Results for 'hierarchy'

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  1. Gradation / Degradation.Hierarchy - 2007 - In Jean Baudrillard (ed.), Exiles from dialogue. Malden, Mass.: Polity.
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  2. David Braybrooke.Variety Among Hierarchies & Of Preference - 1978 - In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory: Vol.II: Epistemic and Social Applications. D. Reidel. pp. 55.
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  3. Laurence Foss.Ia Hierarchy of Being Paralleled - forthcoming - Foundations of Language.
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  4. Special Issue: Methods for Investigating Self-Referential Truth edited by Volker Halbach Volker Halbach/Editorial Introduction 3.Petr Hájek, Arithmetical Hierarchy Iii, Gerard Allwein & Wendy MacCaull - 2001 - Studia Logica 68:421-422.
  5.  43
    Polycratic hierarchies and networks: what simulation-modeling at the LHC can teach us about the epistemology of simulation.Florian J. Boge & Christian Zeitnitz - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):445-480.
    Large scale experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider rely heavily on computer simulations, a fact that has recently caught philosophers’ attention. CSs obviously require appropriate modeling, and it is a common assumption among philosophers that the relevant models can be ordered into hierarchical structures. Focusing on LHC’s ATLAS experiment, we will establish three central results here: with some distinct modifications, individual components of ATLAS’ overall simulation infrastructure can be ordered into hierarchical structures. Hence, to a good degree of approximation, hierarchical (...)
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  6. The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy.Marc Ereshefsky - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (3):600-602.
     
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  7.  11
    Hierarchy and heterarchy in (impact) finance: an ontological analysis.Noriaki Okamoto - 2023 - Rivista di Estetica 84:75-88.
    Although finance is ubiquitous in modern life, its ontological foundation is rarely discussed. This essay considers some key characteristics of finance from a social ontological perspective. It initially argues that money requires some sort of representation, and that financial institutions rely on various forms of cognition as well as documents anchoring representations. From that standpoint, one of the crucial aspects of finance is that it provides reference points through the process of quantification. These reference points are numerical representations that allow (...)
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  8.  63
    Supervaluations and the Strict-Tolerant Hierarchy.Brian Porter - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (6):1367-1386.
    In a recent paper, Barrio, Pailos and Szmuc (BPS) show that there are logics that have exactly the validities of classical logic up to arbitrarily high levels of inference. They suggest that a logic therefore must be identified by its valid inferences at every inferential level. However, Scambler shows that there are logics with all the validities of classical logic at every inferential level, but with no antivalidities at any inferential level. Scambler concludes that in order to identify a logic, (...)
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  9.  28
    The concept of the habit-family hierarchy, and maze learning. Part I.C. L. Hull - 1934 - Psychological Review 41 (1):33-54.
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  10.  51
    Bounded arithmetic and the polynomial hierarchy.Jan Krajíček, Pavel Pudlák & Gaisi Takeuti - 1991 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 52 (1-2):143-153.
    T i 2 = S i +1 2 implies ∑ p i +1 ⊆ Δ p i +1 ⧸poly. S 2 and IΔ 0 ƒ are not finitely axiomatizable. The main tool is a Herbrand-type witnessing theorem for ∃∀∃ П b i -formulas provable in T i 2 where the witnessing functions are □ p i +1.
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  11. Hierarchies, Networks, and Causality: The Applied Evolutionary Epistemological Approach.Nathalie Gontier - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 52 (2):313-334.
    Applied Evolutionary Epistemology is a scientific-philosophical theory that defines evolution as the set of phenomena whereby units evolve at levels of ontological hierarchies by mechanisms and processes. This theory also provides a methodology to study evolution, namely, studying evolution involves identifying the units that evolve, the levels at which they evolve, and the mechanisms and processes whereby they evolve. Identifying units and levels of evolution in turn requires the development of ontological hierarchy theories, and examining mechanisms and processes necessitates (...)
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  12.  81
    Studies on the telegraphic language: The acquisition of a hierarchy of habits.Lowe Bryan William & Noble Harter - 1899 - Psychological Review 6 (4):345-375.
  13.  21
    Evolutionary morphology and evo-devo: hierarchy and novelty.A. C. Love - 2006 - Theory in Biosciences 124:317–333.
    Although the role of morphology in evolutionary theory remains a subject of debate, assessing the contributions of morphological investigation to evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-devo) is a more circumscribed issue of direct relevance to ongoing research. Historical studies of morphologically oriented researchers and the formation of the Modern Synthesis in the Anglo-American context identify a recurring theme: the synthetic theory of evolution did not capture multiple levels of biological organization. When this feature is incorporated into a philosophical framework for explaining the (...)
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  14.  15
    A degree-theoretic definition of the ramified analytical hierarchy.Carl G. Jockusch & Stephen G. Simpson - 1976 - Annals of Mathematical Logic 10 (1):1-32.
  15. Levels of information: A framing hierarchy.Shlomi Sher & Craig Rm Mckenzie - 2011 - In Gideon Keren (ed.), Perspectives on framing. New York: Psychology Press.
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  16.  23
    The forest, the trees, or both? Hierarchy and interactions between gist and object processing during perception of real-world scenes.Marcin Furtak, Liad Mudrik & Michał Bola - 2022 - Cognition 221 (C):104983.
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  17. On Frege's Supposed Hierarchy of Senses.Nicholas Georgalis - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    This paper argues against the claim that Frege is committed to an infinite hierarchy of senses. Carnap and Kripke, along with many others, argue the contrary; I expose where all such arguments go astray. Invariably these arguments assume (without citation) that Frege holds that sense and reference are always distinct. This is the fulcrum upon which the hierarchy is hoisted. The counter to this assumption is based on two important but neglected passages. The locution ‘indirect sense’ has no (...)
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  18.  29
    Cognitive representation of “musical fractals”: Processing hierarchy and recursion in the auditory domain.Mauricio Dias Martins, Bruno Gingras, Estela Puig-Waldmueller & W. Tecumseh Fitch - 2017 - Cognition 161 (C):31-45.
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  19.  33
    Meaning making from life to language: The Semiotic Hierarchy and phenomenology.Jordan Zlatev - 2018 - Cognitive Semiotics 11 (1).
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  20. Emergence, Mind, and Divine Action: The Hierarchy of the Sciences in Relation to the Human Mind–Brain–Body.Arthur Peacocke - 2006 - In Philip Clayton & Paul Davies (eds.), The re-emergence of emergence: the emergentist hypothesis from science to religion. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 257.
     
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  21.  61
    Hierarchies, Power Inequalities, and Organizational Corruption.Valerie Rosenblatt - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (2):237-251.
    This article uses social dominance theory (SDT) to explore the dynamic and systemic nature of the initiation and maintenance of organizational corruption. Rooted in the definition of organizational corruption as misuse of power or position for personal or organizational gain, this work suggests that organizational corruption is driven by the individual and institutional tendency to structure societies as group-based social hierarchies. SDT describes a series of factors and processes across multiple levels of analysis that systemically contribute to the initiation and (...)
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  22.  41
    Some applications of forcing to hierarchy problems in arithmetic.Peter G. Hinman - 1969 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 15 (20-22):341-352.
  23.  4
    Gender Hierarchy in the Qurʾān: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses; Gender and Muslim Constructions of Exegetical Authority: A Rereading of the Classical Genre of Qurʾān Commentary; and Gender and Muslim Constructions of Exegetical Authority: A.Herbert Berg - 2022 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 138 (3).
    Gender Hierarchy in the Qurʾān: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses. By Karen Bauer. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Pp. xi + 308. $99.99, £64.99. Gender and Muslim Constructions of Exegetical Authority: A Rereading of the Classical Genre of Qurʾān Commentary. By Aisha Geissinger. Islamic History and Civilization, vol. 117. Leiden: Brill, 2015. Pp. xi + 319. $163, €126. Tafsīr and Islamic Intellectual History: Exploring the Boundaries of a Genre. Edited by Andreas Görke and Johanna (...)
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  24.  7
    On evidential reasoning in a hierarchy of hypotheses.Judea Pearl - 1986 - Artificial Intelligence 28 (1):9-15.
  25.  83
    P-hierarchy on β ω.Andrzej Starosolski - 2008 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (4):1202-1214.
    We classify ultrafilters on ω with respect to sequential contours (see [4].[5]) of different ranks. In this way we obtain an ω1 sequence {Pα}1≤α≤ω1 of disjoint classes. We prove that non-emptiness of Pα for successor α ≥ 2 is equivalent to the existence of P-point. We investigate relations between P-hierarchy and ordinal ultrafilters (introduced by J. E. Baumgartner in [1]), we prove that it is relatively consistent with ZFC that the successor classes (for α ≥ 2) of P-hierarchy (...)
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  26.  50
    Biological hierarchies, their birth, death and evolution by natural selection.Robert W. Korn - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):199-221.
    Description of the biologicalhierarchy of the organism has been extendedhere to included the evolutionary andecological sub-hierarchies with theirrespective levels in order to give a completehierarchical description of life. These newdescriptions include direction of formation,types of constraints, and dual levels. Constraints are produced at the macromolecularlevel of genes/proteins, some of which (a) aredescendent restraints which hold a hierarchytogether and others (b) interact horizontallywith selective agents at corresponding levelsof the niche. The organism is a dual levelconstrained by both the ecologicalsub-hierarchy (survival) (...)
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  27.  11
    Bounded-low sets and the high/low hierarchy.Huishan Wu - 2020 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 59 (7-8):925-938.
    Anderson and Csima defined a bounded jump operator for bounded-Turing reduction, and studied its basic properties. Anderson et al. constructed a low bounded-high set and conjectured that such sets cannot be computably enumerable. Ng and Yu proved that bounded-high c.e. sets are Turing complete, thus answered the conjecture positively. Wu and Wu showed that bounded-low sets can be superhigh by constructing a Turing complete bounded-low c.e. set. In this paper, we continue the study of the comparison between the bounded-jump and (...)
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  28.  29
    Autonomy beyond Voluntarism: In Defense of Hierarchy.Stefaan E. Cuypers - 2000 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):225-256.
    We have conflicting pre-philosophical intuitions about what it means ‘to be true to ourselves.’ On the one hand, autonomy and authenticity seem closely connected to the lucidity of reflectiveness; on the other, they seem tightly interwoven with the immediacy of unreflectiveness. As opposed to a ‘Platonic’ intuition about the inferiority of the unexamined life, we have an equally strong ‘Nietzschean’ intuition about the corrosiveness of the examined life. Broadly speaking, the first intuition is more akin to the tradition of the (...)
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  29. A Hierarchy of Classical and Paraconsistent Logics.Eduardo Alejandro Barrio, Federico Pailos & Damian Szmuc - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (1):93-120.
    In this article, we will present a number of technical results concerning Classical Logic, ST and related systems. Our main contribution consists in offering a novel identity criterion for logics in general and, therefore, for Classical Logic. In particular, we will firstly generalize the ST phenomenon, thereby obtaining a recursively defined hierarchy of strict-tolerant systems. Secondly, we will prove that the logics in this hierarchy are progressively more classical, although not entirely classical. We will claim that a logic (...)
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  30. Hierarchy Theory of Evolution and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: Some Epistemic Bridges, Some Conceptual Rifts.Alejandro Fábregas-Tejeda & Francisco Vergara-Silva - 2018 - Evolutionary Biology 45 (2):127-139.
    Contemporary evolutionary biology comprises a plural landscape of multiple co-existent conceptual frameworks and strenuous voices that disagree on the nature and scope of evolutionary theory. Since the mid-eighties, some of these conceptual frameworks have denounced the ontologies of the Modern Synthesis and of the updated Standard Theory of Evolution as unfinished or even flawed. In this paper, we analyze and compare two of those conceptual frameworks, namely Niles Eldredge’s Hierarchy Theory of Evolution (with its extended ontology of evolutionary entities) (...)
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  31.  10
    Self-Hierarchy in Perceptual Matching: Variations in Different Processing Stages.Yingcan Zheng, Zilun Xiao, Yong Liu & Xin Zhou - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    People have three cognitive representations of the self, namely, the individual, relational, and collective selves, which are indispensable components of selfhood but not necessarily given equal preference. Previous studies found that people displayed varied self-hierarchy in miscellaneous tasks involving different research materials that had pre-existing learned associations established over long periods of time. Therefore, this study tries to explore a purer self-hierarchy without the influence of research materials, using perceptual matching tasks. The behavioral and event-related potentials’ findings showed (...)
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  32.  36
    Hierarchies of Δ 0 2 ‐measurable k‐partitions.Victor L. Selivanov - 2007 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 53 (4-5):446-461.
    Attempts to extend the classical Hausdorff difference hierarchy to the case of partitions of a space to k > 2 subsets lead to non‐equivalent notions. In a hope to identify the “right” extension we consider the extensions appeared in the literature so far: the limit‐, level‐, Boolean and Wadge hierarchies of k ‐partitions. The advantages and disadvantages of the four hierarchies are discussed. The main technical contribution of this paper is a complete characterization of the Wadge degrees of Δ02‐measurable (...)
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  33.  30
    On unfoldable cardinals, ω-closed cardinals, and the beginning of the inner model hierarchy.P. D. Welch - 2004 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (4):443-458.
    Let κ be a cardinal, and let H κ be the class of sets of hereditary cardinality less than κ ; let τ (κ) > κ be the height of the smallest transitive admissible set containing every element of {κ}∪H κ . We show that a ZFC-definable notion of long unfoldability, a generalisation of weak compactness, implies in the core model K, that the mouse order restricted to H κ is as long as τ. (It is known that some weak (...)
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  34. The Hierarchy of Fregean Senses.Ori Simchen - 2018 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 7 (4):255-261.
    The question whether Frege’s theory of indirect reference enforces an infinite hierarchy of senses has been hotly debated in the secondary literature. Perhaps the most influential treatment of the issue is that of Burge (1979), who offers an argument for the hierarchy from rather minimal Fregean assumptions. I argue that this argument, endorsed by many, does not itself enforce an infinite hierarchy of senses. I conclude that whether or not the theory of indirect reference can avail itself (...)
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  35.  24
    Does Descartes Have a Principle of Life? Hierarchy and Interdependence in Descartes’s Physiology.Barnaby R. Hutchins - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (6):744-769.
    At various points in his work on physiology and medicine, Descartes refers to a “principle of life.” The exact term changes—sometimes, it is the “principle of movement and life”, sometimes the “principle underlying all [the] functions” of the body —but the message seems consistent: the phenomena of living bodies are the product of a single, underlying principle. That principle is generally taken to be cardiac heat.1 The literature has, quite reasonably, taken this message at face value. Thus, Shapiro: “Descartes insists (...)
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  36.  53
    The Glass Pyramid: Informal Gender Status Hierarchy on Boards.Lívia Markóczy, Sunny Li Sun & Jigao Zhu - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 168 (4):827-845.
    Drawing on the status characteristic theory, we investigate the effect of gender on board directors’ status ranking and find that all else being equal, female directors’ status ranking is 81.48% of one position lower than that of male directors, a discrepancy that is attributable to gender. We theorize on the mechanism that determines the ways in which the status value of gender on a board affects board interactions, and we predict how this mechanism influences firm outcomes, including excessive managerial spending, (...)
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  37.  24
    Real-Time Warning and Risk Assessment of Tailings Dam Disaster Status Based on Dynamic Hierarchy-Grey Relation Analysis.Wen Li, Yicheng Ye, Nanyan Hu, Xianhua Wang & Qihu Wang - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-14.
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  38.  19
    The hierarchy in economics and its implications.Jack Wright - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-22.
    This paper argues for two propositions. (I) Large asymmetries of power, status and influence exist between economists. These asymmetries constitute a hierarchy that is steeper than it could be and steeper than hierarchies in other disciplines. (II) This situation has potentially significant epistemic consequences. I collect data on the social organization of economics to show (I). I then argue that the hierarchy in economics heightens conservative selection biases, restricts criticism between economists and disincentivizes the development of novel research. (...)
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  39. Some problems with the linnaean hierarchy.Marc Ereshefsky - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (2):186-205.
    Most biologists use the Linnaean system for constructing classifications of the organic world. The Linnaean system, however, has lost its theoretical basis due to the shift in biology from creationist and essentialist tenets to evolutionary theory. As a result, the Linnaean system is both cumbersome and ontologically vacuous. This paper illustrates the problems facing the Linnaean system, and ends with a brief introduction to an alternative approach to biological classification.
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  40. HIERARCHIES, JOBS, BODIES:: A Theory of Gendered Organizations.Joan Acker - 1990 - Gender and Society 4 (2):139-158.
    In spite of feminist recognition that hierarchical organizations are an important location of male dominance, most feminists writing about organizations assume that organizational structure is gender neutral. This article argues that organizational structure is not gender neutral; on the contrary, assumptions about gender underlie the documents and contracts used to construct organizations and to provide the commonsense ground for theorizing about them. Their gendered nature is partly masked through obscuring the embodied nature of work.jobs and hierarchies, common concepts in organizational (...)
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  41.  41
    Hierarchy.Paul H. Rubin - 2000 - Human Nature 11 (3):259-279.
    Dominance hierarchies (sometimes called “pecking orders”) are virtually universal in social species, including humans. In most species and in ancestral and early human societies, these hierarchies allocate scarce resources, including food and often access to females. Humans sometimes use hierarchies for these allocational purposes, but humans use hierarchies for productive purposes as well—as in firms, universities, and governments. Productive hierarchies and dominance hierarchies share many features. As a result, people, including students of human behavior, often confuse types of hierarchies. For (...)
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  42.  35
    A hierarchy of hereditarily finite sets.Laurence Kirby - 2008 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 47 (2):143-157.
    This article defines a hierarchy on the hereditarily finite sets which reflects the way sets are built up from the empty set by repeated adjunction, the addition to an already existing set of a single new element drawn from the already existing sets. The structure of the lowest levels of this hierarchy is examined, and some results are obtained about the cardinalities of levels of the hierarchy.
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  43.  39
    Roger Bacon (c. 1220–1292) and his System of Laws of Nature: Classification, Hierarchy and Significance.Yael Kedar & Giora Hon - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (6):719-745.
    The idea that nature is governed by laws and that the goal of science is to discover and formulate these laws, rose to prominence during the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century. It was manifestly held by the most significant actors of that revolution such as Galileo, Descartes, Kepler, Boyle, and Newton. But this idea was not new. In fact, it made an appearance in the Middle Ages, and it is likely to have emerged already in Antiquity.1In this paper we (...)
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  44.  19
    Ordinal notations based on a hierarchy of inaccessible cardinals.Wolfram Pohlers - 1987 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 33 (C):157-179.
  45.  13
    Guo Xiang's Conception of Xing and the Reconciliation of Individuality With Social Hierarchy.Wai Wai Chiu - 2024 - Philosophy East and West 74 (1):26-44.
    Abstract:This paper examines the idea of xing 性 in Guo Xiang's Commentary on the Zhuangzi in order to show the distinctiveness of Guo's thought. I argue that, for Guo, xing is individualized and subject to no external standard, not even to the "normal" condition proposed by the primitivists in the Zhuangzi. Regarding the debate about xing's changeability, I argue that one's xing can change over time, even by learning, although this change is constrained within certain boundaries. The individualization of xing (...)
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  46. Kant on music and the hierarchy of the arts.Herman Parret - 1998 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (3):251-264.
  47.  23
    Some Results in the Wadge Hierarchy of Borel Sets.A. Louveau, A. S. Kechris, D. A. Martin, Y. N. Moschovakis & J. Saint Raymond - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (1):264-266.
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  48.  13
    Just Hierarchy: Why Social Hierarchies Matter in China and the Rest of the World.Daniel A. Bell - 2020 - Princeton University Press.
    A trenchant defense of hierarchy in different spheres of our lives, from the personal to the political All complex and large-scale societies are organized along certain hierarchies, but the concept of hierarchy has become almost taboo in the modern world. Just Hierarchy contends that this stigma is a mistake. In fact, as Daniel Bell and Wang Pei show, it is neither possible nor advisable to do away with social hierarchies. Drawing their arguments from Chinese thought and culture (...)
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  49.  3
    Order-sorted logic programming with predicate hierarchy.Ken Kaneiwa - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence 158 (2):155-188.
  50.  28
    PAC learning, VC dimension, and the arithmetic hierarchy.Wesley Calvert - 2015 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 54 (7-8):871-883.
    We compute that the index set of PAC-learnable concept classes is m-complete Σ30\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\Sigma^{0}_{3}}$$\end{document} within the set of indices for all concept classes of a reasonable form. All concept classes considered are computable enumerations of computable Π10\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\Pi^{0}_{1}}$$\end{document} classes, in a sense made precise here. This family of concept classes is sufficient to cover all standard examples, and also has the property that PAC learnability (...)
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