Results for 'meaningful information'

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  1.  54
    The Biological Nature of Meaningful Information.Anthony Reading - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (3):243-249.
    One of the major impediments to understanding the concept of information is that the term is used to describe a number of disparate things, including a property of organized matter and messages sent from a sender to a receiver. Information is essentially an attribute of the form that matter and energy take, not of matter and energy themselves. Intrinsic information is a theoretical measure of the degree to which an entity is organized, the opposite of entropy. (...) information, however, involves the detection of a pattern of organized matter or energy by an animate or a man-made receptor, which triggers a change in the behavior, function, or organizational structure of the receiving entity. The ability to detect and respond to meaningful information is one of the defining characteristics of living entities; the process that enables cells and organisms to receive their genetic heritage, regulate their internal milieu, and respond to changes in their environment. Although energy and information are the two fundamental causal agents in the natural world, they bring about change through completely different mechanisms. The energy involved in physical interactions is supplied by the originating entity, while the energy involved in informational interactions is provided by the recipient. There is no predictable relationship between the nature of the informational stimulus and the response it engenders, for this is primarily determined by the pattern of connections between the involved receptors and effectors that evolution and learning have fashioned. As a result, a living entity’s response to information cannot be predicted on a purely mechanical basis. The laws that describe the physical interaction of organized matter apply to the transfer of energy, not to the transfer of information. This is why biology cannot be reduced to physics. (shrink)
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  2. On the Emergence of Meaningful Information and Computing in Biology.W. Riofrío - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 9 (2):244-245.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Info-computational Constructivism and Cognition” by Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. Upshot: Info-computational constructivism calls attention to some of the open questions about the origins of information and computation in the living realm. It remains unclear whether both were developed and shaped by evolution by natural selection or if they appeared in living systems independently of it. If the former, it is possible to sketch a scenario with a certain degree of reasonableness and postulate some of the (...)
     
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  3.  8
    Beyond data transactions: a framework for meaningfully informed data donation.Alejandra Gomez Ortega, Jacky Bourgeois, Wiebke Toussaint Hutiri & Gerd Kortuem - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-18.
    As we navigate physical (e.g., supermarket) and digital (e.g., social media) systems, we generate personal data about our behavior. Researchers and designers increasingly rely on this data and appeal to several approaches to collect it. One of these is data donation, which encourages people to voluntarily transfer their (personal) data collected by external parties to a specific cause. One of the central pillars of data donation is informed consent, meaning people should be _adequately informed_ about what and how their data (...)
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  4.  17
    Beyond Noise: Using Temporal ICA to Extract Meaningful Information from High-Frequency fMRI Signal Fluctuations during Rest.Roland N. Boubela, Klaudius Kalcher, Wolfgang Huf, Claudia Kronnerwetter, Peter Filzmoser & Ewald Moser - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  5.  18
    In the Eyes of the Beholder: Anthony Reading: Meaningful Information—The Bridge Between Biology, Brain and Behavior—Springer Science + Business Media, New York, 2011, 158pp, $49.95 pbk, $39.99 ebook, ISBN 978-1-4614-0158-2.Koichiro Matsuno - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (3):275-277.
  6.  5
    In the Eyes of the Beholder: Anthony Reading: Meaningful Information—The Bridge Between Biology, Brain and Behavior—Springer Science + Business Media, New York, 2011, 158pp, $49.95 pbk, $39.99 ebook, ISBN 978-1-4614-0158-2. [REVIEW]Koichiro Matsuno - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (3):275-277.
  7. Is semantic information meaningful data?Luciano Floridi - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (2):351-370.
    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske‐Grice approach: meaningful and well‐formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect (...)
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  8.  34
    Make Information in Science Meaningful Again.Javier Anta - 2021 - Logos and Episteme (3):263-286.
    Although the everyday notion of information has clear semantic properties, the all-pervasive technical concept of Shannon information is usually considered as a non-semantic concept. In this paper I show how this concept was implicitly ‘semantized’ in the early 1950s by many authors, such as Rothstein or Brillouin, in order to explain the knowledge dynamics underlying certain scientific practices such as measurement. On the other hand, I argue that the main attempts in the literature to develop a quantitative measure (...)
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  9.  5
    Making Informed Consent Meaningful.Baruch A. Brody - 2001 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 23 (5):1.
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  10.  12
    Meaningful Use and Certification of Health Information Technology: What about Safety?Sharona Hoffman & Andy Podgurski - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (s1):77-80.
    Health information technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in medical offices and facilities. Like President George W. Bush before him, President Obama announced a plan to computerize all Americans’ medical records by 2014. Computerization is certain to transform American health care, but to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks, the federal government must provide appropriate oversight.President Obama’s stimulus legislation, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, dedicated $27 billion to the promotion of health information technology. It provides (...)
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  11.  6
    Meaningful Use and Certification of Health Information Technology: What about Safety?Sharona Hoffman & Andy Podgurski - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (s1):77-80.
    Health information technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in medical offices and facilities. Like President George W. Bush before him, President Obama announced a plan to computerize all Americans’ medical records by 2014. Computerization is certain to transform American health care, but to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks, the federal government must provide appropriate oversight.President Obama’s stimulus legislation, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, dedicated $27 billion to the promotion of health information technology. It provides (...)
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  12.  18
    Meaningful texts: the extraction of semantic information from monolingual and multilingual corpora.Geoff Barnbrook, Pernilla Danielsson & Michaela Mahlberg (eds.) - 2005 - New York: Continuum.
    This book reflects the growing influence of corpus linguistics in a variety of areas such as lexicography, translation studies, genre analysis, and language ...
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  13.  17
    The propensity to perceive meaningful coincidences is associated with increased posterior alpha power during retention of information in a modified Sternberg paradigm.Christian Rominger, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M. Weiss, Günter Schulter, Corinna M. Perchtold & Ilona Papousek - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 76:102832.
  14.  7
    Ethics, Meaningfulness, and Mutuality.Ruth Yeoman - 2019 - London: Routledge.
    There is an urgent need to understand how private and public organisations can play a role in promoting human values such as fairness, dignity, respect and care. Globalisation, technological advance and climate change are changing work, organisations and systems in ways which foster inequality, alienation and collective risk. Against this backdrop, organisations are being urged to make their contribution to the common good, take account of the interests of multiple stakeholders, and respond ethically as well as efficiently to complex challenges (...)
  15.  3
    Educating Girls: Complexities of Informing Meaningful Social Change.Karen Monkman - 2018 - Studies in Social Justice 12 (2):195-214.
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  16. Practical and Philosophical Considerations for Defining Information as Well-formed, Meaningful Data in the Information Sciences.Jesse David Dinneen & Christian Brauner - 2015 - Library Trends 63 (3):378-400.
    This paper demonstrates the practical and philosophical strengths of adopting Luciano Floridi’s “general definition of information” (GDI) for use in the information sciences (IS). Many definitions of information have been proposed, but little work has been done to determine which definitions are most coherent or useful. Consequently, doubts have been cast on the necessity and possibility of finding a definition. In response to these doubts, the paper shows how items and events central to IS are adequately described (...)
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  17.  57
    Meaningful human control as reason-responsiveness: the case of dual-mode vehicles.Giulio Mecacci & Filippo Santoni de Sio - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):103-115.
    In this paper, in line with the general framework of value-sensitive design, we aim to operationalize the general concept of “Meaningful Human Control” in order to pave the way for its translation into more specific design requirements. In particular, we focus on the operationalization of the first of the two conditions investigated: the so-called ‘tracking’ condition. Our investigation is led in relation to one specific subcase of automated system: dual-mode driving systems. First, we connect and compare meaningful human (...)
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  18.  2
    Book Review: Meaningful Texts: The Extraction of Semantic Information from Monolingual and Multilingual Corpora. [REVIEW]Laurel Smith Stvan - 2006 - Discourse Studies 8 (2):330-331.
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  19.  64
    Meaningfulness as Sensefulness.Joshua Lewis Thomas - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (5):1555-1577.
    It is only in the last few decades that analytic philosophers in particular have begun to pay any serious attention to the topic of life’s meaning. Such philosophers, however, do not usually attempt to answer or analyse the traditional question ‘What is the meaning of life?’, but rather the subtly different question ‘What makes a life meaningful?’ and it is generally assumed that the latter can be discussed independently of the former. Nevertheless, this paper will argue that the two (...)
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  20.  80
    Meaningful electronic signatures based on an automatic indexing method.Maxime Wack, Ahmed Nait-Sidi-Moh, Sid Lamrous & Nathanael Cottin - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (3):161-175.
    Legal information certification and secured storage combined with documents electronic signature are of great interest when digital documents security and conservation are in concern. Therefore, these new and evolving technologies offer powerful abilities, such as identification, authentication and certification. The latter contribute to increase the global security of legal digital archives conservation and access. However, currently used cryptographic and hash coding concepts cannot intrinsically enclose cognitive information about both the signer and the signed content. Indeed, an evolution of (...)
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  21.  12
    Age, familiarity, imagery, pronunciability,and meaningfulness of verbal units of factual information.Donald F. Pratt & Albert E. Goss - 1977 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9 (5):325-328.
  22.  52
    The hfea public consultation process on hybrids and chimeras: Informed, effective, and meaningful?Françoise Baylis - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (1):pp. 41-62.
    In September 2007, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) in the United Kingdom concluded that "there is no fundamental reason to prevent cytoplasmic hybrid research . . . this area of research can, with caution and careful scrutiny, be permitted." Later, in January 2008, HFEA issued two research licenses to create humanesque cytoplasmic hybrid embryos from which stem cells could be derived. This article critically examines the public consultation process that preceded these decisions, concluding that the process was flawed (...)
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  23. Personhood and a Meaningful Life in African Philosophy.Motsamai Molefe - 2020 - South African Journal of Philosophy 39 (2): 194-207.
    This article proffers a personhood-based conception of a meaningful life. I look into the ethical structure of the salient idea of personhood in African philosophy to develop an account of a meaningful life. In my view, the ethics of personhood is constituted by three components, namely (1) the fact of being human, which informs (2) a view of moral status qua the capacity for moral virtue, and (3) which specifies the final good of achieving or developing a morally (...)
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  24.  16
    Robotizing meaningful work.Tuuli Turja, Jaana Minkkinen & Saija Mauno - 2022 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 20 (2):177-192.
    PurposeRobots have a history of replacing human labor in undesirable, dirty, dull and dangerous tasks. With robots now emerging in academic and human-centered work, this paper aims to investigate psychological implications of robotizing desirable and socially rewarding work.Design/methodology/approachTesting the holistic stress model, this study examines educational professionals’ stress responses as mediators between robotization expectations and future optimism in life. The study uses survey data on 2,434 education professionals.FindingsRespondents entertaining robotization expectations perceived their work to be less meaningful and reported (...)
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  25.  6
    Meaningful Relationships in Community and Clinical Samples: Their Importance for Mental Health.Victoria J. Block, Elisa Haller, Jeanette Villanueva, Andrea Meyer, Charles Benoy, Marc Walter, Undine E. Lang & Andrew T. Gloster - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Meaningful relationships are centrally important for human functioning. It remains unclear, however, which aspects of meaningful relationships impact wellbeing the most and whether these differ between psychiatric patients and members of the community. Information about relationship attributes and functions were collected in community members and psychiatric patients. Relationship attributes and functions were examined for differences between groups, their impact on wellbeing and symptoms, and the size of network. Community members reported fewer relationships, higher frequency of contact and (...)
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  26.  54
    Informed Consent in Implantable BCI Research: Identifying Risks and Exploring Meaning.Eran Klein - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1299-1317.
    Implantable brain–computer interface technology is an expanding area of engineering research now moving into clinical application. Ensuring meaningful informed consent in implantable BCI research is an ethical imperative. The emerging and rapidly evolving nature of implantable BCI research makes identification of risks, a critical component of informed consent, a challenge. In this paper, 6 core risk domains relevant to implantable BCI research are identified—short and long term safety, cognitive and communicative impairment, inappropriate expectations, involuntariness, affective impairment, and privacy and (...)
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  27.  6
    Meaningful Learning Experiences in Everyday Life During Pandemics. A Qualitative Study.Irene González-Ceballos, Montserrat Palma, Josep Maria Serra & Moisès Esteban-Guitart - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed the lives of people all over the world. In particular, an unprecedented educational crisis has occurred due to the circumstances of physical distancing and remote learning. This article focuses specifically on the meaningful learning experiences in the everyday lives of adolescents during the pandemic. 72 meaningful learning experiences were identified from 11 participants who recorded their specific learning experiences for a week by a means of a journal recorded by themselves. A content (...)
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  28.  6
    Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records for Quality Assessment and Review of Clinical Ethics Consultation.Nancy Neveloff Dubler, Joseph J. Fins, William Sakolsky, Kelly McBride Folkers & Susan Sanelli-Russo - 2018 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 29 (1):52-61.
    Evolving practice requires peer review of clinical ethics (CE) consultation for quality assessment and improvement. Many institutions have identified the chart note as the basis for this process, but to our knowledge, electronic health record (EHR) systems are not necessarily designed to easily include CE consultation notes. This article provides a framework for the inclusion of CE consultation notes into the formal EHR, describing a developed system in the Epic EHR that allows for the elaborated electronic notation of the CE (...)
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  29.  13
    Civic Meaningfulness.Erik Claes - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (2):347-372.
    This paper starts from qualitative research on volunteering and citizenship, with a special focus on volunteering within a setting of restorative justice and mediation. In a first stage, the author reconstructs two models of meaningfulness as hermeneutical lenses to better understand how volunteers see their engagement and experiences as a source of meaningfulness. The paper argues that a biographical model of meaningfulness is in need of a complementary approach to meaningfulness, which focuses on transformational experiences with a strong existential depth. (...)
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  30.  11
    Historical meaningfulness in shared action.Steven G. Smith - 2009 - History and Theory 48 (1):1-19.
    Why should past occurrences matter to us as such? Are they in fact meaningful in a specifically historical way, or do they only become meaningful in being connected to other sorts of meaning—political or speculative, for example—as many notable theorists imply? Ranke and Oakeshott affirmed a purely historical meaningfulness but left its nature unclear. The purpose of this essay is to confirm historical meaningfulness by arguing that our commanding practical interest in how we share action with other actors (...)
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  31. Reasons for Meaningful Human Control.Herman Veluwenkamp - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (4):1-9.
    Meaningful human control” is a term invented in the political and legal debate on autonomous weapons system, but it is nowadays also used in many other contexts. It is supposed to specify conditions under which an artificial system is under the right kind of control to avoid responsibility gaps: that is, situations in which no moral agent is responsible. Santoni de Sio and Van den Hoven have recently suggested a framework that can be used by system designers to operationalize (...)
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  32.  15
    Information and mechanical models of intelligence: What can we learn from cognitive science?Maria Eunice Quilici Gonzalez - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (3):565-582.
    The impact of new advanced technology on issues that concern meaningful information and its relation to studies of intelligence constitutes the main topic of the present paper. The advantages, disadvantages and implications of the synthetic methodology developed by cognitive scientists, according to which mechanical models of the mind, such as computer simulations or self-organizing robots, may provide good explanatory tools to investigate cognition, are discussed. A difficulty with this methodology is pointed out, namely the use of meaningless (...) to explain intelligent behavior that incorporates meaningful information. In this context, it is inquired what are the contributions of cognitive science to contemporary studies of intelligent behavior and how technology may play a role in the analysis of the relationships established by organisms in their natural and social environments. (shrink)
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  33.  4
    Meaningful Access for Students: A Petersian Account of Educational Inclusion.Christopher Martin - 2018 - In Ann Chinnery, Nuraan Davids, Naomi Hodgson, Kai Horsthemke, Viktor Johansson, Dirk Willem Postma, Claudia W. Ruitenberg, Paul Smeyers, Christiane Thompson, Joris Vlieghe, Hanan Alexander, Joop Berding, Charles Bingham, Michael Bonnett, David Bridges, Malte Brinkmann, Brian A. Brown, Carsten Bünger, Nicholas C. Burbules, Rita Casale, M. Victoria Costa, Brian Coyne, Renato Huarte Cuéllar, Stefaan E. Cuypers, Johan Dahlbeck, Suzanne de Castell, Doret de Ruyter, Samantha Deane, Sarah J. DesRoches, Eduardo Duarte, Denise Egéa, Penny Enslin, Oren Ergas, Lynn Fendler, Sheron Fraser-Burgess, Norm Friesen, Amanda Fulford, Heather Greenhalgh-Spencer, Stefan Herbrechter, Chris Higgins, Pádraig Hogan, Katariina Holma, Liz Jackson, Ronald B. Jacobson, Jennifer Jenson, Kerstin Jergus, Clarence W. Joldersma, Mark E. Jonas, Zdenko Kodelja, Wendy Kohli, Anna Kouppanou, Heikki A. Kovalainen, Lesley Le Grange, David Lewin, Tyson E. Lewis, Gerard Lum, Niclas Månsson, Christopher Martin & Jan Masschelein (eds.), International Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Springer Verlag. pp. 337-347.
    Educational inclusion remains an area of controversy. While there is a strong moral consensus that children ought to experience a meaningful education irrespective of their ability, the application of this inclusive moral commitment to substantive questions of educational policy and teacher practice remains contentious. In this chapter I argue that the debate over educational inclusion is informed by two rival concepts of education and that the analysis of education foregrounded by the philosopher R.S. Peters can be applied in order (...)
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  34. Meaningful life guidelines for college kids of the digital generation.Natalya Dyadyk - 2022 - Sotsium I Vlast 4:26-35.
    The article discusses the results of studying the value sphere of the digital generation. The author sets herself the goal of studying the meaningful life guidelines of the digital generation representatives. The author uses the results of students’ surveys of two Chelyabinsk universities for the humanities as a basis for the research. The author uses general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, empirical methods of observation and questioning. As a result of analyzing the survey data and understanding the activity (...)
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  35.  31
    Meaning = Information + Evolution.Carlo Rovelli - unknown
    Notions like meaning, signal, intentionality, are difficult to relate to a physical word. I study a purely physical definition of "meaningful information", from which these notions can be derived. It is inspired by a model recently illustrated by Kolchinsky and Wolpert, and improves on Dretske classic work on the relation between knowledge and information. I discuss what makes a physical process into a signal.
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  36.  57
    Information and structure in molecular biology: Comments on Maynard Smith.John A. Winnie - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):517-526.
    In a recent essay in this journal, John Maynard Smith argues that the often expressed idea that the genome is the repository of meaningful information is not merely a heuristically useful metaphor. Instead, he contends, it is a central idea in contemporary microbiology. While I am in general agreement with Maynard Smith on this issue, his account suffers, I believe, from using an inappropriate concept of ‘information.’ One result of this is that the concept of genomic (...) becomes burdened by a conceptual load that the biological facts cannot support. When, however, the appropriate concept of information is used, then these burdens are shed, and the result is an account that is in substantial agreement with the heart of Maynard Smith's thesis. (shrink)
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  37.  11
    Information and mechanical models of intelligence: What can we learn from cognitive science?Maria Eunice Quilici Gonzalez - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (3):565-582.
    The impact of new advanced technology on issues that concern meaningful information and its relation to studies of intelligence constitutes the main topic of the present paper. The advantages, disadvantages and implications of the synthetic methodology developed by cognitive scientists, according to which mechanical models of the mind, such as computer simulations or self-organizing robots, may provide good explanatory tools to investigate cognition, are discussed. A difficulty with this methodology is pointed out, namely the use of meaningless (...) to explain intelligent behavior that incorporates meaningful information. In this context, it is inquired what are the contributions of cognitive science to contemporary studies of intelligent behavior and how technology may play a role in the analysis of the relationships established by organisms in their natural and social environments. (shrink)
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  38.  47
    Ritual: Meaningful or meaningless?Robert Turner - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):633-633.
    In conflating opposing meanings of the term “ritual,” arising from historical Western cultural conflicts regarding church and state, this target article begs fundamental questions. Its appeals to cognitive science concepts such as “working memory” are poorly informed and obfuscate what could have been a far more penetrating and less biased discussion of stereotyped human action. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  39.  4
    Information and mechanical models of intelligence: What can we learn from cognitive science?Quilici Gonzalez & Maria Eunice - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (2):565-582.
    The impact of new advanced technology on issues that concern meaningful information and its relation to studies of intelligence constitutes the main topic of the present paper. The advantages, disadvantages and implications of the synthetic methodology developed by cognitive scientists, according to which mechanical models of the mind, such as computer simulations or self-organizing robots, may provide good explanatory tools to investigate cognition, are discussed. A difficulty with this methodology is pointed out, namely the use of meaningless (...) to explain intelligent behavior that incorporates meaningful information. In this context, it is inquired what are the contributions of cognitive science to contemporary studies of intelligent behavior and how technology may play a role in the analysis of the relationships established by organisms in their natural and social environments. (shrink)
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  40. Information: Does it Have To Be True?James H. Fetzer - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (2):223-229.
    Luciano Floridi (2003) offers a theory of information as a “strongly semantic” notion, according to which information encapsulates truth, thereby making truth a necessary condition for a sentence to qualify as “information”. While Floridi provides an impressive development of this position, the aspects of his approach of greatest philosophical significance are its foundations rather than its formalization. He rejects the conception of information as meaningful data, which entails at least three theses – that information (...)
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  41.  50
    Obtaining informed consent for genomics research in Africa: analysis of H3Africa consent documents.Nchangwi Syntia Munung, Patricia Marshall, Megan Campbell, Katherine Littler, Francis Masiye, Odile Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, Janet Seeley, D. J. Stein, Paulina Tindana & Jantina de Vries - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):132-137.
    Background The rise in genomic and biobanking research worldwide has led to the development of different informed consent models for use in such research. This study analyses consent documents used by investigators in the H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) Consortium. Methods A qualitative method for text analysis was used to analyse consent documents used in the collection of samples and data in H3Africa projects. Thematic domains included type of consent model, explanations of genetics/genomics, data sharing and feedback of (...)
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  42.  51
    Information and Meaning: Use-Based Models in Arrays of Neural Nets.Patrick Grim, Paul St Denis & Trina Kokalis - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):43-66.
    The goal of philosophy of information is to understand what information is, how it operates, and how to put it to work. But unlike ‘information’ in the technical sense of information theory, what we are interested in is meaningful information. To understand the nature and dynamics of information in this sense we have to understand meaning. What we offer here are simple computational models that show emergence of meaning and information transfer in (...)
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  43.  8
    What's So Meaningful about Meaningful Use?Kyle L. Galbraith - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (2):15-17.
    The 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act aims to promote the use of electronic health records by providing over $27 billion in financial incentives for eligible health care providers who become “meaningful users” of them. The goal of increased “meaningful” electronic health record adoption is to create a more efficient, patient‐centered health care system by lowering providers’ administrative costs, improving coordination of care among multiple providers, and increasing patients’ participation in and responsibility (...)
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  44.  24
    Informed Consent, Body Property, and Self-Sovereignty.Radhika Rao - 2016 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 44 (3):437-444.
    Recent cases involving biosamples taken from indigenous tribes and newborn babies reveal the emptiness of informed consent. This venerable doctrine often functions as a charade, a collective fiction which thinly masks the uncomfortable fact that the subjects of human research are not actually afforded full information regarding the types of research that may be contemplated, nor do they provide meaningful consent. But if informed consent fails to provide adequate protection to the donors of biological materials, why not turn (...)
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  45.  42
    Is Information All We Need to Protect?David Meeler - 2008 - The Monist 91 (1):151-169.
    I will argue for a straightforward claim: privacy is best understood as protecting information about us from being known by others. To those unfamiliar with recent scholarship regarding privacy, this claim may seem self-evident, too trivial to deserve defense. At the same time, scholars of privacy may find the claim too narrow or outdated to enjoy sustained defense. This situation makes the view an interesting one, I think. My goal is to develop a conception of privacy that is concise (...)
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  46.  47
    Information Dynamics.Amos Golan - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (1):19-36.
    Though we have access to a wealth of information, the main issue is always how to process the available information. How to make sense of all we observe and know. Just like the English alphabet: we know there are 26 letters but unless we put these letters together in a meaningful way, they convey no information. There are infinitely many ways of putting these letters together. Only a small number of those make sense. Only some of (...)
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  47.  9
    Who has a meaningful life? A care ethics analysis of selective trait abortion.Riley Clare Valentine - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-12.
    Trait Selective Abortions (TSA) have come under critique as a medical practice that presents potential disabled infants as burdens and lacking the potential for meaningful lives. This paper, using the author’s background as a disabled person, contends that the philosophy underpinning TSAs reflects liberal society’s lack of a theory of needs. The author argues for a care ethics based approach informed by disability analyses to engage with TSAs.
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  48. Information.John Collier - unknown
    Information is commonly understood as knowledge or facts acquired or derived from, e.g., study, instruction or observation (Macmillan Contemporary Dictionary, 1979). On this notion, information is presumed to be both meaningful and veridical, and to have some appropriate connection to its object; it is concerned with representations and symbols in the most general sense MacKay 1969 ). Information might be misleading, but it can never be false. Deliberately misleading data is misinformation. The scientific notion of (...) abstracts from the representational idea, and includes anything that could potentially serve as a source of information. The most fundamental notion of information, attributed to a number of different authors, is "a distinction that makes a difference" MacKay 1969 ), or "a differnece that makes a difference" Bateson 1973 : 428). Information theory, then, is fundamentally the rigorous study of distinctions and their relations, inasmuch as they make a difference. (shrink)
     
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  49.  11
    How do we understand “meaningful use” of the internet? Of divides, skills and socio-technical awareness.Laura Hosman & Martin Andrés Pérez Comisso - 2020 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 18 (3):461-479.
    PurposeInformation and communications technologies (ICTs) have transformed the lives of many people around the world, yet billions remain unconnected. While many initiatives attempt to “connect the unconnected,” initiatives focused on access and skills-development alone will still fall short. Based on the authors’ experience with the SolarSPELL initiative, this study aims to propose using the concept of socio-technical awareness as a step forward in conceptualizing a more accurate picture of capabilities necessary to enable people to make meaningful use of the (...)
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  50. Information: Does it have to be true? [REVIEW]James H. Fetzer - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (2):223-229.
    Luciano Floridi (2003) offers a theory of information as a strongly semantic notion, according to which information encapsulates truth, thereby making truth a necessary condition for a sentence to qualify as information. While Floridi provides an impressive development of this position, the aspects of his approach of greatest philosophical significance are its foundations rather than its formalization. He rejects the conception of information as meaningful data, which entails at least three theses – that information (...)
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