Results for 'medical research personnel'

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  1.  58
    Assessing the Ethics of Medical Research in Emergency Settings: How Do International Regulations Work in Practice?Ritva Halila - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (3):305-313.
    Different ethical principles conflict in research conducted in emergency research. Clinical care and its development should be based on research. Patients in critical clinical condition are in the greatest need of better medicines. The critical condition of the patient and the absence of a patient representative at the critical time period make it difficult and sometimes impossible to request an informed consent before the beginning of the trial. In an emergency, care decisions must be made in a (...)
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  2.  15
    The Views of Ethics Committee Members and Medical Researchers on the Return of Individual Research Results and Incidental Findings, Ownership Issues and Benefit Sharing in Biobanking Research in a South Indian City.Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz & Srinivasan K. - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics:321-330.
    The return of individual research results and incidental findings from biobanking research is a much debated ethical issue globally but has extensive relevance in India where the burden of out of pocket health care expenses is high for the majority. The views of 21 ethics committee members and 22 researchers from Bengaluru, India, concerning the ethics of biobanking research were sought through in-depth interviews using an unfolding case vignette with probes. A shared view among most was that (...)
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  3.  1
    Risk and Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Should Military Medical Personnel Be Willing to Accept Greater Risks Than Civilian Medical Workers?Heather Draper - 2021 - In Daniel Messelken & David Winkler (eds.), Health Care in Contexts of Risk, Uncertainty, and Hybridity. Springer. pp. 201-218.
    The global public health threat posed by infectious disease is well recognised. The obligation to treat whilst exposed to risk, and its limits, is debated with each novel serious and communicable pathogen. Within national jurisdictions, different responses are forthcoming. Some, like France in 2009, give government the power to require healthcare staff to work, and even to requisition staff, including retired professionals. Others rely on notions of solidarity and professional duty, with scope for individual discretion. Our research with staff (...)
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  4. Osobni identitet u medicinskim diskursima / Personal Identity in Medical Discourses / L’identité personnelle dans les discours médicaux / Personale Identität in medizinischen Diskursen.Peter Ritter - 2012 - Synthesis Philosophica 27 (2):337-361.
    Osoba odnosno osobni identitet kao izvorno filozofski pojmovi nalaze primjenu i u medicinskim diskursima. Usto se njihova tumačenja ne izvode isključivo iz historijskog konteksta filozofijskih i teologijskih predodžbi, već poprimaju etičku dimenziju na razini ljudskog ponašanja. Njihovo osebujno značenje dosežu u interakciji između liječnika i pacijenta, interakciji koja se manifestira u tjelesno-fenomenalnoj interpretaciji personaliteta: isti se proteže od autonomije i svojevoljnosti refleksivno ustrojene svijesti do prividne disocijacije tijela i osobe u okviru pojma moždane smrti. Razumijevanje čovjeka kao osobe pritom je (...)
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  5.  45
    Ethical Implications in the Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in Poland.Tadeusz Tołłoczko - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):63-70.
    The health care system in Poland is undergoing major change and it is possible that these changes could affect clinical research. Therefore, the situation of funding of health care is important for the future of medical research in this country. Some questions relevant in this field will be addressed. Since funds for health care and scientific research remain inadequate, their allocation raises moral, economic, legal and organisational dilemmas. The clinical aspects of resource allocation also include physicians’ (...)
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  6. Military Medical Ethics for the 21st Century.Michael L. Gross & Don Carrick (eds.) - 2012 - Ashgate.
    Military Medical Ethics for the 21st Century is the first full length, broad-based treatment of this important subject. Written by an international team of practitioners and academics, this book provides interdisciplinary insights into the major issues facing military-medical decision makers and critically examines the tensions and dilemmas inherent in the military and medical professions. In this book the authors explore the practice of battlefield bioethics, medical neutrality and treatment of the wounded, enhancement technologies for war fighters, (...)
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  7.  54
    Teaching Medical Ethics to Experienced Staff: Participants, Teachers and Method.T. Nilstun - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (6):409-412.
    Almost all articles on education in medical ethics present proposals for or describe experiences of teaching students in different health professions. Since experienced staff also need such education, the purpose of this paper is to exemplify and discuss educational approaches that may be used after graduation. As an example we describe the experiences with a five-day European residential course on ethics for neonatal intensive care personnel. In this multidisciplinary course, using a case-based approach, the aim was to enhance (...)
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  8.  31
    Ethical Issues at the Interface of Clinical Care and Research Practice in Pediatric Oncology: A Narrative Review of Parents' and Physicians' Experiences.Martine C. de Vries, Mirjam Houtlosser, Jan M. Wit, Dirk P. Engberts, Dorine Bresters, Gertjan Jl Kaspers & Evert van Leeuwen - 2011 - BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):18.
    BackgroundPediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians.MethodologyAn empirical ethical approach, combining a narrative review of qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric (...)
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  9.  34
    Research Biopsies in Phase I Studies: Views and Perspectives of Participants and Investigators.R. D. Pentz, R. D. Harvey, M. White, Z. L. Farmer, O. Dashevskaya, Z. Chen, C. Lewis, T. K. Owonikoko & F. R. Khuri - 2012 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 34 (2):1-8.
    In many research studies, tumor biopsies are an unavoidable requirement for achieving key scientific aims. Yet some commentators view mandatory research biopsies as coercive and suggest they should be optional, or at least optional until further data are obtained regarding their scientific usefulness. Further complicating the ethical picture is the fact that some research biopsies offer a potential for clinical benefit to trial participants. We interviewed and surveyed a convenience sample of participants in phase I clinical trials (...)
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  10.  20
    Monitoring Clinical Research: An Obligation Unfulfilled.Charles Weijer, Stanley Shapiro, Abraham Fuks, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Myriam Skrutkowska - unknown
    The revelation that data obtained for the US-based National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) from subjects enrolled at Hôpital Saint-Luc in Montreal was falsified has eroded public trust in research. Institutions can educate researchers and help prevent unethical research practices by establishing procedures to monitor research involving human subjects. Research monitoring encompasses four categories of activity: annual reviews of continuing research, monitoring of informed consent, monitoring of adherence to approved protocols and monitoring of (...)
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  11.  50
    Ethical Challenges in Connection with the Use of Coercion: A Focus Group Study of Health Care Personnel in Mental Health Care.Marit H. Hem, Bert Molewijk & Reidar Pedersen - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):82.
    In recent years, the attention on the use of coercion in mental health care has increased. The use of coercion is common and controversial, and involves many complex ethical challenges. The research question in this study was: What kind of ethical challenges related to the use of coercion do health care practitioners face in their daily clinical work?
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  12.  16
    Researching Trust and Health.Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    There is currently a lively debate about the nature of trust and the conditions necessary to establish and sustain it. Yet, to date, there has been little systematic exploration of these issues. While social scientists are beginning to tease out the nature of trust, there are few published accounts exploring these themes through empirical work There is thus a need for empirically based research, which intelligently unravels this complexity to support all stakeholders in the health arena. This multidisciplinary volume (...)
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  13.  13
    Researchers and Subpoenas: The Troubling Precedent of the Selikoff Case.Angela R. Holder - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 11 (6):8-10.
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  14.  12
    Professionalization Theory, Medical Specialists and the Concept of “National Patterns of Specialization”.William Leeming - 2001 - Social Science Information 40 (3):455-485.
    Studies comparing particular medical specialties in different national settings have not appeared in the sociology of the profession's literature. Consequently, little is known about how local contexts actually affect the professionalization process and medical specialization. Are certain determinants of specialization active in some countries and not in others? Can some determinants be said to be always active? Two recent independent studies of medical geneticists in the UK and Canada present a unique opportunity to reflect on earlier social-theoretical (...)
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  15.  25
    Phenomenology for Therapists: Researching the Lived World.Linda Finlay - 2011 - J. Wiley.
    This book provides an accessible comprehensive exploration of phenomenological theory and research methods and is geared specifically to the needs of therapists ...
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  16.  31
    Ethics in Practice: The State of the Debate on Promoting the Social Value of Global Health Research in Resource Poor Settings Particularly Africa.Geoffrey M. Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael C. English - 2011 - BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):22.
    BackgroundPromoting the social value of global health research undertaken in resource poor settings has become a key concern in global research ethics. The consideration for benefit sharing, which concerns the elucidation of what if anything, is owed to participants, their communities and host nations that take part in such research, and the obligations of researchers involved, is one of the main strategies used for promoting social value of research. In the last decade however, there has been (...)
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  17. Ethical Challenges Experienced by Prehospital Emergency Personnel: A Practice-Based Model of Analysis.Lotte Huniche, Søren Mikkelsen, Louise Milling & Henriette Bruun - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundEthical challenges constitute an inseparable part of daily decision-making processes in all areas of healthcare. In prehospital emergency medicine, decision-making commonly takes place in everyday life, under time pressure, with limited information about a patient and with few possibilities of consultation with colleagues. This paper explores the ethical challenges experienced by prehospital emergency personnel. MethodsThe study was grounded in the tradition of action research related to interventions in health care. Ethical challenges were explored in three focus groups, each (...)
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  18.  10
    "It's for a Good Cause, Isn't It?" - Exploring Views of South African TB Research Participants on Sample Storage and Re-Use.Gerrit van Schalkwyk, Jantina de Vries & Keymanthri Moodley - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):19-.
    Background: The banking of biological samples raises a number of ethical issues in relation to the storage,export and re-use of samples. Whilst there is a growing body of literature exploringparticipant perspectives in North America and Europe, hardly any studies have been reportedin Africa. This is problematic in particular in light of the growing amount of research takingplace in Africa, and with the rise of biobanking practices also on the African continent. Inorder to investigate the perspectives of African research (...)
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  19. Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects.World Medical Association - 2009 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1):233-238.
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  20.  8
    Extending the Boundaries of Care: Medical Ethics and Caring Practices.Tamara Kohn & Rosemary McKechnie (eds.) - 1999 - Berg.
    How is the concept of patient care adapting in response to rapid changes in healthcare delivery and advances in medical technology? How are questions of ethical responsibility and social diversity shaping the definitions of healthcare? In this topical study, scholars in anthropology, nursing theory, law and ethics explore questions involving the changing relationship between patient care and medical ethics. Contributors address issues that challenge the boundaries of patient care, such as: · HIV-related care and research · the (...)
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  21.  8
    Animal Researchers Shoulder a Psychological Burden That Animal Ethics Committees Ought to Address.Mike King & Hazem Zohny - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (5):299-303.
    Animal ethics committees typically focus on the welfare of animals used in experiments, neglecting the potential welfare impact of that animal use on the animal laboratory personnel. Some of this work, particularly the killing of animals, can impose significant psychological burdens that can diminish the well-being of laboratory animal personnel, as well as their capacity to care for animals. We propose that AECs, which regulate animal research in part on the basis of reducing harm, can and ought (...)
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  22.  17
    Medizin Und Moral Ohne KontextMedicine and Morality Without Context: The Medical Anthropologist’s Critique of Bioethics.Walter Bruchhausen - 2001 - Ethik in der Medizin 13 (3):176-192.
    Definition of the problem: Referring to the current critique of bioethics from the point of view of medical anthropology in North America, implications for moral philosophy and health care ethics are questioned. Arguments: The intrinsic and extrinsic flaws of common biomedical ethics as theory-driven ethics of principles and norms are also demonstrated in the German discussion of medical ethics (by reference to ’ethos’ and ’responsibility’) and ethical theory (especially phenomenology or hermeneutics). Objections to the Western bias of Bioethics (...)
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  23.  70
    A Survey of Newly Appointed Consultants' Attitudes Towards Research Fraud.D. Geggie - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (5):344-346.
    Objective—To determine the prevalence of, and attitudes towards, observed and personal research misconduct among newly appointed medical consultants. Design—Questionnaire study.Setting—Mersey region, United Kingdom.Participants—Medical consultants appointed between Jan 1995 and Jan 2000 in seven different hospital trusts (from lists provided by each hospital's personnel department). Main outcome measures—Reported observed misconduct, reported past personal misconduct and reported possible future misconduct.Results—One hundred and ninety-four replies were received (a response rate of 63.6%); 55.7% of respondents had observed some form of (...)
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  24.  3
    Medical Research, Big Data and the Need for Privacy by Design.Jean Popma & Bart Jacobs - 2019 - Big Data and Society 6 (1).
    Medical research data is sensitive personal data that needs to be protected from unauthorized access and unintentional disclosure. In a research setting, sharing of data within the scientific community is necessary in order to make progress and maximize scientific benefits derived from valuable and costly data. At the same time, convincingly protecting the privacy of people participating in medical research is a prerequisite for maintaining trust and willingness to share. In this commentary, we will address (...)
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  25.  22
    Medical Researchers' Ancillary Care Obligations: The Relationship‐Based Approach.Nate W. Olson - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (4).
    In this article, I provide a new account of the basis of medical researchers' ancillary care obligations. Ancillary care in medical research, or medical care that research participants need but that is not required for the validity or safety of a study or to redress research injuries, is a topic that has drawn increasing attention in research ethics over the last ten years. My view, the relationship-based approach, improves on the main existing theory, (...)
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  26.  25
    Identifying Structures, Processes, Resources and Needs of Research Ethics Committees in Egypt.Hany Sleem, Samer S. El-Kamary & Henry J. Silverman - 2010 - BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):12-.
    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the adequacy of ethics review systems in developing countries. Limited data are available regarding the structural and functional status of Research Ethics Committees (RECs) in the Middle East. The purpose of this study was to survey the existing RECs in Egypt to better understand their functioning status, perceived resource needs, and challenges. Methods: We distributed a self-administered survey tool to Egyptian RECs to collect information on the following domains: general characteristics of the REC, (...)
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  27.  26
    How Reproductive and Regenerative Medicine Meet in a Chinese Fertility Clinic. Interviews with Women About the Donation of Embryos to Stem Cell Research.Anika Mitzkat, Erica Haimes & Christoph Rehmann-Sutter - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):754-757.
    The social interface between reproductive medicine and embryonic stem cell research has been investigated in a pilot study at a large IVF clinic in central China. Methods included observation, interviews with hospital personnel, and five in-depth qualitative interviews with women who underwent IVF and who were asked for their consent to the donation of embryos for use in medical (in fact human embryonic stem cell) research. This paper reports, and discusses from an ethical perspective, the results (...)
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  28.  2
    Lessons Learned From the Last Gift Study: Ethical and Practical Challenges Faced While Conducting HIV Cure-Related Research at the End of Life.John Kanazawa, Stephen A. Rawlings, Steven Hendrickx, Sara Gianella, Susanna Concha-Garcia, Jeff Taylor, Andy Kaytes, Hursch Patel, Samuel Ndukwe, Susan J. Little, Davey Smith & Karine Dubé - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2021-107512.
    The Last Gift is an observational HIV cure-related research study conducted with people with HIV at the end of life at the University of California San Diego. Participants agree to voluntarily donate blood and other biospecimens while living and their bodies for a rapid research autopsy postmortem to better understand HIV reservoir dynamics throughout the entire body. The Last Gift study was initiated in 2017. Since then, 30 volunteers were enrolled who are either terminally ill with a concomitant (...)
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  29.  36
    Skulls, Science, and the Spoils of War: Craniological Studies at the United States Army Medical Museum, 1868–1900.Elise Juzda - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 40 (3):156-167.
    Beginning in 1868, the United States Army Medical Museum issued a request to Army medical personnel situated in ‘Indian country’ for specimens of skulls from Native Americans. The purpose of this collection was to promote the study of craniometry, a branch of racial science commonly used to delineate the different varieties of mankind and to rank them according to their perceived intellectual attributes. Yet, as this paper argues, the efforts of Army surgeons in amassing hundreds of crania (...)
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  30. Disclosure and Consent to Medical Research Participation.Danielle Bromwich & Joseph Millum - 2013 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 10 (4):195-219.
    Most regulations and guidelines require that potential research participants be told a great deal of information during the consent process. Many of these documents, and most of the scholars who consider the consent process, assume that all this information must be disclosed because it must all be understood. However, a wide range of studies surveying apparently competent participants in clinical trials around the world show that many do not understand key aspects of what they have been told. The standard (...)
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  31. The Views of Members of Local Research Ethics Committees, Researchers and Members of the Public Towards the Roles and Functions of LRECs.G. Kent - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):186-190.
    BACKGROUND: It can be argued that the ethical conduct of research involves achieving a balance between the rights and needs of three parties-potential research participants, society, and researchers. Local Research Ethics Committees (LRECs) have a number of roles and functions in the research enterprise, but there have been some indications that LREC members, researchers and the public can have different views about these responsibilities. Any such differences are potential sources of disagreement and misunderstanding. OBJECTIVES: To compare (...)
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  32.  13
    Medical Research, Risk, and Bystanders.Jonathan Kimmelman - 2005 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 27 (4):1.
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  33. How Do Medical Researchers Make Causal Inferences?Olaf Dammann, Ted Poston & Paul Thagard - 2020 - In Kevin McCain & Kostas Kampourakis (eds.), What is scientific knowledge? An introduction to contemporary epistemology of science. London, UK: Routledge.
    Bradford Hill (1965) highlighted nine aspects of the complex evidential situation a medical researcher faces when determining whether a causal relation exists between a disease and various conditions associated with it. These aspects are widely cited in the literature on epidemiological inference as justifying an inference to a causal claim, but the epistemological basis of the Hill aspects is not understood. We offer an explanatory coherentist interpretation, explicated by Thagard's ECHO model of explanatory coherence. The ECHO model captures the (...)
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  34.  22
    Good Medical Research — the View of the CDBI/Council of Europe.Elmar Doppelfeld - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):283-286.
    Medical research aims to achieve a better scientific understanding of health and disease. It is firstly undertaken for the improvement of medical care in general, not excluding a potential direct benefit for participants undergoing such research. There is a traditional conflict between the fundamental rights and the dignity of those participating individuals and the interests of science, researchers and even the society. The Convention of Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe is a new (...)
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  35.  90
    Politics, Method, and Medical Research.James Robert Brown - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):756-766.
    There is sufficient evidence that intellectual property rights are corrupting medical research. One could respond to this from a moral or from an epistemic point of view. I take the latter route. Often in the sciences factual discoveries lead to new methodological norms. Medical research is an example. Surprisingly, the methodological change required will involve political change. Instead of new regulations aimed at controlling the problem, the outright socialization of research seems called for, for the (...)
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  36.  72
    Children in Medical Research:Access Versus Protection: Access Versus Protection.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Lainie Ross presents a rigorous critical investigation of the development of policy governing the involvement of children in medical research. She examines the shift in focus from protection of medical research subjects, enshrined in post-World War II legislation, to the current era in which access is assuming greater precedence. Infamous studies such as Willowbrook are evidence that before the policy shift protection was not always adequate, even for the most vulnerable groups. Additional safeguards for children were (...)
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  37.  5
    Medical Research with Children: Ethics, Law and Practice.G. Clayden - 1986 - Journal of Medical Ethics 12 (3):156-157.
  38. Medical Research on Trial: A Reply to Steiner.Colin Parker - 2005 - Research Ethics 1 (3):101-104.
    We consider a particular attempt to justify medical research and the practice of medicine as moral imperatives; in doing this we are led into a comparison of consequential and deontological justifications of intention and action. We conclude that the justification of research and medicine is consequential.
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  39.  2
    Fraud and Misconduct in Medical Research.Stephen Lock & Frank O. Wells (eds.) - 1993 - Bmj.
    A review of fraud in medical research in Britain, Europe, the USA and Australia. It includes a history of known cases of fraud since 1974 and discusses ways for detecting and dealing with fraud that have been devised by government agencies, pharmaceutical companies, academic institutions and scientific publications (especially medical journals).
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  40.  15
    Medical Research and Media Circuses.Anne Lederman Flamm - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (1):3-3.
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  41.  21
    The Medical Research Council’s Approach to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct.Imogen Evans - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):91-94.
    The UK’s Medical Research Council (MRC) introduced a specific policy and procedure for inquiring into allegations of scientific misconduct in December 1997; previously cases had been considered under normal disciplinary procedures. The policy formally covers staff employed in MRC units, but those in receipt of MRC grants in universities and elsewhere are expected to operate under similar policies. The MRC’s approach is stepwise: preliminary action; assessment to establish prima facie evidence of misconduct; formal investigation; sanctions; and appeal. Strict (...)
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  42. Ethics in Medical Research: A Handbook of Good Practice.Trevor Smith - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a comprehensive and practical guide to the ethical issues raised by different kinds of medical research, and is the first such book to be written with the needs of the researcher in mind. Clearly structured and written in a plain and accessible style, the book covers every significant ethical issue likely to be faced by researchers and research ethics committees. The author outlines and clarifies official guidelines, gives practical advice on how to adhere to these, (...)
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  43. Is Medical Research Cost Effective?: Response to Murphy and Topel.Mark Siegler, Alix Weisfeld & David Cronin - 2003 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (3x):S129-S137.
  44.  16
    Disclosure and Consent to Medical Research Participation.Danielle Bromwich & Joseph Millum - 2015 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (2):195-219.
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  45.  4
    Disclosure and Consent to Medical Research Participation.Danielle Bromwich & Joseph Millum - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (4).
    Most regulations and guidelines require that potential research participants be told a great deal of information during the consent process. Many of these documents, and most of the scholars who consider the consent process, assume that all this information must be disclosed because it must all be understood. However, a wide range of studies surveying apparently competent participants in clinical trials around the world show that many do not understand key aspects of what they have been told. The standard (...)
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  46.  27
    Compensation for Subjects of Medical Research: The Moral Rights of Patients and the Power of Research Ethics Committees.S. Guest - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):181-185.
    Awareness of the morally significant distinction between research and innovative therapy reveals serious gaps in the legal provision for compensation in the UK for injured subjects of medical research. Major problems are limitations inherent in negligence actions and a culture that emphasises indemnifying researchers before compensating victims. Medical research morally requires compensation on a no-fault basis even where there is proper consent on the part of the research subject. In particular, for drug research, (...)
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  47. Medical Research with College Athletes: Some Ethical Issues.Dena S. Davis - 1998 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 20 (4):10.
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  48.  14
    Regulation and the Social Licence for Medical Research.Mary Dixon-Woods & Richard E. Ashcroft - 2008 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (4):381-391.
    Regulation and governance of medical research is frequently criticised by researchers. In this paper, we draw on Everett Hughes’ concepts of professional licence and professional mandate, and on contemporary sociological theory on risk regulation, to explain the emergence of research governance and the kinds of criticism it receives. We offer explanations for researcher criticism of the rules and practices of research governance, suggesting that these are perceived as interference in their mandate. We argue that, in spite (...)
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  49. Medical Research and the Individual.Henry K. Beecher - 1968 - In Edward Shils (ed.), Life or Death: Ethics and Options. Portland, Or., Reed College. pp. 133.
     
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  50.  46
    Universal Compulsory Service in Medical Research.C. D. Herrera - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):215-231.
    Despite the prominence of healthcare-relatedconcerns in public debate, the ground remainsinfertile for the idea of conscripting citizensinto medical research. Reluctance to entertainthe thought of a system where nearly everyonecould be selected for service might reflectuncertainty about what the project wouldinvolve. There might also be a fear that themore crucial issue is how to protect researchsubjects within current, voluntary systems. Nodoubt reluctance to explore a system ofuniversal service results from the common hopethat each of us might avoid research (...)
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