Results for 'health policy'

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  1. Public Health Policy, Evidence, and Causation: Lessons From the Studies on Obesity.Federica Russo - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):141-151.
    The paper addresses the question of how different types of evidence ought to inform public health policy. By analysing case studies on obesity, the paper draws lessons about the different roles that different types of evidence play in setting up public health policies. More specifically, it is argued that evidence of difference-making supports considerations about ‘what works for whom in what circumstances’, and that evidence of mechanisms provides information about the ‘causal pathways’ to intervene upon.
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  2.  29
    Health Policy, Patient‐Centred Care and Clinical Ethics.Leah M. McClimans, Michael Dunn & Anne-Marie Slowther - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):913-919.
  3.  65
    Personal Responsibility Within Health Policy: Unethical and Ineffective.Phoebe Friesen - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (1):53-58.
    This paper argues against incorporating assessments of individual responsibility into healthcare policies by expanding an existing argument and offering a rebuttal to an argument in favour of such policies. First, it is argued that what primarily underlies discussions surrounding personal responsibility and healthcare is not causal responsibility, moral responsibility or culpability, as one might expect, but biases towards particular highly stigmatised behaviours. A challenge is posed for proponents of taking personal responsibility into account within health policy to either (...)
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  4.  6
    Health Policy by Litigation.Katie Keith & Joel McElvain - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):443-449.
    Since its enactment, the Affordable Care Act has faced numerous legal challenges. Many of these lawsuits have focused on implementation of the law and the limits of executive power. Opponents challenged the ACA under the Obama Administration while supporters have turned to the courts to prevent the Trump Administration from undermining the law. In the meantime, Congress remains gridlocked over the ACA and many other critical health policy issues, leaving the executive branch to adopt its preferred policy (...)
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  5. Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy.Madison Powers & Ruth Faden - 2008 - Oup Usa.
    In bioethics, discussions of justice have tended to focus on questions of fairness in access to health care: is there a right to medical treatment, and how should priorities be set when medical resources are scarce. But health care is only one of many factors that determine the extent to which people live healthy lives, and fairness is not the only consideration in determining whether a health policy is just. In this pathbreaking book, senior bioethicists Powers (...)
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  6.  14
    Ethics, Health Policy, and Zika: From Emergency to Global Epidemic?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael J. Selgelid - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):343-348.
    Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation, with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting (...)
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  7.  54
    Common Health Policy Interests and the Shaping of Global Pharmaceutical Policies.Meri Koivusalo - 2010 - Ethics and International Affairs 24 (4):395-414.
    The division of interests in key health policy areas are not necessarily between rich and poor countries, but between pharmaceutical industry interests and health policy interests on the one hand, and national industrial and trade policy interests and public health policies on the other.
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  8. Is Health (Really) Special? Health Policy Between Rawlsian and Luck Egalitarian Justice.Shlomi Segall - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (4):344-358.
    In recent work, Norman Daniels extends the application of Rawls's principle of ‘fair equality of opportunity’ from health care to health proper. Crucial to that account is the view that health care, and now also health, is special. Daniels also claims that a rival theory of distributive justice, namely luck egalitarianism (or ‘equal opportunity for welfare’), cannot provide an adequate account of justice in health and health care. He argues that the application of that (...)
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  9.  18
    Health Policy Directions for Evidence‐Based Decision Making in Canada.Tom Noseworthy & Mamoru Watanabe - 1999 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (2):227-242.
  10. Righting Health Policy: Bioethics, Political Philosophy, and the Normative Justification of Health Law and Policy.D. Robert MacDougall - 2022 - Lexington Books.
    In Righting Health Policy, MacDougall argues that bioethics has not developed the tools best suited for justifying health law and policy. Using Kant’s practical philosophy as an example, he explores the promise of political philosophy for making normatively justified recommendations about health law and policy.
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  11.  28
    Food Health Policies and Ethics: Lay Perspectives on Functional Foods.Lotte Holm - 2003 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (6):531-544.
    Functional foods are a challenge tofood health policies, since they questioncentral ideas in the way that food healthpolicies have been developed over the lastdecades. Driven by market actors instead ofpublic authorities and focusing on the role ofsingle foods and single constituents in foodsfor health, they contrast traditional wisdombehind nutrition policies that emphasize therole of the diet as a whole for health.Sociological literature about food in everydaylife shows that technical rationality co-existswith other food related rationalities, such aspractical and (...)
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  12.  72
    Islamic Verdicts in Health Policy Discourse: Porcine‐Based Vaccines as a Case Study.Aasim I. Padela - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):655-670.
    In this article, I apply a policy-oriented applied Islamic bioethics lens to two verdicts on the permissibility of using vaccines with porcine components. I begin by reviewing the decrees and then proceed to describe how they were used by health policy stakeholders. Subsequently, My analysis will highlight aspects of the verdict's ethico-legal arguments in order to illustrate salient legal concepts that must be accounted for when using Islamic verdicts as the basis for health policy. I (...)
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  13.  10
    Public Health Policy and Ethics.Michael Boylan (ed.) - 2004 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Public Health Policy and Ethics brings together philosophers and practitioners to address the foundations and principles upon which public health policy may be advanced. What is the basis that justifies public health in the first place? Why should individuals be disadvantaged for the sake of the group? How do policy concerns and clinical practice work together and work against each other? Can the boundaries of public health be extended to include social ills that (...)
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  14.  6
    Public Health Policies: Philosophical Perspectives Between Science and Democracy.Federico Boem & Matteo Galletti - 2021 - Humana Mente 14 (40).
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  15.  3
    Health Policy as Industrial Policy: Brazil in Comparative Perspective.Elize Massard da Fonseca & Kenneth C. Shadlen - 2013 - Politics and Society 41 (4):561-587.
    In contrast to analyses that regard health policy and industrial policy as anathema to each other, either because an emphasis on health implies neglect of industry or because gains in industrialization come at the expense of health, we show positive synergies between the two realms. Government intervention into the health sector can catalyze interventions to promote industrial development in the pharmaceutical sector, which in turn can make health policies more effective. We focus on (...)
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  16.  27
    Exacerbating Inequalities? Health Policy and the Behavioural Sciences.Kathryn MacKay & Muireann Quigley - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (4):380-397.
    There have been calls for some time for a new approach to public health in the United Kingdom and beyond. This is consequent on the recognition and acceptance that health problems often have a complex and multi-faceted aetiology. At the same time, policies which utilise insights from research in behavioural economics and psychology have gained prominence on the political agenda. The relationship between the social determinants of health and behavioural science in health policy has not (...)
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  17.  64
    Improving the Ethical Review of Health Policy and Systems Research: Some Suggestions.Govind Persad - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (1):123-125.
    Consistent and well-designed frameworks for ethical oversight enable socially valuable research while forestalling harmful or poorly designed studies. I suggest some alterations that might strengthen the valuable checklist Rattani & Hyder propose for the ethical review of health policy and systems research (HPSR), or prompt future work in the area.
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  18. Tailoring Public Health Policies.Govind Persad - 2021 - American Journal of Law and Medicine 47 (2-3):176–204.
    In an effort to contain the spread of COVID-19, many states and countries have adopted public health restrictions on activities previously considered commonplace: crossing state borders, eating indoors, gathering together, and even leaving one’s home. These policies often focus on specific activities or groups, rather than imposing the same limits across the board. In this Article, I consider the law and ethics of these policies, which I call tailored policies. In Part II, I identify two types of tailored policies--activity-based (...)
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  19.  23
    American Health Policy: A Physician’s Perspective.Robert J. Barnet - 1993 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 12 (3):31-46.
  20.  21
    Public Value, Maximization and Health Policy: An Examination of Hausman’s Restricted Consequentialism.James Wilson - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (2).
    In the book Valuing Health, Daniel Hausman sets out a normative framework for assessing social policy, which he calls restricted consequentialism. For the restricted consequentialist, government policy-making not only is, but ought to be, largely siloed in individual government departments. Each department has its own goal linked to a fundamental public value, which it should pursue in a maximizing way. I argue that, first, Hausman’s argument appears to be internally inconsistent: his case for thinking that health (...)
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  21.  2
    Public Health Policy Actions to Address Health Issues Associated with Drought in a Changing Climate.Rachel E. Lookadoo & Jesse E. Bell - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (4):653-663.
    Over the last century, droughts have caused more deaths internationally than any other weather- or climate-related disaster. Like other natural disasters, droughts cause significant changes in the environment that can lead to negative health outcomes. As droughts are becoming more frequent and intense with climate change, public health systems need to address impacts associated with these events. Partnering with federal and local entities, we evaluated the state of knowledge of drought and health in the United States through (...)
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  22. Health Policy in International Perspective.Gf Andeson-Sl Maxwell - forthcoming - Encyclopedia of Bioethics.
     
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  23.  13
    Health Policy and the WTO.M. Gregg Bloche & Elizabeth R. Jungman - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (4):529-545.
    Critics of international trade agreements often cast them as threats to human health, and they can point to some sobering warnings from world history. Infectious diseases have swept across political boundaries, carried by traders, colonists, and other agents of globalization. Transnational epidemics have laid economies low, undermining political stability. The spread of viruses and bacteria to peoples previously unexposed and therefore lacking immunity has decimated populations and changed the political course of continents. Trade, exploration, and warfare have repeatedly produced (...)
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  24.  34
    Trust and Responsibility in Health Policy.Meredith C. Schwartz - 2009 - Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2):116-133.
    Discussions of both personal responsibility and the importance of trust in health-care settings are increasingly prominent in the bioethics literature. In this paper I link the two discussions and argue that health policies that include personal responsibility ought to address climates of social trust. Trust is a social good that is not always fairly distributed. Disadvantaged social groups often face default distrust. I suggest that agent-centered models in which responsibilities are negotiated do a better job of repairing social (...)
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  25.  26
    Health Policy Watch: Rappelling on the Slippery Slope: Negotiating Public Policy for Physician-Assisted Death.Joseph C. D'Oronzio - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (1):113-117.
    The rock climber and the law share in a common etymological allusion when each reaches a steep, high, and hard place. The climber “appeals” to the mountain by inching down on a rope and the law's “rappel” is similarly a route to more comfortable footing. Each step in this common process is germane to the eventual resolution, for it is to be found in the rappel process itself and in the meaning of each appeal.
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  26.  40
    Health Policies and Bioethics: A Psychosocial Perspective in Managing the Moral Question.Ines Testoni & Adriano Zamperini - 2005 - World Futures 61 (8):611 – 621.
    In Western democratic society, the specificity of the bioethical debate over the life-sciences involves bringing together many different study factors. The dilemmas raised by the new scientific discoveries highlight how contemporary common sense is plagued by a profound feeling of anguish over possible future anthropological developments. One of the central problems is the social construction of consent as a psychological strategy seeking to orient public opinion toward accepting new applications of science and technology. On the one hand, the general features (...)
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  27. Between Reason and Coercion: Ethically Permissible Influence in Health Care and Health Policy Contexts.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (4):345-366.
    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats—or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the (...)
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  28.  4
    Health Policy and the WTO.M. Gregg Bloche & Elizabeth R. Jungman - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (4):529-545.
    Critics of international trade agreements often cast them as threats to human health, and they can point to some sobering warnings from world history. Infectious diseases have swept across political boundaries, carried by traders, colonists, and other agents of globalization. Transnational epidemics have laid economies low, undermining political stability. The spread of viruses and bacteria to peoples previously unexposed and therefore lacking immunity has decimated populations and changed the political course of continents. Trade, exploration, and warfare have repeatedly produced (...)
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  29.  27
    Health Policy Watch: Ethical Obligations in the Body Politic: The Case of Normalization Policy for Marginal Populations.Joseph C. D'Oronzio - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (4):480.
    A common tale of moral cacophony and euphemism on the city streets:Each day, an owner of a small business decides, “once and for all,” how to respond to the “homeless person” panhandling for “spare change” as she makes her way to work in the morning. Today, she looks the other way and holds more tightly to her purse. Nearby, a building contractor waits impatiently for the traffic light to change as his van is approached by a small and shabby band (...)
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  30.  20
    Health Policy Analysis as Ideology and as Utopian Rhetoric: The Case of U. S. Federal Health Maintenance Organization Policy Analysis.Irwin Miller - 1990 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 9 (3/4):173-182.
  31.  22
    Litigation as Public Health Policy: Theory or Reality?Peter D. Jacobson & Soheil Soliman - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (2):224-238.
    An ongoing debate among legal scholars and public health advocates is the role of litigation in shaping public policy. For the most part, the debate has been waged at a conceptual level, with opponents and proponents arguing within fairly well-defined boundaries. The debate has been based either on speculation of what litigation could achieve or on ideological grounds as to why litigation should or should not be used this way. With the exception of Rosenberg's study of how litigation (...)
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  32.  10
    Health Policy Watch: “Unexpected” Death and Other Report Cards on Access and Ethics.Joseph C. D'Oronzio - 1995 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (4):549.
    The era of managed care has arrived with portents of a new calculus to integrate cost and quality in health services. These devises such as “report cards” and “outcome measures” place performance against expectations and thus are expected to gauge the value of specific elements of healthcare delivery. From such measures and comparisons, the public will be able to better judge the appropriate, effective, and attractive place to seek their medical services. What is now widely used by utilization review, (...)
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  33.  10
    Health Policy: Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin Comes to Medicine-Redux.R. H. Moser - 2009 - The Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha-Honor Medical Society. Alpha Omega Alpha 72 (4):26.
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  34.  16
    IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.Ferry Efendi, Timothy Ken Mackey, Mei-Chih Huang & Ching-Min Chen - 2017 - Nursing Ethics 24 (3):313-328.
    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country’s adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country’s own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia–Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia–Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering (...)
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  35.  15
    Health Policy on the Town Meeting Agenda.Brian Hines - 1986 - Hastings Center Report 16 (2):5-7.
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  36.  50
    Wanted: A New Ethics Field for Health Policy Analysis.Nuala Kenny & Mita Giacomini - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (4):247-260.
    Ethics guidance and ethical frameworks are becoming more explicit and prevalent in health policy proposals. However, little attention has been given to evaluating their roles and impacts in the policy arena. Before this can be investigated, fundamental questions must be asked about the nature of ethics in relation to policy, and about the nexus of the fields of applied ethical analysis and health policy analysis. This paper examines the interdisciplinary stretch between bioethics and (...) policy analysis. In particular, it highlights areas of scholarship where a health policy ethicsspecialization—as distinctive from bioethics—might develop to address health policy concerns. If policy and ethics both ask the same question, that question is: “What is the good, and how do we achieve it?” To answer this question, the new field of “health policy ethics” requires development. First, we should develop a full set of ethical principles and complementary ethical theories germane to public policy per se. Second, we must understand better how explicit attention to ethical concerns affects policy dynamics. Third, we require new policy and ethical analytic approaches that contribute to constructive policy making. Finally, we need indicators of robust, high quality ethical analysis for the purpose public policy making. (shrink)
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  37.  3
    Health Policies, Health Politics: The British and American Experience, 1911-1965. Daniel M. Fox.Jane Lewis - 1987 - Isis 78 (2):264-265.
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  38.  4
    Litigation as Public Health Policy: Theory or Reality?Peter D. Jacobson & Soheil Soliman - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (2):224-238.
    An ongoing debate among legal scholars and public health advocates is the role of litigation in shaping public policy. For the most part, the debate has been waged at a conceptual level, with opponents and proponents arguing within fairly well-defined boundaries. The debate has been based either on speculation of what litigation could achieve or on ideological grounds as to why litigation should or should not be used this way. With the exception of Rosenberg's study of how litigation (...)
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  39.  28
    Blind-Sided by Privacy? Digital Contact Tracing, the Apple/Google API and Big Tech’s Newfound Role as Global Health Policy Makers.Tamar Sharon - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):45-57.
    Since the outbreak of COVID-19, governments have turned their attention to digital contact tracing. In many countries, public debate has focused on the risks this technology poses to privacy, with advocates and experts sounding alarm bells about surveillance and mission creep reminiscent of the post 9/11 era. Yet, when Apple and Google launched their contact tracing API in April 2020, some of the world’s leading privacy experts applauded this initiative for its privacy-preserving technical specifications. In an interesting twist, the tech (...)
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  40.  63
    Utilitarian Theories Reconsidered: Common Misconceptions, More Recent Developments, and Health Policy Implications.Afschin Gandjour & Karl Wilhelm Lauterbach - 2003 - Health Care Analysis 11 (3):229-244.
    Despite the prevalence of the terms utilitarianism and utilitarian in the health care and health policy literature, anecdotal evidence suggests that authors are often not fully aware of the diversity of utilitarian theories, their principles, and implications. Further, it seems that authors often categorically reject utilitarianism under the assumption that it violates individual rights. The tendency of act utilitarianism to neglect individual rights is attenuated, however, by the diminishing marginal utility of wealth and the disutility of a (...)
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  41.  67
    Why It's Time to Stop Worrying About Paternalism in Health Policy.J. Wilson - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (3):269-279.
    Public health policies which involve active intervention to improve the health of the population are often criticized as paternalistic. This article argues that it is a mistake to frame our discussions of public health policies in terms of paternalism. First, it is deeply problematic to pick out which policies should count as paternalistic; at best, we can talk about paternalistic justifications for policies. Second, two of the elements that make paternalism problematic at an individual level—interference with liberty (...)
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  42.  1
    Health Policy Watch: Second, Let No Harm Be Done: An American Antiimmigration Dilemma.Joseph C. D'Oronzio - 1996 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (3):467.
    Ongoing legislative proposals to overhaul United States immigration policy look very much like a new wave of nativism is sweeping the Congress. The movement, mounted in early 1995, is in full swing to limit immigrant populations from arriving, settling, producing, and benefiting as our parents' generations have done. Legislators and the courts are now considering the most complete antiimmigration social legislation since the decades following the First World War.
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  43.  28
    Medical Evidence and Health Policy: A Marriage of Convenience? The Case of Proton Pump Inhibitors.Mieke L. Van Driel, Robert Vander Stichele, Jan De Maeseneer, An De Sutter & Thierry Christiaens - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):674-680.
    Rationale In Belgium, several policies regulating reimbursement of acid suppressant drugs and evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice were issued in a short period of time, creating a unique opportunity to observe their effect on prescribing. Aims and objectives To describe the evolution of prescriptions for acid suppressants and explore the interaction of policies and practice recommendations with prescribing patterns. Method Monthly claims-based data for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H-2-antihistamines by general practitioners, internists and "astroenterologists were obtained from the Belgian (...)
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  44.  2
    Health Policy in the Land of Oz.Spencer Johnson - 2001 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 38 (4):347-350.
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  45.  16
    Accountability and Public Health Policies Impacting Proper Ebola Response: Time for a Bioethics Oversight Board.Ramin Asgary - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):72-74.
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  46.  1
    Health Policy Issues: An Economic Perspective on Health Reform.Donald S. Kenkel - 2000 - Inquiry (Misc) 37 (2).
  47.  59
    International Trade and Health Policy: Implications of the GATS for US Healthcare Reform.Patricia J. Arnold & Terrie C. Reeves - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (4):313-332.
    This paper examines the implications of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), the World Trade Organization’s agreement governing trade in health-related services, for health policy and healthcare reform in the United States. The paper describes the nature and scope of US obligations under the GATS, the ways in which the trade agreement intersects with domestic health policy, and the institutional factors that mediate trade-offs between health and trade policy. The analysis suggests (...)
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  48.  15
    Climate Change and Public Health Policy.Jason A. Smith, Jason Vargo & Sara Pollock Hoverter - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (s1):82-85.
    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.
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  49.  12
    Autonomy and Paternalism in Health Policy: Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.Mark A. Rothstein - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (4):590-594.
    In the United States the delivery of health care traditionally has been hierarchical and strictly controlled by physicians. Physicians typically provided patients with little information about their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment plan; patients were expected to follow their physicians’ orders and ask no questions. Beginning in the 1970s, with the widespread adoption of the doctrine of informed consent to treatment, the physician-patient relationship began to be more collaborative, although the extent of the change has been subject to debate. At (...)
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  50.  40
    Evidence-Based Medicine as an Instrument for Rational Health Policy.Nikola Biller-Andorno, Reidar K. Lie & Ruud Ter Meulen - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (3):261-275.
    This article tries to present a broad view on the values and ethicalissues that are at stake in efforts to rationalize health policy on thebasis of economic evaluations (like cost-effectiveness analysis) andrandomly controlled clinical trials. Though such a rationalization isgenerally seen as an objective and `value free' process, moral valuesoften play a hidden role, not only in the production of `evidence', butalso in the way this evidence is used in policy making. For example, thedefinition of effectiveness of (...)
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