Results for 'interest'

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  1. Interests and the Growth of Knowledge.Barry Barnes - 1977 - Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    THE PROBLEM OP KNOWLEDGE l CONCEPTIONS OF KNOWLEDGE An immediate difficulty which faces any discussion of the present kind is that there are so many ...
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  2.  42
    Best Interest: A Philosophical Critique. [REVIEW]Søren Holm & Andrew Edgar - 2008 - Health Care Analysis 16 (3):197-207.
    On one conception of "best interest" there can only be one course of action in a given situation that is in a person's best interest. In this paper we will first consider what theories of "best interest" and rational decision-making that can lead to this conclusion and explore some of the less commonly appreciated implications of these theories. We will then move on to consider what ethical theories that are compatible with such a view and explore their (...)
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  3.  5
    Posthumous Interests: Legal and Ethical Perspectives.Daniel Sperling - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Daniel Sperling discusses the legal status of posthumous interests and their possible defeat by actions performed following the death of a person. The author first explores the following questions: Do the dead have interests and/or rights, the defeat of which may constitute harm? What does posthumous harm consist of and when does it occur, if at all? This is followed by a more detailed analysis of three categories of posthumous interests arising in the medico-legal context: the proprietary interest in (...)
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  4.  6
    Address, Interests, and Directed Duties.Simon Căbulea May - 2022 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 39 (2):194-201.
    Rowan Cruft offers an addressive account of directed duties and claim-rights. He claims that the direction of a duty is constituted by two requirements of address between the parties: the right holder must conceive of the action as `to be done to me’ and the duty bearer must conceive of it as to be ‘done to you’. Cruft also argues against accounts of direction and claim-rights that reduce the relation between the parties to nonrelational facts. One such reductive account is (...)
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  5.  64
    Interest and Agency.Katerina Deligiorgi - 2017 - In Anders Moe Rasmussen & Markus Gabriel (eds.), German Idealism Today. De Gruyter. pp. 3-26.
    (2017) 'Interest and Agency', in Gabriel, Markus and Rasmussen, Anders Moe (eds.) German Idealism Today. De Guyter Verlag. -/- Abstract: Undeterred by Kant’s cautionary advice, contemporary defenders of free will advance substantive metaphysical theses in support of their views. This is perhaps unsurprising given the mixed reception of Kant’s solution of the conflict between freedom and natural necessity, which is supposed to vindicate reason’s withdrawal from speculation. Kant argues that neither libertarians nor determinists can win, because they deal with (...)
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  6. Conflicting Interests in Toronto: Anatomy of a Controversy at the Interface of Academia and Industry.David I. Healy - 2002 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (2):250-263.
  7.  27
    In Our Best Interest: A Defense of Paternalism.Jason Hanna - 2018 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Our Best Interest argues that it is permissible to intervene in a person's affairs whenever doing so serves her best interest without wronging others. Jason Hanna makes the case for paternalism, responding to common objections that paternalism is disrespectful or that it violates rights, and arguing that popular anti-paternalist views confront serious problems.
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  8.  15
    Best Interests: Puzzles and Plausible Solutions at the End of Life. [REVIEW]Simon Woods - 2008 - Health Care Analysis 16 (3):279-287.
    This paper argues that the concept of best interests in the context of clinical decisions draws on concepts rooted in the philosophical discipline of axiology. Reflection on the philosophical origins enables a distinction to be drawn between those interests related to clinical goals and those global interests that are axiological in nature. The implication of this distinction is most clearly seen in the context of end of life decisions and it is argued here that greater weight ought to be given (...)
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  9. Public Interest in Health Data Research: Laying Out the Conceptual Groundwork.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):610-616.
    The future of health research will be characterised by three continuing trends: rising demand for health data; increasing impracticability of obtaining specific consent for secondary research; and decreasing capacity to effectively anonymise data. In this context, governments, clinicians and the research community must demonstrate that they can be responsible stewards of health data. IRBs and RECs sit at heart of this process because in many jurisdictions they have the capacity to grant consent waivers when research is judged to be of (...)
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  10. Practical Interests, Relevant Alternatives, and Knowledge Attributions: An Empirical Study.Joshua May, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Jay G. Hull & Aaron Zimmerman - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):265–273.
    In defending his interest-relative account of knowledge in Knowledge and Practical Interests (2005), Jason Stanley relies heavily on intuitions about several bank cases. We experimentally test the empirical claims that Stanley seems to make concerning our common-sense intuitions about these bank cases. Additionally, we test the empirical claims that Jonathan Schaffer seems to make in his critique of Stanley. We argue that our data impugn what both Stanley and Schaffer claim our intuitions about such cases are. To account for (...)
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  11. Self-Interest and the Concept of Self-Sacrifice.Mark Carl Overvold - 1980 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):105-118.
    Owing to a genral dissatisfaction with hedonistic theories of value, a number of recent discussions have sought to identify an agent's selfinterest, individual utility, or personal welfare with what the agent most wants to do, all things considered. Two features of these accounts merit special attention for the argument in this paper. First, on such accounts any desire or aversion which persists in the face of complete information is logically relevant to the determination of an agent's self interest. This (...)
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  12.  21
    Beneficence, Interests, and Wellbeing in Medicine: What It Means to Provide Benefit to Patients.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (3):53-62.
    Beneficence is a foundational ethical principle in medicine. To provide benefit to a patient is to promote and protect the patient’s wellbeing, to promote the patient’s interests. But there are different conceptions of wellbeing, emphasizing different values. These conceptions of wellbeing are contrary to one another and give rise to dissimilar ideas of what it means to benefit a patient. This makes the concept of beneficence ambiguous: is a benefit related to the patient’s goals and wishes, or is it a (...)
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  13.  1
    Justice and Self-Interest: Two Fundamental Motives.Melvin J. Lerner & Susan Clayton - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume argues that the commitment to justice is a fundamental motive and that, although it is typically portrayed as serving self-interest, it sometimes takes priority over self-interest. To make this case, the authors discuss the way justice emerges as a personal contract in children's development; review a wide range of research studying the influences of the justice motive on evaluative, emotional and behavioral responses; and detail common experiences that illustrate the impact of the justice motive. Through an (...)
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  14. Epistocracy and Public Interests.Finlay Malcolm - 2021 - Res Publica 28 (1):173-192.
    Epistocratic systems of government have received renewed attention, and considerable opposition, in recent political philosophy. Although they vary significantly in form, epistocracies generally reject universal suffrage. But can they maintain the advantages of universal suffrage despite rejecting it? This paper develops an argument for a significant instrumental advantage of universal suffrage: that governments must take into account the interests of all of those enfranchised in their policy decisions or else risk losing power. This is called ‘the Interests Argument’. One problem (...)
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  15. Knowledge and Practical Interests.Jason Stanley - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Jason Stanley presents a startling and provocative claim about knowledge: that whether or not someone knows a proposition at a given time is in part determined by his or her practical interests, i.e. by how much is at stake for that person at that time. In defending this thesis, Stanley introduces readers to a number of strategies for resolving philosophical paradox, making the book essential not just for specialists in epistemology but for all philosophers interested in philosophical methodology. Since a (...)
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  16. Understanding Interests and Causal Explanation.Petri Ylikoski - 2001 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    This work consists of two parts. Part I will be a contribution to a philo- sophical discussion of the nature of causal explanation. It will present my contrastive counterfactual theory of causal explanation and show how it can be used to deal with a number of problems facing theories of causal explanation. Part II is a contribution to a discussion of the na- ture of interest explanation in social studies of science. The aim is to help to resolve some (...)
     
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  17. Self-Interest Before Adam Smith: A Genealogy of Economic Science.Pierre Force - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    Self-Interest before Adam Smith inquires into the foundations of economic theory. It is generally assumed that the birth of modern economic science, marked by the publication of The Wealth of Nations in 1776, was the triumph of the 'selfish hypothesis'. Yet, as a neo-Epicurean idea, this hypothesis had been a matter of controversy for over a century and Smith opposed it from a neo-Stoic point of view. But how can the Epicurean principles of orthodox economic theory be reconciled with (...)
     
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  18.  2
    Interest and Effort in Education.John Dewey & James E. Wheeler - 1975 - Southern Illinois University Press.
    This book has been considered by academicians and scholars of great significance and value to literature. This forms a part of the knowledge base for future generations. So that the book is never forgotten we have represented this book in a print format as the same form as it was originally first published. Hence any marks or annotations seen are left intentionally to preserve its true nature.
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  19.  70
    Lies, Harm, And Practical Interests.Andreas Stokke - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (2):329-345.
    This paper outlines an account of the ethics of lying, which accommodates two main ideas about lying. The first of these, Anti-Deceptionalism, is the view that lying does not necessarily involve intentions to deceive. The second, Anti-Absolutism, is the view that lying is not always morally wrong. It is argued that lying is not wrong in itself, but rather the wrong in lying is explained by different factors in different cases. In some cases such factors may include deceptive intentions on (...)
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  20.  24
    Health, Interests, and Equality.David Hershenov & Rose Joanna Hershenov - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (5):417-419.
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  21. Animal Ethics and Interest Conflicts.Elisa Aaltola - 2005 - Ethics and the Environment 10 (1):19-48.
    : Animal ethics has presented convincing arguments for the individual value of animals. Animals are not only valuable instrumentally or indirectly, but in themselves. Less has been written about interest conflicts between humans and other animals, and the use of animals in practice. The motive of this paper is to analyze different approaches to interest conflicts. It concentrates on six models, which are the rights model, the interest model, the mental complexity model, the special relations model, the (...)
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  22.  28
    Individual Interests and Collective Action: Studies in Rationality and Social Change.James S. Coleman - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book brings together the most important theoretical work of James S. Coleman on problems of collective action. Coleman's work has formed a consistent and highly distinguished attempt to find an account of the workings of social and political processes rooted in the rationality of the individual participants. The chapters address in various ways the fundamental Hobbesian problem of order; the question of how a set of self-interested individuals can arrive at some kind of social order. The volume is organised (...)
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  23. Common Interest and Signaling Games: A Dynamic Analysis.Manolo Martínez & Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (3):371-392.
    We present a dynamic model of the evolution of communication in a Lewis signaling game while systematically varying the degree of common interest between sender and receiver. We show that the level of common interest between sender and receiver is strongly predictive of the amount of information transferred between them. We also discuss a set of rare but interesting cases in which common interest is almost entirely absent, yet substantial information transfer persists in a *cheap talk* regime, (...)
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  24.  99
    Morality and Self-Interest.Paul Bloomfield (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    The volume will act as a useful collection of scholarship by top figures, and as a resource and course book on an important topic.
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  25. Interest-Relative Invariantism. [REVIEW]Stephen Schiffer - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):188 - 195.
    In his important book Knowledge and Practical Interests, Jason Stanley advances a proposal about knowledge and the semantics of knowledge ascriptions which he calls interest-relative invariantism. A theory of knowledge ascriptions of the form ‘A knows that S’ is invariantist.
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  26. Self-Interest: An Anthology of Philosophical Perspectives From Antiquity to the Present.Kelly Rogers (ed.) - 1997 - Routledge.
    _Self-Interest_ discusses the reconciliation of inevitable self-concern with its manifest potential for harm. This anthology brings together the efforts of twenty three renown philosophers to address the matter of how to bring about such a reconciliation. The drive for self-preservation, as observed by Aquinas, is the first law of nature. With this self-love, however, comes the threat of "the excessive love of self". _Self-Interest_ brings into discussion the reconciliation of necessary self-concern with its manifest potential for harm. This anthology brings (...)
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  27.  3
    Satisfaction of Interest and the Concept of Morality.David Copp & Steven A. Smith - 1977 - Philosophical Review 86 (1):112.
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  28. Self-Interest and Interest in Selves.Susan Wolf - 1986 - Ethics 96 (July):704-20.
  29.  55
    Persons, Interests, and Justice.Nils Holtug - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    In our lives, we aim to achieve welfare for ourselves, that is, to live good lives. But we also have another, more impartial perspective, where we aim to balance our concern for our own welfare against a concern for the welfare of others. This is a perspective of justice. Nils Holtug examines these two perspectives and the relations between them.
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  30. Interests and Rights: The Case Against Animals.Raymond Gillespie Frey - 1980 - Oxford University Press.
  31.  12
    Best Interests Versus Resource Allocation: Could COVID-19 Cloud Decision-Making for the Cognitively Impaired?Jordan A. Parsons & Harleen Kaur Johal - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):447-450.
    The COVID-19 pandemic is putting the NHS under unprecedented pressure, requiring clinicians to make uncomfortable decisions they would not ordinarily face. These decisions revolve primarily around intensive care and whether a patient should undergo invasive ventilation. Certain vulnerable populations have featured in the media as falling victim to an increasingly utilitarian response to the pandemic—primarily those of advanced years or with serious existing health conditions. Another vulnerable population potentially at risk is those who lack the capacity to make their own (...)
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  32.  24
    Interests and Rights: The Case Against Animals.L. W. Sumner - 1983 - Philosophical Review 92 (3):447.
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  33.  45
    For Your Interest? The Ethical Acceptability of Using Non‐Invasive Prenatal Testing to Test ‘Purely for Information’.Zuzana Deans, Angus J. Clarke & Ainsley J. Newson - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):19-25.
    Non-invasive prenatal testing is an emerging form of prenatal genetic testing that provides information about the genetic constitution of a foetus without the risk of pregnancy loss as a direct result of the test procedure. As with other prenatal tests, information from NIPT can help to make a decision about termination of pregnancy, plan contingencies for birth or prepare parents to raise a child with a genetic condition. NIPT can also be used by women and couples to test purely ‘for (...)
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  34. Defending Interest-Relative Invariantism.Brian Weatherson - 2011 - Logos and Episteme 2 (4):591-609.
    I defend interest-relative invariantism from a number of recent attacks. One common thread to my response is that interest-relative invariantism is a muchweaker thesis than is often acknowledged, and a number of the attacks only challenge very specific, and I think implausible, versions of it. Another is that a number of the attacks fail to acknowledge how many things we have independent reason to believe knowledge is sensitive to. Whether there is a defeater for someone's knowledge can be (...)
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  35. Empirical tests of interest-relative invariantism.Chandra Sekhar Sripada & Jason Stanley - 2012 - Episteme 9 (1):3-26.
    According to Interest-Relative Invariantism, whether an agent knows that p, or possesses other sorts of epistemic properties or relations, is in part determined by the practical costs of being wrong about p. Recent studies in experimental philosophy have tested the claims of IRI. After critically discussing prior studies, we present the results of our own experiments that provide strong support for IRI. We discuss our results in light of complementary findings by other theorists, and address the challenge posed by (...)
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  36.  38
    Knowledge and Practical Interests.Jason Stanley - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):180-187.
    Jason Stanley's "Knowledge and Practical Interests" is a brilliant book, combining insights about knowledge with a careful examination of how recent views in epistemology fit with the best of recent linguistic semantics. Although I am largely convinced by Stanley's objections to epistemic contextualism, I will try in what follows to formulate a version that might have some prospect of escaping his powerful critique.
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  37. Understanding, Interests and Informed Consent: A Reply to Sreenivasan.Danielle Bromwich - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):327-331.
    It is widely agreed that the view of informed consent found in the regulations and guidelines struggles to keep pace with the ever-advancing enterprise of human subjects research. Over the last 10 years, there have been serious attempts to rethink informed consent so that it conforms to our considered judgments about cases where we are confident valid consent has been given. These arguments are influenced by an argument from Gopal Sreenivasan, which apparently shows that a potential participant's consent to research (...)
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  38.  27
    Biomedical Conflicts of Interest: A Defence of the Sequestration Thesis--Learning From the Cases of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy.A. Schafer - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (1):8-24.
    No discussion of academic freedom, research integrity, and patient safety could begin with a more disquieting pair of case studies than those of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy. The cumulative impact of the Olivieri and Healy affairs has caused serious self examination within the biomedical research community. The first part of the essay analyses these recent academic scandals. The two case studies are then placed in their historical context—that context being the transformation of the norms of science through increasingly close (...)
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  39.  82
    Financial Interests of Authors in Scientific Journals: A Pilot Study of 14 Publications.Sheldon Krimsky, L. S. Rothenberg, P. Stott & G. Kyle - 1996 - Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):395-410.
    Disclosure of financial interests in scientific research is the centerpiece of the new conflict of interest regulations issued by the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation that became effective October 1, 1995. Several scientific journals have also established financial disclosure requirements for contributors. This paper measures the frequency of selected financial interests held among authors of certain types of scientific publications and assesses disclosure practices of authors. We examined 1105 university authors (first and last cited) from (...)
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  40.  5
    Interest, Trade and ‘Character and Circumstances': John Campbell's (1708–1775) Earlier Work.Matthew Binney - 2016 - History of European Ideas 42 (4):516-533.
    SUMMARYJohn Campbell's commercial theory in his early work demonstrates that he held more sophisticated views on British colonialism than previously thought. Campbell draws upon complex influences, which include Charles Davenant's notion of free trade and his ‘Old Whig’ arguments against corruption; Daniel Defoe's ‘new Whig’ arguments for progress and John Locke's arguments on industry and property; and Bolingbroke's Tory arguments for emphasizing common interest. By blending these ideas, Campbell offers a distinctive commercial theory that prioritizes the recognition of the (...)
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  41.  6
    Conscience in Reproductive Health Care: Prioritizing Patient Interests.Carolyn McLeod - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Conscience in Reproductive Health Care responds to the growing worldwide trend of health care professionals conscientiously refusing to provide abortions and similar reproductive health services in countries where these services are legal and professionally accepted. Carolyn McLeod argues that conscientious objectors in health care should prioritize the interests of patients in receiving care over their own interest in acting on their conscience. She defends this "prioritizing approach" to conscientious objection over the more popular "compromise approach" without downplaying the importance (...)
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  42.  30
    Family Interests and Medical Decisions for Children.Paul Baines - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (8):599-607.
    Medical decisions for children are usually justified by the claim that they are in a child's best interests. More recently, following criticisms of the best interests standard, some advocate that the family's interests should influence medical decisions for children, although what is meant by family interests is often not made clear. I argue that at least two senses of family interests may be discerned. There is a ‘weak’ sense of family interests and a ‘strong’ sense. I contend that there are (...)
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  43.  2
    Self-Interest: Volume 14, Part 1.Ellen Frankel Paul, Miller Jr & Jeffrey Paul (eds.) - 1997 - Cambridge University Press.
    '[T]he good man should be a lover of self.' Aristotle wrote. 'For he will both himself profit by doing noble acts, and will benefit his fellows … '. Yet in much of contemporary moral philosophy, concern for one's own interests is considered a non-moral issue, while concern for the interests of others is paradigmatically moral. Indeed, a central issue in ethical theory involves the proper balance to be struck between prudence and morality, between the pursuit of one's own good and (...)
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  44.  9
    Self‐Deception and Moral Interests.David A. Borman - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  45.  96
    Self-Interest and Self-Concern.Stephen Darwall - 1997 - Social Philosophy and Policy 14 (1):158.
    In what follows I consider whether the idea of a person's interest or good might be better understood through that of care or concern for that person for her sake, rather than conversely, as is ordinarily assumed. Contrary to desire-satisfaction theories of interest, such an account can explain why not everything a person rationally desires is part of her good, since what a person sensibly wants is not necessarily what we would sensibly want, insofar as we care about (...)
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  46.  13
    The Limits of Self-Interest: An Hegelian Critique of Gauthier’s Compliance Problem.David T. Schwartz - 1997 - Southwest Philosophy Review 13 (1):137-146.
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  47.  27
    The Interests of Disinterest.Jane Kneller - 1995 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 1:777-786.
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  48.  9
    Address, Interests, and Directed Duties.Simon Căbulea May - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38.
    Rowan Cruft offers an addressive account of directed duties and claim-rights. He claims that the direction of a duty is constituted by two requirements of address between the parties: the right holder must conceive of the action as `to be done to me’ and the duty bearer must conceive of it as to be ‘done to you’. Cruft also argues against accounts of direction and claim-rights that reduce the relation between the parties to nonrelational facts. One such reductive account is (...)
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  49. Materiality of Conflict of Interest in Informed Consent to Medical Treatment in the United Kingdom.J. O’Neill - 2022 - Ethics and Behavior 32 (5):375-400.
    ABSTRACT The UK Supreme Court ruling of Montgomery v Lanarkshire clarified that in obtaining informed consent to treatment, practitioners are under a duty to inform patients of material risks. Traditionally such risk has pertained to the clinical risks inherent to treatment. In examining empirical and judicial evidence, this paper makes the case for disclosure of potent financial interests; with potency relating to those interests likely to have greatest influence over practice. The paper explores how financial interests may detrimentally influence practice (...)
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  50.  7
    Kant and the Interests of Reason.Sebastian Raedler - 2015 - De Gruyter.
    This book argues that we can only develop a proper grasp of Kant s practical philosophy if we appreciate the central role played in it by the notion of the interests of reason. While it is generally acknowledged that Kant does not regard reason as a purely instrumental faculty, this book is the first to show how his notion of reason as guided by its own interests offers the key to some of the most puzzling aspects of his practical philosophy.".
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