently become popular among anthropologists as a way to study human communication. One aspect of animal signaling theory, often known as costly signaling or handicap theory, has been used particularly often. This article makes four points regarding these developments: signaling theory is broader than existing studies may make it seem; costly signaling theory has roots in the social as well as the biological sciences; not all honest signals are costly and not (...)
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  36.  14
    TGF-Β Signaling, Smads, and Tumor Suppressors.Richard W. Padgett, Pradeep Das & Srikant Krishna - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (5):382-390.
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  37.  8
    Signaling Networks and Transcription Factors Regulating Mechanotransduction in Bone.Dionysios J. Papachristou, Katerina K. Papachroni, Efthimia K. Basdra & Athanasios G. Papavassiliou - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (7):794-804.
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  38. Costly Signaling Theory of Dream Recall and Dream Sharing.Patrick McNamara, Erica Harris & Anna Kookoolis - 2007 - In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers. pp. 117--132.
  39.  67
    Signaling Strength? An Analysis of Decision Making in The Weakest Link.Marco A. Haan, Bart Los & Yohanes E. Riyanto - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (4):519-537.
    We analyze contestants’ behavior in the game show “The Weakest Link”. We focus on banking decisions, where a contestant chooses to secure an amount of money for the eventual winner, or to risk it on a general knowledge question. We find that contestants do not use the banking strategy that maximizes total expected prize money. Average earnings could be at least 17% higher. Our results suggest that contestants are not overconfident, but do try to convince other contestants that their ability (...)
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  40. Signaling Games and Music as a Credible Signal.Massimo Lumaca, Elvira Brattico & Giosuè Baggio - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The argument by Mehr et al. that music emerged and evolved culturally as a credible signal is convincing, but it lacks one essential ingredient: a model of signaling behavior that supports the main hypothesis theoretically and empirically. We argue that signaling games can help us explain how musical structures emerge as population-level phenomena, through sender–receiver signaling interactions.
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  41.  45
    Robustness in Signaling Games.Simon M. Huttegger - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):839-847.
    The spontaneous emergence of signaling has already been studied in terms of standard evolutionary dynamics of signaling games. Standard evolutionary dynamics is given by the replicator equations. Thus, it is not clear whether the results for standard evolutionary dynamics depend crucially on the functional form of the replicator equations. In this paper I show that the basic results for the replicator dynamics of signaling games carry over to a number of other evolutionary dynamics. ‡This research was supported (...)
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  42.  4
    Signaling Parenthood: Managing the Motherhood Penalty and Fatherhood Premium in the U.S. Service Sector.Sigrid Luhr - 2020 - Gender and Society 34 (2):259-283.
    An extensive body of research documents that women experience a motherhood penalty at work whereas men experience a fatherhood premium. Yet much of this work presupposes that employers are aware of a worker’s parental status. Given the different consequences that parenthood has on outcomes such as pay and promotions, it is conceivable that men and women may deploy their status as parents differently when interacting with employers. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a racially diverse sample, this article examines how mothers (...)
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  43.  3
    How Signaling Conventions Are Established.Calvin T. Cochran & Jeffrey A. Barrett - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):4367-4391.
    We consider how human subjects establish signaling conventions in the context of Lewis-Skyrms signaling games. These experiments involve games where there are precisely the right number of signal types to represent the states of nature, games where there are more signal types than states, and games where there are fewer signal types than states. The aim is to determine the conditions under which subjects are able to establish signaling conventions in such games and to identify a learning (...)
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  44.  14
    Signaling, Mitogenesis and the Cytoskeleton: Where the Action Is.Kermit L. Carraway & Coralie A. Carothers Carraway - 1995 - Bioessays 17 (2):171-175.
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  45. Cross-Representational Signaling and Cohesion Support Inferential Comprehension of Text–Picture Documents.Juliette C. Désiron, Mireille Bétrancourt & Erica de Vries - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Learning from a text–picture multimedia document is particularly effective if learners can link information within the text and across the verbal and the pictorial representations. The ability to create a mental model successfully and include those implicit links is related to the ability to generate inferences. Text processing research has found that text cohesion facilitates the generation of inferences, and thus text comprehension for learners with poor prior knowledge or reading abilities, but is detrimental for learners with good prior knowledge (...)
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  46.  4
    No-Signaling in Topos Formulation and a Common Ontological Basis for Classical and Non-Classical Physical Theories.Marek Kuś - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:129-143.
    Starting from logical structures of classical and quantum mechanics we reconstruct the logic of so-called no-signaling theories, where the correlations among subsystems of a composite system are restricted only by a simplest form of causality forbidding an instantaneous communication. Although such theories are, as it seems, irrelevant for the description of physical reality, they are helpful in understanding the relevance of quantum mechanics. The logical structure of each theory has an epistemological flavor, as it is based on analysis of (...)
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  47.  15
    Checkpoint Signaling: Epigenetic Events Sound the DNA Strand‐Breaks Alarm to the ATM Protein Kinase.Robert T. Abraham - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (7):627-630.
  48. The Evolution of Coding in Signaling Games.Jeffrey A. Barrett - 2009 - Theory and Decision 67 (2):223-237.
    Signaling games with reinforcement learning have been used to model the evolution of term languages (Lewis 1969, Convention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; Skyrms 2006, “Signals” Presidential Address. Philosophy of Science Association for PSA). In this article, syntactic games, extensions of David Lewis’s original sender–receiver game, are used to illustrate how a language that exploits available syntactic structure might evolve to code for states of the world. The evolution of a language occurs in the context of available vocabulary and (...)
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  49.  72
    Evolution of Signaling Systems with Multiple Senders and Receivers.Brian Skyrms - manuscript
    To coordinate action, information must be transmitted, processed, and utilized to make decisions. Transmission of information requires the existence of a signaling system in which the signals that are exchanged are coordinated with the appropriate content. Signaling systems in nature range from quorum signaling in bacteria [Schauder and Bassler, Kaiser ], through the dance of the bees [Dyer and Seeley ], birdcalls [Hailman, Ficken, and Ficken, Gyger, Marler and Pickert, Evans, Evans, and Marler, Charrier and Sturdy ], (...)
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  50.  27
    Role Asymmetry and Code Transmission in Signaling Games: An Experimental and Computational Investigation.Maggie Moreno & Giosuè Baggio - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):918-943.
    In signaling games, a sender has private access to a state of affairs and uses a signal to inform a receiver about that state. If no common association of signals and states is initially available, sender and receiver must coordinate to develop one. How do players divide coordination labor? We show experimentally that, if players switch roles at each communication round, coordination labor is shared. However, in games with fixed roles, coordination labor is divided: Receivers adjust their mappings more (...)
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