Results for 'method'

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  1. Against Method.Paul Feyerabend - 1975 - London: New Left Books.
    Feyerabrend argues that intellectual progress relies on the creativity of the scientist, against the authority of science.
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  2.  40
    Methods of Argumentation.Douglas Walton - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Argumentation, which can be abstractly defined as the interaction of different arguments for and against some conclusion, is an important skill to learn for everyday life, law, science, politics and business. The best way to learn it is to try it out on real instances of arguments found in everyday conversational exchanges and legal argumentation. The introductory chapter of this book gives a clear general idea of what the methods of argumentation are and how they work as tools that can (...)
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  3.  1
    Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research.Morten Overgaard (ed.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    'Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research' is the first book of its kind, providing an overview of methods and approaches for studying consciousness. The chapters are written by leading researchers and experts who describe the methods they actually use in their own studies, along with their pitfalls, problems, and difficulties.
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  4.  5
    Microfoundations, Method and Causation on the Philosophy of the Social Sciences.Daniel Little - 1998 - Transaction.
    This text focuses on the theory of popular politics constructed within the context of analytical Marxism, and asks if rational choice theory provides an adequate basis for explaining patterns of social, political and economic behaviour in traditional China.
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  5. Une Methode Linguistique d'Approche Contrastive.Critique de L'analyse Contrastive & A. Absence de Methode Propre - forthcoming - Contrastes: Revue de l'Association Pour le Developpement des Études Contrastives.
  6.  41
    Projects and Methods of Experimental Philosophy.Eugen Fischer & Justin Sytsma - forthcoming - In Alexander Max Bauer & Stephan Kornmesser (eds.), The Compact Compendium of Experimental Philosophy. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    How does experimental philosophy address philosophical questions and problems? That is: What projects does experimental philosophy pursue? What is their philosophical relevance? And what empirical methods do they employ? Answers to these questions will reveal how experimental philosophy can contribute to the longstanding ambition of placing philosophy on the ‘secure path of a science’, as Kant put it. We argue that experimental philosophy has introduced a new methodological perspective – a ‘meta-philosophical naturalism’ that addresses philosophical questions about a phenomenon by (...)
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  7.  93
    Modeling and Corpus Methods in Experimental Philosophy.Louis Chartrand - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (6).
    Research in experimental philosophy has increasingly been turning to corpus methods to produce evidence for empirical claims, as they open up new possibilities for testing linguistic claims or studying concepts across time and cultures. The present article reviews the quasi-experimental studies that have been done using textual data from corpora in philosophy, with an eye for the modeling and experimental design that enable statistical inference. I find that most studies forego comparisons that could control for confounds, and that only a (...)
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  8. Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge.Paul Feyerabend - 1974 - Humanities Press.
    Paul Feyerabend's globally acclaimed work, which sparked and continues to stimulate fierce debate, examines the deficiencies of many widespread ideas about scientific progress and the nature of knowledge. Feyerabend argues that scientific advances can only be understood in a historical context. He looks at the way the philosophy of science has consistently overemphasized practice over method, and considers the possibility that anarchism could replace rationalism in the theory of knowledge. -- Amazon.com.
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  9.  66
    The Methods Used to Implement an Ethical Code of Conduct and Employee Attitudes.Avshalom M. Adam & Dalia Rachman-Moore - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (3):223-242.
    In the process of implementing an ethical code of conduct, a business organization uses formal methods. Of these, training, courses and means of enforcement are common and are also suitable for self-regulation. The USA is encouraging business corporations to self regulate with the Federal Sentencing Guidelines (FSG). The Guidelines prescribe similar formal methods and specify that, unless such methods are used, the process of implementation will be considered ineffective, and the business will therefore not be considered to have complied with (...)
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  10. The Method of Levels of Abstraction.Luciano Floridi - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (3):303–329.
    The use of “levels of abstraction” in philosophical analysis (levelism) has recently come under attack. In this paper, I argue that a refined version of epistemological levelism should be retained as a fundamental method, called the method of levels of abstraction. After a brief introduction, in section “Some Definitions and Preliminary Examples” the nature and applicability of the epistemological method of levels of abstraction is clarified. In section “A Classic Application of the Method ofion”, the philosophical (...)
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  11. Supervision Method of Indoor Construction Engineering Quality Acceptance Based on Cloud Computing.Jian Zhang - 2022 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 31 (1):795-805.
    As an important part of Chinese economy, the construction industry has a great contribution to the economy, and plays an important role in the Chinese economic development. Therefore, it has certain research significance for the quality acceptance supervision method of construction engineering. This article takes Shenzhen S project as an example, combined with cloud computing, discusses the quality acceptance and supervision methods of indoor construction projects. In the introduction to the technical part, this article first briefly introduces the definition (...)
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  12. Méthodes Et Résultats Inédits Pour l'Analyse des Voix de Préférences.René Doutrelepont - 1985 - Res Publica 27 (1):141-165.
    This article has two goals: 1° to illustrate certain methods which are completely new in their application and ; 2° to communicate and analyse the results obtained by these methods.The first part of this study concerns the application of a mathematical model to the nominal votes in the French-speaking electoral college for the European elections of June 1984. The statistical categories of the log linear model, logically translated, permit to isolate and to measure the effects of list, position, and personality (...)
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  13. Scientific Method.Brian Hepburn & Hanne Andersen - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    1. Overview and organizing themes 2. Historical Review: Aristotle to Mill 3. Logic of method and critical responses 3.1 Logical constructionism and Operationalism 3.2. H-D as a logic of confirmation 3.3. Popper and falsificationism 3.4 Meta-methodology and the end of method 4. Statistical methods for hypothesis testing 5. Method in Practice 5.1 Creative and exploratory practices 5.2 Computer methods and the ‘third way’ of doing science 6. Discourse on scientific method 6.1 “The scientific method” in (...)
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  14.  13
    Description of Method.Terence Rajivan Edward -
    Timothy Williamson objects that we do not have any reason to regard reflective equilibrium as a philosophical method, whether good or bad. In this paper, I propose a less demanding account of when a method is being described.
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  15.  14
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology.William L. Harper - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but (...)
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  16.  14
    Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction.Barry Gower - 1996 - Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: A (...)
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  17. Research Methods in Education.L. Cohen, L. Manion & K. Morrison - 2000 - British Journal of Educational Studies 48 (4):446-446.
  18. Methods of Ethics.Henry Sidgwick - 1901 - Kaplan.
    Introduction -- Ethics and politics -- Ethical judgments -- Pleasure and desire -- Free will -- Ethical principles and methods -- Egoism and self-love -- Chapter viii-intuitionism -- Good -- Book II: Egoism -- The principle and method of egoism -- Empirical hedonism -- Empirical hedonism (continued) -- Objective hedonism and common sense -- Happiness and duty -- Deductive hedonism -- Book III: Intuitionism -- Intuitionism -- Virtue and duty -- The intellectual virtues -- Benevolence -- Justice -- Laws (...)
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  19.  3
    Method, Medicine and Metaphysics: Studies in the Philosophy of Ancient Science.R. J. Hankinson - 1988 - Academic Printing &.
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  20.  33
    Methods for Practising Ethics in Research and Innovation: A Literature Review, Critical Analysis and Recommendations.Wessel Reijers, David Wright, Philip Brey, Karsten Weber, Rowena Rodrigues, Declan O’Sullivan & Bert Gordijn - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1437-1481.
    This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation. Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and the ubiquitous use of the outcomes of R&I processes in society. For this reason, several methods for practising ethics have been developed in different fields of R&I. The paper first of all presents a systematic search of academic sources that (...)
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  21. History, Method, and Theology a Dialectical Comparison of Wilhelm Dilthey's Critique of Historical Reason and Bernard Lonergan's Meta-Methodology.Matthew L. Lamb - 1978
     
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  22.  1
    Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law.Douglas Walton - 2005 - Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.
    Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. The book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds (...)
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  23.  29
    Experimental Methods for Inducing Basic Emotions: A Qualitative Review.Ewa Siedlecka & Thomas F. Denson - 2019 - Emotion Review 11 (1):87-97.
    Experimental emotion inductions provide the strongest causal evidence of the effects of emotions on psychological and physiological outcomes. In the present qualitative review, we evaluated five common experimental emotion induction techniques: visual stimuli, music, autobiographical recall, situational procedures, and imagery. For each technique, we discuss the extent to which they induce six basic emotions: anger, disgust, surprise, happiness, fear, and sadness. For each emotion, we discuss the relative influences of the induction methods on subjective emotional experience and physiological responses. Based (...)
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  24. Scientific Method: Optimizing Applied Research Decisions.Russell Lincoln Ackoff - 1962 - New York: Wiley.
  25.  33
    The Methods of Science and Religion: Epistemologies in Conflict.Tiddy Smith - 2019 - Lexington Books.
    The Methods of Science and Religion is a philosophical analysis of the conflict between science and religion, which challenges the popular, contemporary view that science and religion are complementary worldviews. It exposes their methodological incompatibility and concludes that religious modes of investigation are unreliable.
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  26.  43
    Method Pluralism, Method Mismatch, & Method Bias.Adrian Currie & Shahar Avin - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19.
    Pluralism about scientific method is more-or-less accepted, but the consequences have yet to be drawn out. Scientists adopt different methods in response to different epistemic situations: depending on the system they are interested in, the resources at their disposal, and so forth. If it is right that different methods are appropriate in different situations, then mismatches between methods and situations are possible. This is most likely to occur due to method bias: when we prefer a particular kind of (...)
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  27. Wissenschaftliche Methode Und Historische Bedeutung Philosophische Untersuchungen Zu Problemen der Geschichtserfahrung.Rudolf Lüthe - 1987
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  28.  93
    Methods and Theories in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):511.
  29. Mathematical Method and Proof.Jeremy Avigad - 2006 - Synthese 153 (1):105-159.
    On a traditional view, the primary role of a mathematical proof is to warrant the truth of the resulting theorem. This view fails to explain why it is very often the case that a new proof of a theorem is deemed important. Three case studies from elementary arithmetic show, informally, that there are many criteria by which ordinary proofs are valued. I argue that at least some of these criteria depend on the methods of inference the proofs employ, and that (...)
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  30.  40
    Method and Continuity in Science.K. Wray - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (2):363-375.
    Devitt has developed an interesting defense of realism against the threats posed by the Pessimistic Induction and the Argument from Unconceived Alternatives. Devitt argues that the best explanation for the success of our current theories, and the fact that they are superior to the theories they replaced, is that they were developed and tested with the aid of better methods than the methods used to develop and test the many theories that were discarded earlier in the history of science. It (...)
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  31.  1
    A Method for Ethical AI in Defence: A Case Study on Developing Trustworthy Autonomous Systems.Tara Roberson, Stephen Bornstein, Rain Liivoja, Simon Ng, Jason Scholz & Kate Devitt - 2022 - Journal of Responsible Technology 11:100036.
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  32.  31
    A Method for Explaining Bayesian Networks for Legal Evidence with Scenarios.Charlotte S. Vlek, Henry Prakken, Silja Renooij & Bart Verheij - 2016 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 24 (3):285-324.
    In a criminal trial, a judge or jury needs to reason about what happened based on the available evidence, often including statistical evidence. While a probabilistic approach is suitable for analysing the statistical evidence, a judge or jury may be more inclined to use a narrative or argumentative approach when considering the case as a whole. In this paper we propose a combination of two approaches, combining Bayesian networks with scenarios. Whereas a Bayesian network is a popular tool for analysing (...)
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  33.  63
    Methods and Principles in Biomedical Ethics.T. L. Beauchamp - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (5):269-274.
    The four principles approach to medical ethics plus specification is used in this paper. Specification is defined as a process of reducing the indeterminateness of general norms to give them increased action guiding capacity, while retaining the moral commitments in the original norm. Since questions of method are central to the symposium, the paper begins with four observations about method in moral reasoning and case analysis. Three of the four scenarios are dealt with. It is concluded in the (...)
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  34. The Method of Alternating Chains.J. W. Addison - 1965 - In The Theory of Models. Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co.. pp. 1--16.
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  35. Psychophysical Methods and the Evasion of Introspection.Mazviita Chirimuuta - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):914-926.
    While introspective methods went out of favour with the decline of Titchener’s analytic school, many important questions concern the rehabilitation of introspection in contemporary psychology. Hatfield rightly points out that introspective methods should not be confused with analytic ones, and goes on to describe their “ineliminable role” in perceptual psychology. Here I argue that certain methodological conventions within psychophysics reflect a continued uncertainty over appropriate use of subjects’ perceptual observations and the reliability of their introspective judgements. My first claim is (...)
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  36. Method Coherence and Epistemic Circularity.Will Fleisher - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (2):455-480.
    Reliabilism is an intuitive and attractive view about epistemic justification. However, it has many well-known problems. I offer a novel condition on reliabilist theories of justification. This method coherence condition requires that a method be appropriately tested by appeal to a subject’s other belief-forming methods. Adding this condition to reliabilism provides a solution to epistemic circularity worries, including the bootstrapping problem.
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  37.  66
    Socratic Methods.Eric Brown - forthcoming - In Nicholas D. Smith, Russell E. Jones & Ravi Sharma (eds.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Socrates, 2nd ed. London, UK:
    This selective and opinionated overview of English-language scholarship on the philosophical method(s) of Plato's Socrates discusses whether this Socrates has any expertise or method, how he examines others and why, and how he exhorts others to care about wisdom and the state of their soul.
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  38.  35
    Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate.Robert Shaver, Marcia W. Baron, Philip Pettit & Michael Slote - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (1):125.
    In The Methods of Ethics, Sidgwick took seriously egoism, utilitarianism, and commonsense morality. Virtue ethics was treated as part of commonsense morality. Three Methods, reflecting recent tastes, considers Kant, consequentialism, and virtue ethics. Oddly, it does not reflect the major development since Sidgwick—the revival of contractualism.
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  39. Philosophical Method: A Very Short Introduction, by Timothy Williamson. [REVIEW] Neminemus & I. Neminemus - 2022 - Teaching Philosophy 45 (1):124-127.
  40.  31
    Reflections on Method in Philosophy of Science.K. Brad Wray - 2021 - 3:16 Finding Meaning.
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  41.  40
    Reid and Priestley on Method and the Mind.Alan Tapper - 2003 - In John Haldane Stephen Read (ed.), The Philosophy of Thomas Reid. pp. 98-112.
    Reid said little in his published writings about his contemporary Joseph Priestley, but his unpublished work is largely devoted to the latter. Much of Priestley's philosophical thought- his materialism, his determinism, his Lockean scientific realism- was as antithetical to Reid's as was Hume's philosophy in a very different way. Neither Reid nor Priestley formulated a full response to the other. Priestley's response to Reid came very early in his career, and is marked by haste and immaturity. In his last decade (...)
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  42. Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate.Marcia W. Baron, Philip Pettit & Michael Slote - 1997 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    During the past decade ethical theory has been in a lively state of development, and three basic approaches to ethics - Kantian ethics, consequentialism, and virtue ethics - have assumed positions of particular prominence.
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  43.  52
    Method, Model and Matter.Mario Augusto Bunge - 1972 - Boston: Reidel.
    This collection of essays deals with three clusters of problems in the philo sophy of science: scientific method, conceptual models, and ontological underpinnings. The disjointedness of topics is more apparent than real, since the whole book is concerned with the scientific knowledge of fact. Now, the aim of factual knowledge is the conceptual grasping of being, and this understanding is provided by theories of whatever there may be. If the theories are testable and specific, such as a theory of (...)
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  44.  1
    Optimization Methods for Logical Inference.Vijay Chandru & John Hooker - 1999 - University of Texas Press.
    Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though "solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks... it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs." Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for (...)
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  45.  13
    Experimental Method and the Spiritualist Soul: The Case of Victor Cousin.Delphine Antoine-Mahut - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (5):680-703.
    Spiritualism designates a philosophy that lays claim to the separation of mind and body and the ontological and epistemological primacy of the former. In France, it is associated with the names of Victor Cousin and René Descartes, or more precisely with what Cousin made of Descartes as the founding father of a brittle rational psychology, closed off from the positive sciences, and as a critic in respect to the empiricist legacy of the idéologues. Moreover, by considering merely the end result, (...)
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  46.  20
    Methods and Finance: A Unifying View on Finance, Mathematics and Philosophy.Ping Chen & Emiliano Ippoliti (eds.) - 2017 - Springer Verlag.
    The book offers an interdisciplinary perspective on finance, with a special focus on stock markets. It presents new methodologies for analyzing stock markets’ behavior and discusses theories and methods of finance from different angles, such as the mathematical, physical and philosophical ones. The book, which aims at philosophers and economists alike, represents a rare yet important attempt to unify the externalist with the internalist conceptions of finance.
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  47.  30
    Methods for Distance-Based Judgment Aggregation.M. K. Miller & D. Osherson - unknown
    Judgment aggregation theory, which concerns the translation of individual judgments on logical propositions into consistent group judgments, has shown that group consistency generally cannot be guaranteed if each proposition is treated independently from the others. Developing the right method of abandoning independence is thus a high-priority goal. However, little work has been done in this area outside of a few simple approaches. To fill the gap, we compare four methods based on distance metrics between judgment sets. The methods generalize (...)
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  48.  90
    Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction.Barry Gower - 1996 - Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: A (...)
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  49.  13
    Scientific Method in Brief.Hugh G. Gauch - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    The fundamental principles of the scientific method are essential for enhancing perspective, increasing productivity, and stimulating innovation. These principles include deductive and inductive logic, probability, parsimony and hypothesis testing, as well as science's presuppositions, limitations, ethics and bold claims of rationality and truth. The examples and case studies drawn upon in this book span the physical, biological and social sciences; include applications in agriculture, engineering and medicine; and also explore science's interrelationships with disciplines in the humanities such as philosophy (...)
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  50.  50
    Method and Politics in Plato’s Statesman.M. S. Lane - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    Among Plato's works, the Statesman is usually seen as transitional between the Republic and the Laws. This book argues that the dialogue deserves a special place of its own. Whereas Plato is usually thought of as defending unchanging knowledge, Dr Lane demonstrates how, by placing change at the heart of political affairs, Plato reconceives the link between knowledge and authority. The statesman is shown to master the timing of affairs of state, and to use this expertise in managing the conflict (...)
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