Results for 'necessity'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  63
    Causal Necessity: A Pragmatic Investigation of the Necessity of Laws.Brian Skyrms - 1980 - Yale University Press.
  2. Essence and Necessity.Andreas Ditter - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (3):653-690.
    What is the relation between metaphysical necessity and essence? This paper defends the view that the relation is one of identity: metaphysical necessity is a special case of essence. My argument consists in showing that the best joint theory of essence and metaphysical necessity is one in which metaphysical necessity is just a special case of essence. The argument is made against the backdrop of a novel, higher-order logic of essence, whose core features are introduced in (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Necessity, Cause, and Blame: Perspectives on Aristotle’s Theory.Richard Sorabji - 1980 - University of Chicago Press.
    A discussion of Aristotle’s thought on determinism and culpability, Necessity, Cause, and Blame also reveals Richard Sorabji’s own philosophical commitments. He makes the original argument here that Aristotle separates the notions of necessity and cause, rejecting both the idea that all events are necessarily determined as well as the idea that a non-necessitated event must also be non-caused. In support of this argument, Sorabji engages in a wide-ranging discussion of explanation, time, free will, essence, and purpose in nature. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   73 citations  
  4. Naming and Necessity: Lectures Given to the Princeton University Philosophy Colloquium.Saul A. Kripke - 1980 - Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.
  5. Necessity, Essence, and Individuation: A Defense of Conventionalism.Alan Sidelle - 1989 - Cornell University Press.
  6. The Necessity of Mathematics.Juhani Yli‐Vakkuri & John Hawthorne - 2018 - Noûs 52.
    Some have argued for a division of epistemic labor in which mathematicians supply truths and philosophers supply their necessity. We argue that this is wrong: mathematics is committed to its own necessity. Counterfactuals play a starring role.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  7.  47
    Necessity, Essence, and Individuation: A Defense of Conventionalism.Alan Sidelle - 1989 - Cornell University Press.
    Alan Sidelle's Necessity, Essence, and Individuation is a sustained defense of empiricism—or, more generally, conventionalism—against recent attacks by realists. Sidelle focuses his attention on necessity a posteriori, a kind of necessity which contemporary realists have taken to support realism over empiricism. Turning the tables against the realists, Sidelle argues that if there are in fact truths necessary a posteriori, it is not realism, but rather empiricism which provides the best explanation for them.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   80 citations  
  8. Necessity, Volition, and Love.Harry G. Frankfurt - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    One of the most influential of contemporary philosophers, Harry Frankfurt has made major contributions to the philosophy of action, moral psychology, and the study of Descartes. This collection of essays complements an earlier collection published by Cambridge, The Importance of What We Care About. Some of the essays develop lines of thought found in the earlier volume. They deal in general with foundational metaphysical and epistemological issues concerning Descartes, moral philosophy, and philosophical anthropology. Some bear upon topics in political philosophy (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   156 citations  
  9. Relative Necessity Reformulated.Bob Hale & Jessica Leech - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (1):1-26.
    This paper discusses some serious difficulties for what we shall call the standard account of various kinds of relative necessity, according to which any given kind of relative necessity may be defined by a strict conditional - necessarily, if C then p - where C is a suitable constant proposition, such as a conjunction of physical laws. We argue, with the help of Humberstone, that the standard account has several unpalatable consequences. We argue that Humberstone’s alternative account has (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  10. Divine Necessity.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (11):741-752.
  11. Selective Necessity and the Free Will Problem.Michael Slote - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (January):5-24.
  12. The Nature of Necessity.Alvin Plantinga - 1974 - Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
    This book, one of the first full-length studies of the modalities to emerge from the debate to which Saul Kripke, David Lewis, Ruth Marcus, and others are contributing, is an exploration and defense of the notion of modality de re, the idea that objects have both essential and accidental properties. Plantinga develops his argument by means of the notion of possible worlds and ranges over such key problems as the nature of essence, transworld identity, negative existential propositions, and the existence (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   618 citations  
  13. Necessity in Self-Defense and War.Seth Lazar - 2012 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 40 (1):3-44.
    It is generally agreed that using lethal or otherwise serious force in self-defense is justified only when three conditions are satisfied: first, there are some grounds for the defender to give priority to his own interests over those of the attacker (whether because the attacker has lost the protection of his right to life, for example, or because of the defender’s prerogative to prefer himself to others); second, the harm used is proportionate to the threat thereby averted; third, the harm (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
  14.  31
    Necessity in Self‐Defense and War.Seth Lazar - 2012 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 40 (1):3-44.
    The necessity constraint is at the heart of the ethics of both self-defense and war, and yet we know little about it. This article seeks to remedy that defect. It proceeds in two stages: first, an analysis of the concept of necessity in self-defense; second, an application of this analysis to war, looking at both its implications for just war theory and its application in the laws of war.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  15. Essence, Necessity, and Definition.Justin Zylstra - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (2):339-350.
    What is it for something to be essential to an item? For some time, it was standard to think that the concept of necessity alone can provide an answer: for something to be essential to an item is for it to be strictly implied by the existence of that item. We now tend to think that this view fails because its analysans is insufficient for its analysandum. In response, some argue that we can supplement the analysis in terms of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  16. The Broadest Necessity.Andrew Bacon - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (5):733-783.
    In this paper the logic of broad necessity is explored. Definitions of what it means for one modality to be broader than another are formulated, and it is proven, in the context of higher-order logic, that there is a broadest necessity, settling one of the central questions of this investigation. It is shown, moreover, that it is possible to give a reductive analysis of this necessity in extensional language. This relates more generally to a conjecture that it (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  17. Essence, Necessity, and Explanation.Kathrin Koslicki - 2012 - In Tuomas E. Tahko (ed.), Contemporary Aristotelian Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 187--206.
    It is common to think of essence along modal lines: the essential truths, on this approach, are a subset of the necessary truths. But Aristotle conceives of the necessary truths as being distinct and derivative from the essential truths. Such a non-modal conception of essence also constitutes a central component of the neo-Aristotelian approach to metaphysics defended over the last several decades by Kit Fine. Both Aristotle and Fine rely on a distinction between what belongs to the essence proper of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  18. Actuality, Necessity, and Logical Truth.William H. Hanson - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (3):437-459.
    The traditional view that all logical truths are metaphysically necessary has come under attack in recent years. The contrary claim is prominent in David Kaplan’s work on demonstratives, and Edward Zalta has argued that logical truths that are not necessary appear in modal languages supplemented only with some device for making reference to the actual world (and thus independently of whether demonstratives like ‘I’, ‘here’, and ‘now’ are present). If this latter claim can be sustained, it strikes close to the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  19.  72
    Naming, Necessity, and Natural Kinds.Stephen P. Schwartz (ed.) - 1977 - Cornell University Press.
  20.  24
    Causal Necessity.Brian Skyrms - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (2):329-335.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   89 citations  
  21. Necessity, Volition and Love.Harry G. Frankfurt - 2001 - Philosophical Quarterly 51 (202):114-116.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   141 citations  
  22. Perceiving Necessity.Catherine Legg & James Franklin - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (3).
    In many diagrams one seems to perceive necessity – one sees not only that something is so, but that it must be so. That conflicts with a certain empiricism largely taken for granted in contemporary philosophy, which believes perception is not capable of such feats. The reason for this belief is often thought well-summarized in Hume's maxim: ‘there are no necessary connections between distinct existences’. It is also thought that even if there were such necessities, perception is too passive (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  23.  67
    The Necessity of Pragmatism: John Dewey's Conception of Philosophy.R. W. Sleeper - 1986 - New Haven: University of Illinois.
    In this first paperback edition, a new introduction by Tom Burke establishes the ongoing importance of Sleeper's analysis of the integrity of Dewey's work and ...
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  24.  20
    Chance and Necessity: An Essay on the Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology.Jacques Monod - 1971 - New York: Vintage Books.
    Change and necessity is a statement of Darwinian natural selection as a process driven by chance necessity, devoid of purpose or intent.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   250 citations  
  25. Varieties of Necessity.Kit Fine - 2002 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Conceivability and Possibility. Oxford Up. pp. 253-281.
    It is argued that there are three main forms of necessity --the metaphysical, the natural and the normative--and that none of them is reducible to the others or to any other form of necessity. In arguing for a distinctive form of natural necessity, it is necessary to refute a version of the doctrine of scientific essentialism; and in arguing for a distinctive form of normative necessity, it is necessary to refute certain traditional and contemporary versions of (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   126 citations  
  26. The Necessity of Pragmatism: John Dewey's Conception Of.R. W. Sleeper - forthcoming - Philosophy.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  27.  80
    The Necessity of Mathematics.Juhani Yli-Vakkuri & John Hawthorne - 2020 - Noûs 54 (3):549-577.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  28. The Necessity of Origin: A Long and Winding Route.Roberta Ballarin - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (2):353-370.
    In the last 30 years much philosophical discussion has been generated by Kripke’s proof of the necessity of origin for material objects presented in footnote 56 of ‘Naming and Necessity’. I consider the two most popular reconstructions of Kripke’s argument: one appealing to the necessary sufficiency of origin, and the other employing a strong independence principle allegedly derived from the necessary local nature of prevention. I argue that, to achieve a general result, both reconstructions presuppose an implicit Humean (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  29. Metaphysical Necessity: A Skeptical Perspective.Graham Priest - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 8):1873-1885.
    Many people hold that there is a distinctive notion of metaphysical necessity. In this paper I explain why I am skeptical about the view. I examine the sorts of considerations that are adduced for it, and argue that they meet equal and opposite considerations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  30. Logical Necessity, Physical Necessity, Ethics, and Quantifiers.Richard Montague - 1960 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 3 (1-4):259 – 269.
    Some philosophers, for example Quine, doubt the possibility of jointly using modalities and quantification. Simple model-theoretic considerations, however, lead to a reconciliation of quantifiers with such modal concepts as logical, physical, and ethical necessity, and suggest a general class of modalities of which these are instances. A simple axiom system, analogous to the Lewis systems S1 —S5, is considered in connection with this class of modalities. The system proves to be complete, and its class of theorems decidable.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   43 citations  
  31.  13
    Norms and Necessity.Amie L. Thomasson - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    Philosophical theories often hinge on claims about what is necessary or possible. But what are possibilities and necessities, and how could we come to know about them? This book aims to help demystify the methodology of philosophy, by treating such claims not as attempted descriptions of strange facts or distant 'possible worlds', but rather as ways of expressing rules or norms.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  32.  5
    Necessity or Contingency: The Master Argument.Jules Vuillemin - 1996 - Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
    The Master Argument, recorded by Epictetus, indicates that Diodorus had deduced a contradiction from the conjoint assertion of three propositions. The Argument, which has to do with necessity and contingency and therefore with freedom, has attracted the attention of logicians above all. There have been many attempts at reconstructing it in logical terms, without excessive worry about historical plausibility and with the foregone conclusion that it was sophistic since it directly imperilled our common sense notion of freedom. This text (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  33. Necessities and Necessary Truths: A Prolegomenon to the Use of Modal Logic in the Analysis of Intensional Notions.V. Halbach & P. Welch - 2009 - Mind 118 (469):71-100.
    In philosophical logic necessity is usually conceived as a sentential operator rather than as a predicate. An intensional sentential operator does not allow one to express quantified statements such as 'There are necessary a posteriori propositions' or 'All laws of physics are necessary' in first-order logic in a straightforward way, while they are readily formalized if necessity is formalized by a predicate. Replacing the operator conception of necessity by the predicate conception, however, causes various problems and forces (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  34. Linking Necessity to Apriority.Tristan Grøtvedt Haze - 2019 - Acta Analytica 34 (1):1-7.
    There is an important and fairly straightforward link between necessity and apriority which can shed light on our knowledge of the former, but initially plausible attempts to spell out what it is fall victim to counterexamples. Casullo discusses one such proposal, argues—following Anderson :1–20, )—that it fails, and suggests an alternative. In this paper, I argue that Casullo’s alternative also fails, before making a suggestion for which I can find no counterexamples and which, notably, handles some recent examples due (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  35. Accidental Necessity and Logical Determinism.Alfred J. Freddoso - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (5):257-278.
    This paper attempts to construct a systematic and plausible account of the necessity of the past. The account proposed is meant to explicate the central ockhamistic thesis of the primacy of the pure present and to vindicate Ockham's own non-Aristotelian response to the challenge of logical determinism.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  36.  57
    Legal Necessity, Pareto Efficiency & Justified Killing in Autonomous Vehicle Collisions.Geoff Keeling - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (2):413-427.
    Suppose a driverless car encounters a scenario where harm to at least one person is unavoidable and a choice about how to distribute harms between different persons is required. How should the driverless car be programmed to behave in this situation? I call this the moral design problem. Santoni de Sio defends a legal-philosophical approach to this problem, which aims to bring us to a consensus on the moral design problem despite our disagreements about which moral principles provide the correct (...)
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  37. Nomological Necessity and the Paradoxes of Confirmation.Brian Skyrms - 1966 - Philosophy of Science 33 (3):230-249.
    Some of the concerns which motivate attempts to provide a philosophical reduction of nomological necessity are briefly introduced in I. In II, Hempel's treatment of the paradoxes is contrasted with a position which holds that nomological necessity is a pragmatic dimension of laws of nature, and that this pragmatic dimension is of such a type that it prevents laws of nature from contraposing. Such a position is, however, untenable unless (i) the sense of 'pragmatics' at issue is specified, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  38. Brute Necessity.James Van Cleve - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (9):e12516.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  39.  86
    Relative Necessity.Timothy Smiley - 1963 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 28 (2):113-134.
  40.  47
    Shame and Necessity.Bernard Arthur Owen Williams - 1994 - Ethics 105 (1):178-181.
    We tend to suppose that the ancient Greeks had primitive ideas of the self, of responsibility, freedom, and shame, and that now humanity has advanced from these to a more refined moral consciousness. Bernard Williams's original and radical book questions this picture of Western history. While we are in many ways different from the Greeks, Williams claims that the differences are not to be traced to a shift in these basic conceptions of ethical life. We are more like the ancients (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   114 citations  
  41. Absolute Necessities.Bob Hale - 1996 - Philosophical Perspectives 10:93 - 117.
  42. Necessity, Essence, and Individuation: A Defense of Conventionalism.Stephen Yablo & Alan Sidelle - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (4):878.
  43.  49
    Necessity and Contingency.M. J. Cresswell - 1988 - Studia Logica 47 (2):145 - 149.
    The paper considers the question of when the operator L of necessity in modal logic can be expressed in terms of the operator meaning it is non-contingent that.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  44. Practical Necessity and the Constitution of Character.Roman Altshuler - 2013 - In Alexandra Perry & Chris Herrera (eds.), The Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 40-53.
    Deliberation issues in decision, and so might be taken as a paradigmatic volitional activity. Character, on the other hand, may appear pre-volitional: the dispositions that constitute it provide the background against which decisions are made. Bernard Williams offers an intriguing picture of how the two may be connected via the concept of practical necessities, which are at once constitutive of character and deliverances of deliberation. Necessities are thus the glue binding character and the will, allowing us to take responsibility for (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  45. The Reduction of Necessity to Essence.Andreas Ditter - 2020 - Mind 129 (514):351-380.
    In `Essence and Modality', Kit Fine proposes that for a proposition to be metaphysically necessary is for it to be true in virtue of the nature of all objects whatsoever. Call this view Fine's Thesis. This paper is a study of Fine's Thesis in the context of Fine's logic of essence (LE). Fine himself has offered his most elaborate defense of the thesis in the context of LE. His defense rests on the widely shared assumption that metaphysical necessity obeys (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  46. Shame and Necessity.Bernard Arthur Owen Williams - 1992 - University of California Press.
    We tend to suppose that the ancient Greeks had primitive ideas of the self, of responsibility, freedom, and shame, and that now humanity has advanced from these to a more refined moral consciousness. Bernard Williams's original and radical book questions this picture of Western history. While we are in many ways different from the Greeks, Williams claims that the differences are not to be traced to a shift in these basic conceptions of ethical life. We are more like the ancients (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   144 citations  
  47. Logical Necessity.Ian Rumfitt - 2010 - In Bob Hale & Aviv Hoffmann (eds.), Modality: Metaphysics, Logic, and Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    Book synopsis: The philosophy of modality investigates necessity and possibility, and related notions--are they objective features of mind-independent reality? If so, are they irreducible, or can modal facts be explained in other terms? This volume presents new work on modality by established leaders in the field and by up-and-coming philosophers. Between them, the papers address fundamental questions concerning realism and anti-realism about modality, the nature and basis of facts about what is possible and what is necessary, the nature of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  48.  32
    Relative Necessity and Propositional Quantification.Alexander Roberts - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (4):703-726.
    Following Smiley’s influential proposal, it has become standard practice to characterise notions of relative necessity in terms of simple strict conditionals. However, Humberstone and others have highlighted various flaws with Smiley’s now standard account of relative necessity. In their recent article, Hale and Leech propose a novel account of relative necessity designed to overcome the problems facing the standard account. Nevertheless, the current article argues that Hale & Leech’s account suffers from its own defects, some of which (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49. The Necessity and Determinacy of Distinctness.Timothy Williamson - 1996 - In Sabina Lovibond & S. Williams (eds.), Essays for David Wiggins: Identity, Truth and Value. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 1-17.
  50.  6
    Causal Necessity: A Pragmatic Investigation of the Necessity of Laws.C. A. Hooker - 1984 - Noûs 18 (3):517-521.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000