Results for 'parthood'

219 found
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  1. Against Parthood.Theodore Sider - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 8:237–293.
    Mereological nihilism says that there do not exist (in the fundamental sense) any objects with proper parts. A reason to accept it is that we can thereby eliminate 'part' from fundamental ideology. Many purported reasons to reject it - based on common sense, perception, and the possibility of gunk, for example - are weak. A more powerful reason is that composite objects seem needed for spacetime physics; but sets suffice instead.
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  2. Parthood and Identity Across Time.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (4):201-220.
  3.  32
    Parthood and Location.Raul Saucedo - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 6.
    This chapter argues that from a particularly weak recombination principle and plausible assumptions about the nature of parthood and location, it follows that it is possible that the mereological structure of the material world and that of space-time fail to correspond to one another in very radical ways. The chapter suggests, moreover, that rejecting the possibility of such failures of correspondence leaves us with a choice of no less unappealing alternatives. It also discusses a few ways in which their (...)
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  4. Parthood and Location.Raul Saucedo - 2011 - In Dean Zimmerman & Karen Bennett (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics: Volume 5. Oxford University Press.
    I argue that from a very weak recombination principle and plausible assumptions about the nature of parthood and location it follows that it's possible that the mereological structure of the material world and that of spacetime fail to correspond to one another in very radical ways. I defend, moreover, that rejecting the possibility of such failures of correspondence leaves us with a choice of equally radical alternatives. I also discuss a few ways in which their possibility is relevant to (...)
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  5. Parthood and Naturalness.M. Eddon - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (12):3163-3180.
    Is part of a perfectly natural, or fundamental, relation? Philosophers have been hesitant to take a stand on this issue. One reason for this hesitancy is the worry that, if parthood is perfectly natural, then the perfectly natural properties and relations are not suitably “independent” of one another. In this paper, I argue that parthood is a perfectly natural relation. In so doing, I argue that this “independence” worry is unfounded. I conclude by noting some consequences of the (...)
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  6. Parthood.Theodore Sider - 2007 - Philosophical Review 116 (1):51-91.
    There will be a few themes. One to get us going: expansion versus contraction. About an object, o, and the region, R, of space(time) in which o is exactly located,1 we may ask: i) must there exist expansions of o: objects in filled superregions2 of R? ii) must there exist contractions of o: objects in filled subregions of..
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  7. Why Parthood Might Be a Four Place Relation, and How It Behaves If It Is.Cody Gilmore - 2009 - In Ludger Honnefelder, Benedikt Schick & Edmund Runggaldier (eds.), Unity and Time in Metaphysics. de Gruyter. pp. 83--133.
  8.  3
    Pregnancy, Parthood and Proper Overlap: A Critique of Kingma.Alexander Geddes - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    Elselijn Kingma argues that, in cases of mammalian placental pregnancy, the foster is part of the gravida. But she does not consider the possibility of proper overlap. I show that this generates a number of serious problems for her argument and trace the oversight to a quite general issue within the literature on biological individuality. Doing so provides an opportunity to pull apart and clarify the relations between some importantly distinct questions concerning organismality and organismic parthood, and to identify (...)
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  9. Parthood and Multi-Location.Maureen Donnelly - 2010 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 5:203-243.
     
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  10.  53
    Group Membership and Parthood.David Strohmaier - 2018 - Journal of Social Ontology 4 (2):121-135.
    Despite having faced severe criticism in the past, mereological approaches to group ontology, which argue that groups are wholes and that groups members are parts, have recently managed a comeback. Authors such as Katherine Ritchie and Paul Sheehy have applied neo-Aristotelian mereology to groups, and Katherine Hawley has defended mereological approaches against the standard objections in the literature. The present paper develops the mereological approaches to group ontology further and proposes an analysis of group membership as parthood plus further (...)
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  11.  61
    Is Parthood Identity?Claudio Calosi - 2021 - Synthese 198 (S18):4503-4517.
    According to a well known, yet controversial metaphysical thesis, Composition is Identity. Recently, Kris McDaniel has articulated and defended a related—and arguably more controversial—thesis, one he calls Parthood is Identity. Roughly the view has it that a whole is, strictly and literally, identical to each of its parts considered individually. At first sight, the view seems rather implausible. However, McDaniel’s formulation and defense are worthy of a serious discussion. In this paper I put forth such a discussion. The result (...)
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  12. Temporal Parts and Timeless Parthood.Eric T. Olson - 2006 - Noûs 40 (4):738–752.
    What is a temporal part? Most accounts explain it in terms of timeless parthood: a thing's having a part without temporal qualification. Some find this hard to understand, and thus find the view that persisting things have temporal parts--fourdimensionalism--unintelligible. T. Sider offers to help by defining temporal parthood in terms of a thing's having a part at a time. I argue that no such account can capture the notion of a temporal part that figures in orthodox four-dimensionalism: temporal (...)
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  13. The Extensionality of Parthood and Composition.Achille C. Varzi - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (230):108-133.
    I focus on three mereological principles: the Extensionality of Parthood (EP), the Uniqueness of Composition (UC), and the Extensionality of Composition (EC). These principles are not equivalent. Nonetheless, they are closely related (and often equated) as they all reflect the basic nominalistic dictum, No difference without a difference maker. And each one of them—individually or collectively—has been challenged on philosophical grounds. In the first part I argue that such challenges do not quite threaten EP insofar as they are either (...)
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  14. Parthood and Location.Raul Saucedo - 2011 - In Karen Bennett & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics Volume 6. Oxford University Press.
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  15.  18
    Parthood‐Like Relations: Closure Principles And Connections To Some Axioms Of Classical Mereology.Paul Hovda - 2016 - Philosophical Perspectives 30 (1):183-197.
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  16.  5
    Why Parthood Might Be a Four-Place Relation, and How It Behaves If It Is.Benedikt Schick, Edmund Runggaldier & Ludger Honnefelder - 2009 - In Benedikt Schick, Edmund Runggaldier & Ludger Honnefelder (eds.), Unity and Time in Metaphysics. Walter de Gruyter.
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  17. Propositions and Parthood: The Universe and Anti-Symmetry.Chris Tillman & Gregory Fowler - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):525 - 539.
    It is plausible that the universe exists: a thing such that absolutely everything is a part of it. It is also plausible that singular, structured propositions exist: propositions that literally have individuals as parts. Furthermore, it is plausible that for each thing, there is a singular, structured proposition that has it as a part. Finally, it is plausible that parthood is a partial ordering: reflexive, transitive, and anti-symmetric. These plausible claims cannot all be correct. We canvass some costs of (...)
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  18.  13
    The Parthood of Indiscernibles.Lidia Obojska - 2019 - Axiomathes 29 (5):427-439.
    In the following work we propose to incorporate the main feature of quantum mechanics, i.e., the concept of indiscernibility. To achieve this goal, first we present two models of set theories: a quasi-set theory and a non-antisymmetric mereology. Next, we show how specific objects of QST—m-atoms—can be defined within NAM. Finally, we introduce a concept of a parthood of indiscernibles and discuss its features in respect to standard notions of indiscernibles and within NAM.
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  19. Problems of Parthood for Proponents of Priority.Jonathan Tallant - 2013 - Analysis 73 (3):429-438.
    According to some views of reality, some objects are fundamental and other objects depend for their existence upon these fundamental objects. In this article, I argue that we have reason to reject these views.
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  20. Materiality, parthood, and possibility.Samuele Iaquinto & Giuliano Torrengo - 2022 - Erkenntnis 87 (3):1125-1131.
    This paper offers an argument in favour of a Lewisian version of concretism that maintains both the principle of material inheritance and the materiality-modality link.
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  21.  30
    Coincidence as Parthood.Jean-Baptiste Guillon - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 18):4247-4276.
    There are three families of solutions to the traditional Amputation Paradox: Eliminativism, Contingent Identity Theories, and Theories of Coincident Entities. Theories of Coincident Entities challenge our common understanding of the relation between identity and parthood, since they accept that two things can be mereologically coincident without being identical. The contemporary discussion of the Amputation Paradox tends to mention only one theory of Coincident Entities, namely the Constitution View, which violates the mereological principle of Extensionality. But in fact, there is (...)
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  22. Parthood and Extensionality.Mark Scala - unknown
    In “Extensionality of Parthood and Composition,”1 Achille Varzi mounts a spirited defense of the extensionality of parthood, or ‘EP’. According to EP, if x and y are composite objects with all the same proper parts then x = y.2 A number of philosophers, he notes, have objected that EP is false on the grounds that, for example, a statue and lump of clay (or a tinkertoy house and the wood from which it is made, in Varzi’s example) are (...)
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  23. A (Contingent) Content-Parthood Analysis of Indirect Speech Reports.Alex Davies - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    This paper presents a semantic analysis of indirect speech reports. The analysis aims to explain a combination of two phenomena. Firstly, there are true utterances of sentences of the form α said that φ which are used to report an utterance u of a sentence wherein φ’s content is not u’s content. This implies that in uttering a single sentence, one can say several things. Secondly, when the complements of these reports (and indeed, these reports themselves) are placed in conjunctions, (...)
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  24. Subset Realization, Parthood, and Causal Overdetermination.Kevin Morris - 2011 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (3):363-379.
    Defenders of the subset view of realization have claimed that we can resolve well-known worries about mental-physical causal overdetermination by holding that mental properties are subset realized by physical properties, that instances of subset realized properties are parts of physical realizers, and that part-whole overdetermination is unproblematic. I challenge the claim that the overdetermination generated by the subset view can be legitimated by appealing to more mundane part-whole overdetermination. I conclude that the subset view does not provide a unique solution (...)
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  25. Parthood and Persistence.Ali Akhtar Kazmi - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 16:227.
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  26. Reengineering Metaphysics: Modularity, Parthood, and Evolvability in Metabolic Engineering.Catherine Kendig & Todd T. Eckdahl - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (8).
    The premise of biological modularity is an ontological claim that appears to come out of practice. We understand that the biological world is modular because we can manipulate different parts of organisms in ways that would only work if there were discrete parts that were interchangeable. This is the foundation of the BioBrick assembly method widely used in synthetic biology. It is one of a number of methods that allows practitioners to construct and reconstruct biological pathways and devices using DNA (...)
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  27.  24
    Parthood, Identity, and Composition : Studies of Mereology.Jeroen Smid - 2017 - Dissertation, Lund University
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  28.  51
    Parthood and Persistence.Ali Akhtar Kazmi - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (Supplement):227-250.
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  29. Non-Transitive Parthood, Leveled Mereology, and the Representation of Emergent Parts of Processes.Johanna Seibt - 2014 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 91:161-190.
  30. How to Distinguish Parthood From Location in Bioontologies.Stefan Schulz, Philipp Daumke, Barry Smith & Udo Hahn - 2005 - In Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium. American Medical Informatics Association. pp. 669-673.
    The pivotal role of the relation part-of in the description of living organisms is widely acknowledged. Organisms are open systems, which means that in contradistinction to mechanical artifacts they are characterized by a continuous flow and exchange of matter. A closer analysis of the spatial relations in biological organisms reveals that the decision as to whether a given particular is part-of a second particular or whether it is only contained-in the second particular is often controversial. We here propose a rule-based (...)
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  31.  84
    Exemplification and Parthood.Peter Forrest - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (2):323-341.
    Consider the things that exist—the entities—and let us suppose they are mereologically structured, that is, some are parts of others. The project of ontology within the bounds of bare mereology use this structure to say which of these entities belong to various ontological kinds, such as properties and particulars. My purpose in this paper is to defend the most radical section of the project, the mereological theory of the exemplification of universals. Along the way I help myself to several hypotheses: (...)
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  32. Structural Universals as Structural Parts: Toward a General Theory of Parthood and Composition.Thomas Mormann - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (2-3):229 - 253.
    David Lewis famously argued against structural universals since they allegedly required what he called a composition “sui generis” that differed from standard mereological com¬position. In this paper it is shown that, although traditional Boolean mereology does not describe parthood and composition in its full generality, a better and more comprehensive theory is provided by the foundational theory of categories. In this category-theoretical framework a theory of structural universals can be formulated that overcomes the conceptual difficulties that Lewis and his (...)
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  33. A Note on the Transitivity of Parthood.Achille C. Varzi - 2006 - Applied ontology 1 (2):141-146.
    That parthood is a transitive relation is among the most basic principles of classical mereology. Alas, it is also very controversial. In a recent paper, Ingvar Johansson has put forward a novel diagnosis of the problem, along with a corresponding solution. The diagnosis is on the right track, I argue, but the solution is misleading. And once the pieces are properly put together, we end up with a reinforcement of the standard defense of transitivity on behalf of classical mereology.
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  34. Formal Theories of Parthood.Achille C. Varzi - 2014 - In Claudio Calosi & Pierluigi Graziani (eds.), Mereology and the Sciences: Parts and Wholes in the Contemporary Scientific Context. Springer Verlag. pp. 359–370.
    A compact overview of the main formal theories of parthood and of their mutual relationships, up to Classical Extensional Mereology. Written as an Appendix to the other essays included in the volume.
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  35.  5
    Mereological Destruction and Relativized Parthood: A Reply to Costa and Calosi.Jonathan D. Payton - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-10.
    Metaphysicians of various stripes claim that a single object can have more than one exact location in space or time – e.g. endurantists claim that an object persists by being ‘all there’ at different moments in time. Antony Eagle has developed a formal theory of location which is prima facie consistent with multi-location, but Damiano Costa and Claudio Calosi argue that the theory is unattractive to multi-location theorists on other grounds. I examine their charge that Eagle’s theory won’t allow an (...)
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  36.  7
    Parthood and Part–Whole Relations in Zulu Language and Culture.C. Maria Keet & Langa Khumalo - 2020 - Applied Ontology 15 (3):361-384.
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  37.  45
    Dao as You? Dropping Proper Parthood in a Mereological Reconstruction of Daoist Metaphysics.Rafal Banka - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (1):97-105.
    In this article, I discuss parthood status in mereologi- cally interpreted Daoist metaphysics, based on the Daodejing. I depart from the dao and you interrela- tion, which mereologically overlap by sharing parts. I consider the case of a complete overlap, which (a) challenges proper parthood, according to which a part cannot be identical with the whole that it com- poses, and (b) entails the question of identity that, while complying with classical mereology, cannot be consis- tent with Daoist (...)
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  38.  49
    Structural Properties and Parthood.Kevin W. Sharpe - 2012 - Southwest Philosophy Review 28 (1):111-120.
    Structural properties are properties something has in virtue of its mereological structure in that they are properties whose instantiation by a particular involves the parts of the particular being propertied and related in the appropriate way. Most of the literature on structural properties has focused on problems that arise from the pairing of two assumptions: (1) structural properties are universals and (2) structural properties are, in some sense, composed of the properties they involve. Chief among these difficulties is David Lewis’ (...)
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  39.  38
    Endurance and Parthood.Matteo Benocci - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Reading
    This is a work in analytic metaphysics, which addresses a cluster of interrelated issues at the interface of mereology and persistence over time. In particular, it outlines a defence of a version of Endurance Theory according to which every enduring object is either a mereological simple or a mere sum of mereological simples. It includes, among other things, a proposal of a new way of framing the debate between Endurance Theory and Four-Dimensionalism, a defence of Endurance Theory over Four-Dimensionalism, arguments (...)
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  40.  59
    Erratum To: Parthood and Naturalness.M. Eddon - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (12):3181-3181.
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  41.  45
    A First Order Theory of Functional Parthood.Pawel Garbacz - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (3):309-337.
    This paper contains a formal theory of functional parthood. Since the relation of functional parthood is defined here by means of the notion of design, the theory of functional parthood turns out to be a theory of design. The formal theory of design I defend here is a result of introducing a number of constraints that are to express the rational aspects of designing practice. The ontological background for the theory is provided by a conception of states (...)
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  42.  72
    A Puzzle Concerning Boundaries, Dependence, and Parthood.Jeroen Smid - 2015 - Analytic Philosophy 56 (2):169-176.
    This paper presents three claims concerning boundaries, dependence and parthood. The claims are intuitively plausible, but cannot, at face value, all be true on pain of contradiction. Each of the three claims is shown to be more plausible than its converse and some solutions to the puzzle are presented.
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  43.  24
    Is That My Heart? A Hylomorphic Account of Bodily Parthood.Hilary J. Yancey - 2020 - Dissertation, Baylor University
    This dissertation investigates the metaphysics of human body parts; particularly, the epistemic conditions under which something can be said to be a “body part of” some particular human being. In this dissertation I draw on the hylomorphism of Aristotle and John Duns Scotus to argue that a necessary and sufficient condition on human bodily parthood is an object’s functioning for the sake of the whole human being and the maintenance of her biological life. I argue that, on this view (...)
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  44.  3
    A Formal Theory for Reasoning About Parthood, Connection, and Location.Maureen Donnelly - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence 160 (1-2):145-172.
    In fields such as medicine, geography, and mechanics, spatial reasoning involves reasoning about entities that may coincide without overlapping. Some examples are: cavities and invading particles, passageways and valves, geographic regions and tropical storms. The purpose of this paper is to develop a formal theory of spatial relations for domains that include coincident entities. The core of the theory is a clear distinction between mereotopological relations, such as parthood and connection, and relative location relations, such as coincidence. To guide (...)
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  45.  9
    God Under All: Divine Simplicity, Omni-Parthood, and the Problem of Principality in Islamic Philosophy.Joshua Kelleher - forthcoming - Essays in Philosophy.
    In this paper, I defend an unconventional mereological framework involving the doctrine of divine simplicity, to surmount a significant yet neglected dilemma resulting from that long-standing view of God as absolutely, and uniquely, simple. This framework establishes God as literally a part of everything—an “omni-part.” Although consequential for the many prominent religious traditions featuring divine simplicity, my analysis focuses on potential implications for an important formative issue in medieval Islamic philosophy. This problem of principality, with regards to metaphysical primacy and (...)
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  46. On the Transitivity of Functional Parthood.Laure Vieu - 2006 - Applied Ontology 1 (2):147-155.
     
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  47.  8
    On Cotnoir’s two notions of proper parthood.Massimiliano Carrara & Jeroen Smid - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (9):2787-2795.
    A.J. Cotnoir has argued that we should distinguish between two notions of proper parthood: outstripped part and non-identical part. Outstripped parthood is an asymmetric relation, but non-identical parthood is not. We argue, first, that the intuitions Cotnoir uses to motivate these notions do not always give the right verdict; and, second, that systematic reasons for distinguishing these two notions of parthood have further counter-intuitive consequences. This means the distinction between two notions of proper parthood currently (...)
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  48.  43
    The Metaphysics of Evolution: Against Ted Sider’s “Against Parthood”.Michael Fitzpatrick - 2013 - Process Studies 42 (2):254-282.
    This article explores process mereology, the theory of part-whole relations. I compare and contrast the mereology of Theodore Sider with that of Alfred North Whitehead, broadly favoring the latter’s approach for allowing us to take seriously an evolutionary structure in metaphysics.
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  49. Book Reviews: Andrzej Pietruszczak, Foundations of the Theory of Parthood: A Study of Mereology, Springer International Publishing, Series: Trends in Logic, Vol. 54, 2020, Pp. 308. ISBN 978-3-030-36532-5 (Hardcover) €83,19, ISBN 978-3-030-36533-2 (eBook) €67,40. [REVIEW]Marcin Tkaczyk - 2020 - Studia Logica 109 (3):683-686.
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  50.  10
    Mereology: A Philosophical Introduction.Giorgio Lando - 2017 - London, UK: Bloomsbury.
    Parthood and composition are everywhere. The leg of a table is part of the table, the word "Christmas" is part of the sentence "I wish you a merry Christmas", the 13th century is part of the Middle Ages. The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg compose Benelux, the body of a deer is composed of a huge number of cells, the Middle Ages are composed of the Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, and Late Middle Ages. Is there really a general (...)
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