Results for 'information'

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  1. Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics.Neil C. Manson - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Informed consent is a central topic in contemporary biomedical ethics. Yet attempts to set defensible and feasible standards for consenting have led to persistent difficulties. In Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill set debates about informed consent in medicine and research in a fresh light. They show why informed consent cannot be fully specific or fully explicit, and why more specific consent is not always ethically better. They argue that consent needs distinctive communicative transactions, by which (...)
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  2.  77
    Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Christopher Gordon Timpson - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Christopher G. Timpson provides the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. He argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the nature of quantum information, which is grounded in a revisionary analysis of the concepts of information.
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  3. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argument.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guidebook to the basic principles of how to construct good arguments and how to criticeze bad ones. It is non-technical in its approach and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. Professor Walton, a leading authority in the field of informal logic, explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical (...)
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  4. Information Technology and Moral Philosophy.Jeroen van den Hoven & John Weckert (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Information technology is an integral part of the practices and institutions of post-industrial society. It is also a source of hard moral questions and thus is both a probing and relevant area for moral theory. In this volume, an international team of philosophers sheds light on many of the ethical issues arising from information technology, including informational privacy, digital divide and equal access, e-trust and tele-democracy. Collectively, these essays demonstrate how accounts of equality and justice, property and privacy (...)
     
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  5. Quantum Information Theory & the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Christopher Gordon Timpson - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics is a conceptual analysis of one of the most prominent and exciting new areas of physics, providing the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. -/- Beginning from a careful, revisionary, analysis of the concepts of information in the everyday and classical information-theory settings, Christopher G. Timpson argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the (...)
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  6. Informal Logic a Handbook for Critical Argumentation.David N. Walton - 1989
     
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  7. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
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  8. Informal Logic: A Pragmatic Approach.Douglas Walton - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Second edition of the introductory guidebook to the basic principles of constructing sound arguments and criticising bad ones. Non-technical in approach, it is based on 186 examples, which Douglas Walton, a leading authority in the field of informal logic, discusses and evaluates in clear, illustrative detail. Walton explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical responses. This edition takes into account (...)
     
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  9.  4
    Informal Logic Referees 2011-2012.Informal Logic Editors - 2013 - Informal Logic 33 (1):80.
    The Editors express their gratitude and appreciation to the indi-viduals listed below who served as referees for Informal Logic for Volumes 31 (2011) and 32 (2012).
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  10.  18
    Informed Consent for HIV Cure Research in South Africa: Issues to Consider.Ciara Staunton - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):3.
    South Africa has made great progress in the development of HIV/AIDS testing, treatment and prevention campaigns. Yet, it is clear that prevention and treatment campaigns alone are not enough to bring this epidemic under control.
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  11. Entropy, Information and Evolution: New Perspectives on Physical and Biological Evolution.Bruce H. Weber, David J. Depew, James D. Smith & C. Dyke - 1990 - Behavior and Philosophy 18 (2):79-84.
     
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  12.  10
    The Information-Loss Model: A Mathematical Theory of Age-Related Cognitive Slowing.Joel Myerson, Sandra Hale, David Wagstaff & Leonard W. Poon - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (4):475-487.
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  13.  9
    Informed Consent, Understanding, and Trust.David B. Resnik - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (5):61-63.
    Valid Informed consent to medical treatment or research participation has traditionally been viewed as consisting of the following requirements: the person has t...
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  14. The Information Integration Theory of Consciousness.Giulio Tononi - 2007 - In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell. pp. 287--299.
  15.  73
    Information Theory and Esthetic Perception.Abraham A. Moles - 1966 - Urbana, University of Illinois Press.
  16.  61
    Wisdom, Information, and Wonder: What is Knowledge For?Mary Midgley - 1989 - Routledge.
    InWisdom, Information and Wonder, Mary Midgley tackles the question at the root of our civilization: What is knowledge for?
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  17.  20
    Informed Consent: A Matter of Aspiration Since 1966.Sarah Wieten, Jacob Blythe & David Magnus - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):3-5.
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  18.  8
    Information Density Converges in Dialogue: Towards an Information-Theoretic Model.Yang Xu & David Reitter - 2018 - Cognition 170:147-163.
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  19.  54
    Kant on Informed Pure Judgments of Taste.Emine Hande Tuna - 2018 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 76 (2):163-174.
    Two dominant interpretations of Kant's notion of adherent beauty, the conjunctive view and the incorporation view, provide an account of how to form informed aesthetic assessments concerning artworks. According to both accounts, judgments of perfection play a crucial role in making informed, although impure, judgments of taste. These accounts only examine aesthetic responses to objects that meet or fail to meet the expectations we have regarding what they ought to be. I demonstrate that Kant's works of genius do not fall (...)
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  20.  21
    Informal Fallacies: Towards a Theory of Argument Criticisms.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - John Benjamins.
    The basic question of this monograph is: how should we go about judging arguments to be reasonable or unreasonable? Our concern will be with argument in a broad sense, with realistic arguments in natural language. The basic object will be to engage in a normative study of determining what factors, standards, or procedures should be adopted or appealed to in evaluating an argument as "good," "not-so-good," "open to criticism," "fallacious," and so forth. Hence our primary concern will be with the (...)
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  21. Animal Communication Theory: Information and Influence.Ulrich Stegmann (ed.) - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    The explanation of animal communication by means of concepts like information, meaning and reference is one of the central foundational issues in animal behaviour studies. This book explores these issues, revolving around questions such as: • What is the nature of information? • What theoretical roles does information play in animal communication studies? • Is it justified to employ these concepts in order to explain animal communication? • What is the relation between animal signals and human language? (...)
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  22. Informed Consent: What Must Be Disclosed and What Must Be Understood?Joseph Millum & Danielle Bromwich - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (5):46-58.
    Over the last few decades, multiple studies have examined the understanding of participants in clinical research. They show variable and often poor understanding of key elements of disclosure, such as expected risks and the experimental nature of treatments. Did the participants in these studies give valid consent? According to the standard view of informed consent they did not. The standard view holds that the recipient of consent has a duty to disclose certain information to the profferer of consent because (...)
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  23.  38
    How Informed is Consent in Vulnerable Populations? Experience Using a Continuous Consent Process During the MDP301 Vaginal Microbicide Trial in Mwanza, Tanzania.Kavit Natujwa, Soteli Selephina, Kasindi Stella, Shagi Charles, Lees Shelley, Vallely Andrew, Vallely Lisa, McCormack Sheena, Pool Robert & J. Hayes Richard - 2010 - BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):10.
    Background HIV prevention trials conducted among disadvantaged vulnerable at-risk populations in developing countries present unique ethical dilemmas. A key concern in bioethics is the validity of informed consent for trial participation obtained from research subjects in such settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a continuous informed consent process adopted during the MDP301 phase III vaginal microbicide trial in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods A total of 1146 women at increased risk of HIV acquisition working as alcohol (...)
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  24.  4
    How Standpoint Methodology Informs.Methodology Informs - 2003 - In Stephen P. Turner & Paul Andrew Roth (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Blackwell. pp. 11--291.
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  25.  20
    A Mark of the Mental: A Defence of Informational Teleosemantics.Karen Neander - 2017 - Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.
    Drawing on insights from causal theories of reference, teleosemantics, and state space semantics, a theory of naturalized mental representation. In A Mark of the Mental, Karen Neander considers the representational power of mental states—described by the cognitive scientist Zenon Pylyshyn as the “second hardest puzzle” of philosophy of mind. The puzzle at the heart of the book is sometimes called “the problem of mental content,” “Brentano's problem,” or “the problem of intentionality.” Its motivating mystery is how neurobiological states can have (...)
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  26. Information, Physics, Quantum: The Search for Links.John Archibald Wheeler - 1989 - In Proceedings III International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Tokyo: pp. 354-358.
    This report reviews what quantum physics and information theory have to tell us about the age-old question, How come existence? No escape is evident from four conclusions: (1) The world cannot be a giant machine, ruled by any preestablished continuum physical law. (2) There is no such thing at the microscopic level as space or time or spacetime continuum. (3) The familiar probability function or functional, and wave equation or functional wave equation, of standard quantum theory provide mere continuum (...)
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  27.  15
    Information, Semantics and Epistemology.Enrique Villanueva (ed.) - 1990 - Cambridge: Blackwell.
  28.  23
    Semantic Information Processing.Marvin Lee Minsky (ed.) - 1968 - MIT Press.
  29. Informational Theories of Content and Mental Representation.Marc Artiga & Miguel Ángel Sebastián - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (3):613-627.
    Informational theories of semantic content have been recently gaining prominence in the debate on the notion of mental representation. In this paper we examine new-wave informational theories which have a special focus on cognitive science. In particular, we argue that these theories face four important difficulties: they do not fully solve the problem of error, fall prey to the wrong distality attribution problem, have serious difficulties accounting for ambiguous and redundant representations and fail to deliver a metasemantic theory of representation. (...)
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  30.  19
    Informal Philosophy.Avrum Stroll - 2009 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Informal Philosophy provides an original look at how we should understand and teach philosophy.
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  31.  45
    Information and Content.David Pineda - 1998 - Philosophical Issues 9:381-387.
    In this paper I discuss critically Stalnaker's views on content.
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  32.  88
    Information and Knowledge: A Constructive Type-Theoretical Approach.Giuseppe Primiero - 2007 - Springer.
    The constructive reformulation of the semantic theory suggests two basic principles to be assumed: first, the distinction between proper knowledge, expressed in judgemental form, and the assertion conditions for such knowledge; second, ...
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  33. Formalizing the Dynamics of Information.Martina Faller, Stefan C. Kaufmann, Marc Pauly & Center for the Study of Language and Information S.) - 2000
     
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  34. The Informational Turn in Philosophy.Frederick Adams - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (4):471-501.
    This paper traces the application of information theory to philosophical problems of mind and meaning from the earliest days of the creation of the mathematical theory of communication. The use of information theory to understand purposive behavior, learning, pattern recognition, and more marked the beginning of the naturalization of mind and meaning. From the inception of information theory, Wiener, Turing, and others began trying to show how to make a mind from informational and computational materials. Over the (...)
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  35.  13
    From Matter to Life: Information and Causality.Sara Imari Walker, Paul C. W. Davies & George F. R. Ellis (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book tackles the most difficult and profound open questions about life and its origins from an information-based perspective.
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  36.  1
    Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning: The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities.Robert J. Sternberg - 1977 - Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  37. Information Processing, Computation, and Cognition.Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino - 2011 - Journal of Biological Physics 37 (1):1-38.
    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both – although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use ‘computation’ and ‘information processing’ to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are (...)
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  38.  33
    Information and the History of Philosophy.Chris Meyns (ed.) - 2021 - Routledge.
    In recent years the philosophy of information has emerged as an important area of research in philosophy. However, until now information’s philosophical history has been largely overlooked. Information and the History of Philosophy is the first comprehensive investigation of the history of philosophical questions around information, including work from before the Common Era to the twenty-first century. It covers scientific and technology-centred notions of information; views of human information processing, as well as socio-political topics (...)
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  39.  3
    Causal Information‐Seeking Strategies Change Across Childhood and Adolescence.Kate Nussenbaum, Alexandra O. Cohen, Zachary J. Davis, David J. Halpern, Todd M. Gureckis & Catherine A. Hartley - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (9).
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  40. Information: A Very Short Introduction.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This book helps us understand the true meaning of the concept and how it can be used to understand our world.
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  41.  49
    Information Processing and Dynamical Systems Approaches Are Complementary.David Spurrett - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):639-640.
    Shanker & King (S&K) trumpet the adoption of a “new paradigm” in communication studies, exemplified by ape language research. Though cautiously sympathetic, I maintain that their argument relies on a false dichotomy between “information” and “dynamical systems” theory, and that the resulting confusion prevents them from recognizing the main chance their line of thinking suggests.
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  42. The Information Capacity of the Human Motor System in Controlling the Amplitude of Movement.Paul M. Fitts - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (6):381.
  43.  54
    Information Flow: The Logic of Distributed Systems, Jon Barwise and Jerry Seligman. [REVIEW]Johan van Benthem & David Israel - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (3):390-397.
  44. Patterns, Information, and Causation.Holly Andersen - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy 114 (11):592-622.
    This paper articulates an account of causation as a collection of information-theoretic relationships between patterns instantiated in the causal nexus. I draw on Dennett’s account of real patterns to characterize potential causal relata as patterns with specific identification criteria and noise tolerance levels, and actual causal relata as those patterns instantiated at some spatiotemporal location in the rich causal nexus as originally developed by Salmon. I develop a representation framework using phase space to precisely characterize causal relata, including their (...)
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  45. Information: From Philosophic to Physics Concepts for Informational Modeling of Consciousness.Florin Gaiseanu - 2018 - Philosophy Study 8 (8).
    Information was a frequently used concept in many fields of investigation. However, this concept is still not really understood, when it is referred for instance to consciousness and its informational structure. In this paper it is followed the concept of information from philosophical to physics perspective, showing especially how this concept could be extended to matter in general and to the living in particular, as a result of the intimate interaction between matter and information, the human body (...)
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  46. Information Without Truth.Andrea Scarantino & Gualtiero Piccinini - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (3):313-330.
    Abstract: According to the Veridicality Thesis, information requires truth. On this view, smoke carries information about there being a fire only if there is a fire, the proposition that the earth has two moons carries information about the earth having two moons only if the earth has two moons, and so on. We reject this Veridicality Thesis. We argue that the main notions of information used in cognitive science and computer science allow A to have (...) about the obtaining of p even when p is false. (shrink)
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  47.  79
    Cognition and Perception: How Do Psychology and Neural Science Inform Philosophy?Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2009 - MIT Press.
    An argument that there are perceptual mechanisms that retrieve information in cognitively and conceptually unmediated ways and that this sheds light on various ...
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  48.  5
    The Perception of Deceptive Information Can Be Enhanced by Training That Removes Superficial Visual Information.Donghyun Ryu, Bruce Abernethy, So Hyun Park & David L. Mann - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  49.  3
    Information and Mind.Paul Skokowski - 2020 - Stanford, CA, USA: CSLI Press.
    This volume examines a selection of topics that Fred Dretske addressed in his philosophical career. The topics range from one of the earliest problems Dretske analyzed, the nature of seeing an object, to epistemological issues that he worked on from mid-career onwards, to issues he focused on later in his career, including information, mental representation, and conscious experience. The papers in the volume are by former colleagues and students from the University of Wisconsin and Stanford University, and celebrate Dretske’s (...)
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  50. Information Structure in Discourse: Towards an Integrated Formal Theory of Pragmatics.Craige Roberts - 1996 - Semantics and Pragmatics 5:1-69.
    A framework for pragmatic analysis is proposed which treats discourse as a game, with context as a scoreboard organized around the questions under discussion by the interlocutors. The framework is intended to be coordinated with a dynamic compositional semantics. Accordingly, the context of utterance is modeled as a tuple of different types of information, and the questions therein — modeled, as is usual in formal semantics, as alternative sets of propositions — constrain the felicitous flow of discourse. A requirement (...)
     
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