Results for 'framing'

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  1. Do Framing Effects Make Moral Intuitions Unreliable?Joanna Demaree-Cotton - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (1):1-22.
    I address Sinnott-Armstrong's argument that evidence of framing effects in moral psychology shows that moral intuitions are unreliable and therefore not noninferentially justified. I begin by discussing what it is to be epistemically unreliable and clarify how framing effects render moral intuitions unreliable. This analysis calls for a modification of Sinnott-Armstrong's argument if it is to remain valid. In particular, he must claim that framing is sufficiently likely to determine the content of moral intuitions. I then re-examine (...)
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  2.  37
    Moral Framing Effects Within Subjects.Paul Rehren & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (5):611-636.
    Several philosophers and psychologists have argued that evidence of moral framing effects shows that many of our moral judgments are unreliable. However, all previous empirical work on moral framing effects has used between-subject experimental designs. We argue that between-subject designs alone do not allow us to accurately estimate the extent of moral framing effects or to properly evaluate the case from framing effects against the reliability of our moral judgments. To do better, we report results of (...)
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  3. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience.Erving Goffman - 1979 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (4):601-602.
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  4.  31
    Four Frames Suffice: A Provisional Model of Vision and Space.Jerome A. Feldman - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):265-289.
    This paper presents a general computational treatment of how mammals are able to deal with visual objects and environments. The model tries to cover the entire range from behavior and phenomenological experience to detailed neural encodings in crude but computationally plausible reductive steps. The problems addressed include perceptual constancies, eye movements and the stable visual world, object descriptions, perceptual generalizations, and the representation of extrapersonal space.The entire development is based on an action-oriented notion of perception. The observer is assumed to (...)
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  5.  31
    The Case of Dr. John D. Frame′s First Memory: Historical Truth and Psychological Distortion.Matthew Hugh Erdelyi & John D. Frame - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):95-99.
  6. Frames of Mind: Constraints on the Common-Sense Conception of the Mental.Adam Morton - 1980 - Oxford University Press.
    I argue that general constraints on how humans think about humans produce universal features of the concept of mind. Some of these constraints determine how we imagine other people's thinking and action through our own. I formulate this in opposition to what I call the "theory theory". I believe this was the first use of this terminology, and this work was an early version of what has come to be called the simulation theory.
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  7. Framing as Path Dependence.Natalie Gold & Christian List - 2004 - Economics and Philosophy 20 (2):253-277.
    A framing effect occurs when an agent's choices are not invariant under changes in the way a decision problem is presented, e.g. changes in the way options are described (violation of description invariance) or preferences are elicited (violation of procedure invariance). Here we identify those rationality violations that underlie framing effects. We attribute to the agent a sequential decision process in which a “target” proposition and several “background” propositions are considered. We suggest that the agent exhibits a (...) effect if and only if two conditions are met. First, different presentations of the decision problem lead the agent to consider the propositions in a different order (the empirical condition). Second, different such “decision paths” lead to different decisions on the target proposition (the logical condition). The second condition holds when the agent's initial dispositions on the propositions are “implicitly inconsistent,” which may be caused by violations of “deductive closure.” Our account is consistent with some observations made by psychologists and provides a unified framework for explaining violations of description and procedure invariance. (shrink)
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  8.  52
    Framing Democracy: A Behavioral Approach to Democratic Theory.Jamie Terence Kelly - 2012 - Princeton University Press.
    The past thirty years have seen a surge of empirical research into political decision making and the influence of framing effects--the phenomenon that occurs when different but equivalent presentations of a decision problem elicit different judgments or preferences. During the same period, political philosophers have become increasingly interested in democratic theory, particularly in deliberative theories of democracy. Unfortunately, the empirical and philosophical studies of democracy have largely proceeded in isolation from each other. As a result, philosophical treatments of democracy (...)
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  9. Framing Joint Action.Elisabeth Pacherie - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (2):173-192.
    Many philosophers have offered accounts of shared actions aimed at capturing what makes joint actions intentionally joint. I first discuss two leading accounts of shared intentions, proposed by Michael Bratman and Margaret Gilbert. I argue that Gilbert’s account imposes more normativity on shared intentions than is strictly needed and that Bratman’s account requires too much cognitive sophistication on the part of agents. I then turn to the team-agency theory developed by economists that I see as offering an alternative route to (...)
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  10.  21
    Framing and Editing Interpersonal Arguments.Dale Hample, Ben Warner & Dorian Young - 2008 - Argumentation 23 (1):21-37.
    Since argument frames precede most other arguing processes, argument editing among them, one’s frames may well predict one’s preferred editorial standards. This experiment assesses people’s arguing frames, gives them arguments to edit, and tests whether the frames actually do predict editorial preferences. Modest relationships between argument frames and argument editing appear. Other connections among frames, editing, and additional individual differences variables are more substantial. Particularly notable are the informative influences of psychological reactance. A new theoretical contribution is offered, connecting argument (...)
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  11.  32
    Framing Cognition: Dewey’s Potential Contributions to Some Enactivist Issues.Roberta Dreon - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 1):485-506.
    It is well known that John Dewey was very far from embracing the traditional idea of cognition as something happening inside one’s own mind and consisting in a pictorial representation of the alleged purely external reality out there. His position was largely convergent with enactivist accounts of cognition as something based in life and consisting in human actions within a natural environment. The paper considers Dewey’s conception of cognition by focusing on its potential contributions to the current debate with enactivism. (...)
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  12. Framing Christian Eschatology Through Natural Teleology? Theological Possibilities and Concerns.Mikael Leidenhag - 2022 - Wiley: The Heythrop Journal 63 (3):401-413.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 3, Page 401-413, May 2022.
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  13.  42
    Framing and Organizational Misconduct: A Symbolic Interactionist Study.Tammy L. MacLean - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):3-16.
    This study expands theoretical understanding of organizational misconduct through qualitative analysis of widespread deceptive sales practices at a large U.S. life insurance company. Adopting a symbolic interactionist perspective, this research describes how a set of taken-for-granted interpretive frames located in the organization’s culture created a worldview through which deceptive sales practices were seen as normal, acceptable, routine operating procedure. The findings from this study extend and modify the dominant theoretical ‘pressure/opportunity’ model of organizational misconduct by proposing that the process engine (...)
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  14. Framing Effects as Violations of Extensionality.Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde & Raphaël Giraud - 2009 - Theory and Decision 67 (4):385-404.
    Framing effects occur when different descriptions of the same decision problem give rise to divergent decisions. They can be seen as a violation of the decisiontheoretic version of the principle of extensionality (PE). The PE in logic means that two logically equivalent sentences can be substituted salva veritate. We explore what this notion of extensionality becomes in decision contexts. Violations of extensionality may have rational grounds. Based on some ideas proposed by the psychologist Craig McKenzie and colleagues, we contend (...)
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  15.  85
    Framing a Phenomenological Interview: What, Why and How.Simon Høffding & Kristian Martiny - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):539-564.
    Research in phenomenology has benefitted from using exceptional cases from pathology and expertise. But exactly how are we to generate and apply knowledge from such cases to the phenomenological domain? As researchers of cerebral palsy and musical absorption, we together answer the how question by pointing to the resource of the qualitative interview. Using the qualitative interview is a direct response to Varela’s call for better pragmatics in the methodology of phenomenology and cognitive science and Gallagher’s suggestion for phenomenology to (...)
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  16.  85
    The Frame Problem.Murray Shanahan - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  17.  20
    Framing Fracking.Elena Musi & Mark Aakhus - 2019 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 8 (1):112-135.
    This article offers a first large scale analysis of argumentative polylogues in the fracking controversy. It provides an empirical methodology that identifies, from large quantities of text data through semantic frame analysis, the many players, positions and places presumed relevant to argumentation in a controversy. It goes beyond the usual study of framing in communication research because it considers that a controversy’s communicative context is shaped, and in turn conditions, the making and defending of standpoints. To achieve these novels (...)
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  18.  73
    A Frame-Based Approach for Theoretical Concepts.Stephan Kornmesser - 2016 - Synthese 193 (1):145-166.
    According to a seminal paper by Barsalou , frames are attribute-value-matrices for representing exemplars or concepts. Frames have been used as a tool for reconstructing scientific concepts as well as conceptual change within scientific revolutions . In the frame-based representations of scientific concepts developed so far the semantic content of concepts is determined by a set of attribute-specific values. This way of representing semantic content works best for prototype concepts and defined concepts of a conceptual taxonomy satisfying the no-overlap principle. (...)
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  19.  60
    The Frame/Content Theory of Evolution of Speech Production.Peter F. MacNeilage - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):499-511.
    The species-specific organizational property of speech is a continual mouth open-close alternation, the two phases of which are subject to continual articulatory modulation. The cycle constitutes the syllable, and the open and closed phases are segments framescontent displays that are prominent in many nonhuman primates. The new role of Broca's area and its surround in human vocal communication may have derived from its evolutionary history as the main cortical center for the control of ingestive processes. The frame and content components (...)
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  20. Framing the Frame Problem.Eric Lormand - 1990 - Synthese 82 (3):353-74.
    The frame problem is widely reputed among philosophers to be one of the deepest and most difficult problems of cognitive science. This paper discusses three recent attempts to display this problem: Dennett's problem of ignoring obviously irrelevant knowledge, Haugeland's problem of efficiently keeping track of salient side effects, and Fodor's problem of avoiding the use of kooky concepts. In a negative vein, it is argued that these problems bear nothing but a superficial similarity to the frame problem of AI, so (...)
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  21.  4
    Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations.Cecilia L. Ridgeway - 2009 - Gender and Society 23 (2):145-160.
    In this article, I argue that gender is a primary cultural frame for coordinating behavior and organizing social relations. I describe the implications for understanding how gender shapes social behavior and organizational structures. By my analysis, gender typically acts as a background identity that biases, in gendered directions, the performance of behaviors undertaken in the name of organizational roles and identities. I develop an account of how the background effects of the gender frame on behavior vary by the context that (...)
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  22.  21
    Framing Feminism: Art and the Women's Movement, 1970-85.Rozsika Parker & Griselda Pollock - 1987 - Pandora Press.
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  23.  47
    Framing Transformation: The Counter-Hegemonic Potential of Food Sovereignty in the US Context. [REVIEW]Madeleine Fairbairn - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (2):217-230.
    Originally created by the international peasant movement La Vía Campesina, the concept of “food sovereignty” is being used with increasing frequency by agrifood activists and others in the Global North. Using the analytical lens of framing, I explore the effects of this diffusion on the transformative potential of food sovereignty. US agrifood initiatives have recently been the subject of criticism for their lack of transformative potential, whether because they offer market-based solutions rather than demanding political ones or because they (...)
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  24.  7
    Framing a Phenomenological Mixed Method: From Inspiration to Guidance.Kristian Moltke Martiny, Juan Toro & Simon Høffding - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Despite a long history of researchers who combine phenomenology with qualitative or quantitative methods, there are only few examples of working with a phenomenological mixed method—a method where phenomenology informs both qualitative and quantitative data generation, analysis, and interpretation. Researchers have argued that in working with a phenomenological mixed method, there should be mutual constraint and enlightenment between the qualitative and quantitative methods for studying consciousness. In this article, we discuss what a framework for phenomenological mixed methods could look like (...)
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  25.  17
    Rationalising Framing Effects: At Least One Task for Empirically Informed Philosophy.Sarah A. Fisher - 2020 - Crítica, Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 52 (156):5-30.
    Human judgements are affected by the words in which information is presented —or ‘framed’. According to the standard gloss, ‘framing effects’ reveal counter-normative reasoning, unduly affected by positive/negative language. One challenge to this view suggests that number expressions in alternative framing conditions are interpreted as denoting lower-bounded (minimum) quantities. However, it is unclear whether the resulting explanation is a rationalising one. I argue that a number expression should only be interpreted lower-boundedly if this is what it actually means. (...)
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  26.  56
    Framing the Issues: Moral Distress in Health Care. [REVIEW]Bernadette M. Pauly, Colleen Varcoe & Jan Storch - 2012 - HEC Forum 24 (1):1-11.
    Moral distress in health care has been identified as a growing concern and a focus of research in nursing and health care for almost three decades. Researchers and theorists have argued that moral distress has both short and long-term consequences. Moral distress has implications for satisfaction, recruitment and retention of health care providers and implications for the delivery of safe and competent quality patient care. In over a decade of research on ethical practice, registered nurses and other health care practitioners (...)
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  27.  94
    Framing Human Inference by Coherence Based Probability Logic.Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2009 - Journal of Applied Logic 7 (2):206--217.
    We take coherence based probability logic as the basic reference theory to model human deductive reasoning. The conditional and probabilistic argument forms are explored. We give a brief overview of recent developments of combining logic and probability in psychology. A study on conditional inferences illustrates our approach. First steps towards a process model of conditional inferences conclude the paper.
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  28.  83
    Framing How We Think About Disagreement.Joshua Alexander, Diana Betz, Chad Gonnerman & John Philip Waterman - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (10):2539-2566.
    Disagreement is a hot topic right now in epistemology, where there is spirited debate between epistemologists who argue that we should be moved by the fact that we disagree and those who argue that we need not. Both sides to this debate often use what is commonly called “the method of cases,” designing hypothetical cases involving peer disagreement and using what we think about those cases as evidence that specific normative theories are true or false, and as reasons for believing (...)
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  29. Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World.[author unknown] - 2011
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  30. The Frame Problem, the Relevance Problem, and a Package Solution to Both.Yingjin Xu & Pei Wang - 2012 - Synthese 187 (S1):43-72.
    As many philosophers agree, the frame problem is concerned with how an agent may efficiently filter out irrelevant information in the process of problem-solving. Hence, how to solve this problem hinges on how to properly handle semantic relevance in cognitive modeling, which is an area of cognitive science that deals with simulating human's cognitive processes in a computerized model. By "semantic relevance", we mean certain inferential relations among acquired beliefs which may facilitate information retrieval and practical reasoning under certain epistemic (...)
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  31.  20
    Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.Cleotilde Gonzalez & Katja Mehlhorn - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (5):1163-1191.
    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as “gains” and risk seeking in problems framed as “losses,” even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and (...)
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  32. Modules, Frames, Fridgeons, Sleeping Dogs, and the Music of the Spheres.Jerry A. Fodor - 1987 - In Zenon W. Pylyshyn (ed.), The Robot's Dilemma: the Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence. Ablex. pp. 139--49.
     
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  33.  45
    General Frames for Relevant Modal Logics.Takahiro Seki - 2003 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 44 (2):93-109.
    General frames are often used in classical modal logic. Since they are duals of modal algebras, completeness follows automatically as with algebras but the intuitiveness of Kripke frames is also retained. This paper develops basics of general frames for relevant modal logics by showing that they share many important properties with general frames for classical modal logic.
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  34.  13
    Mapping, Framing, Shaping: A Framework for Empirical Bioethics Research Projects.Richard Huxtable & Jonathan Ives - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-8.
    Background There is growing interest in the use and incorporation of empirical data in bioethics research. Much of the recent focus has been on specific “empirical bioethics” methodologies, which attempt to integrate the empirical and the normative. Researchers in the field are, however, beginning to explore broader questions, including around acceptable standards of practice for undertaking such research. The framework: In this article, we further widen the focus to consider the overall shape of an empirical bioethics research project. We outline (...)
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  35.  19
    Framing Sentences.K. Bock - 1990 - Cognition 35 (1):1-39.
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  36.  16
    Framing the Outcome of Moral Dilemmas: Effects of Emotional Information.Grazia Pia Palmiotti, Fiorella Del Popolo Cristaldi, Nicola Cellini, Lorella Lotto & Michela Sarlo - 2020 - Ethics and Behavior 30 (3):213-229.
    The present study was aimed at investigating whether and how the explicit representation of the decision outcome, framed in terms of lives saved or lost, could affect decision choices, emotional experience, and decision times in the course of a moral dilemma task. Decision outcomes were framed in a between-group design by means of smiling or injured faces depicting, respectively, the lives saved or lost with each choice. A control condition with no frame and no outcome was included. Results showed that (...)
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  37.  63
    Modal Frame Correspondences and Fixed-Points.Johan Van Benthem - 2006 - Studia Logica 83 (1-3):133-155.
    Taking Löb's Axiom in modal provability logic as a running thread, we discuss some general methods for extending modal frame correspondences, mainly by adding fixed-point operators to modal languages as well as their correspondence languages. Our suggestions are backed up by some new results – while we also refer to relevant work by earlier authors. But our main aim is advertizing the perspective, showing how modal languages with fixed-point operators are a natural medium to work with.
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  38.  22
    Framing Pictures: The Role of Knowledge in Automatized Encoding and Memory for Gist.Alinda Friedman - 1979 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108 (3):316-355.
  39.  58
    The Framing of Corporate Social Responsibility and the Globalization of National Business Systems: A Longitudinal Case Study.Stefan Tengblad & Claes Ohlsson - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (4):653-669.
    The globalization movement in recent decades has meant rapid growth in trade, financial transactions, and cross-country ownership of economic assets. In this article, we examine how the globalization of national business systems has influenced the framing of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is done using text analysis of CEO letters appearing in the annual reports of 15 major corporations in Sweden during a period of transformational change. The results show that the discourse about CSR in the annual reports has (...)
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  40. Framing Intersectionality.Elena Ruíz - 2017 - In The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Race. pp. 335-348.
    Intersectionality is a term that arose within the black feminist intellectual tradition for the purposes of identifying interlocking systems of oppression. As a descriptive term, it refers to the ways human identity is shaped by multiple social vectors and overlapping identity categories (such as sex, race, class) that may not be readily visible in single-axis formulations of identity, but which are taken to be integral to robustly capture the multifaceted nature of human experience. As a diagnostic term, it captures the (...)
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  41.  45
    Framing Effects Within the Ethical Decision Making Process of Consumers.Connie Rae Bateman, John Paul Fraedrich & Rajesh Iyer - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 36 (1-2):119 - 140.
    There has been neglect of systematic conceptual development and empirical investigation within consumer ethics. Scenarios have been a long-standing tool yet their development has been haphazard with little theory guiding their development. This research answers four questions relative to this gap: Do different scenario decision frames encourage different moral reasoning styles? Does the way in which framing effects are measured make a difference in the measurement of the relationship between moral reasoning and judgment by gender? Are true framing (...)
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  42.  26
    Frames and the Ontology of Particular Objects.David Hommen - 2018 - Dialectica 72 (3):385-409.
    The theory of frames has recently been proposed as a universal format for knowledge representation in language, cognition and science. Frames represent categories as well as individual objects and events in terms of recursive attribute-value structures. In this paper, we would like to explore the potential ontological commitments of frame-based knowledge representations, with particular emphasis on the ontological status of the possessors of quality attributes in individual object frames. While not strictly incompatible with nominalistic, bundle- or substratum-theoretic approaches to the (...)
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  43.  29
    Frequent Frames as a Cue for Grammatical Categories in Child Directed Speech.Toben H. Mintz - 2003 - Cognition 90 (1):91-117.
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  44.  4
    Need, Frames, and Time Constraints in Risky Decision-Making.Adele Diederich, Marc Wyszynski & Stefan Traub - 2020 - Theory and Decision 89 (1):1-37.
    In two experiments, participants had to choose between a sure and a risky option. The sure option was presented either in a gain or a loss frame. Need was defined as a minimum score the participants had to reach. Moreover, choices were made under two different time constraints and with three different levels of induced need to be reached within a fixed number of trials. The two experiments differed with respect to the specific amounts to win and the need levels. (...)
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  45.  30
    Message Framing, Normative Advocacy and Persuasive Success.Adam Corner & Ulrike Hahn - 2010 - Argumentation 24 (2):153-163.
    In a recent article in Argumentation, O’Keefe (Argumentation 21:151–163, 2007) observed that the well-known ‘framing effects’ in the social psychological literature on persuasion are akin to traditional fallacies of argumentation and reasoning and could be exploited for persuasive success in a way that conflicts with principles of responsible advocacy. Positively framed messages (“if you take aspirin, your heart will be more healthy”) differ in persuasive effect from negative frames (“if you do not take aspirin, your heart will be less (...)
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  46.  40
    Framing Event Variables.Paul M. Pietroski - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (1):31-60.
    Davidsonian analyses of action reports like ‘Alvin chased Theodore around a tree’ are often viewed as supporting the hypothesis that sentences of a human language H have truth conditions that can be specified by a Tarski-style theory of truth for H. But in my view, simple cases of adverbial modification add to the reasons for rejecting this hypothesis, even though Davidson rightly diagnosed many implications involving adverbs as cases of conjunct-reduction in the scope of an existential quantifier. I think the (...)
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  47. Decision Framing in Judgment Aggregation.Fabrizio Cariani, Marc Pauly & Josh Snyder - 2008 - Synthese 163 (1):1 - 24.
    Judgment aggregation problems are language dependent in that they may be framed in different yet equivalent ways. We formalize this dependence via the notion of translation invariance, adopted from the philosophy of science, and we argue for the normative desirability of translation invariance. We characterize the class of translation invariant aggregation functions in the canonical judgment aggregation model, which requires collective judgments to be complete. Since there are reasonable translation invariant aggregation functions, our result can be viewed as a possibility (...)
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  48.  11
    Frames of Reference for the Light-From-Above Prior in Visual Search and Shape Judgements.Wendy J. Adams - 2008 - Cognition 107 (1):137-150.
  49. Linguistic Framing Effects in Business and Refugee Aid Contexts: A Replication and Extension of Cooley Et Al. (2017).Alexander Garinther & Holly Arrow - 2022 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 151 (5):e1-e18.
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  50.  13
    Framing Messages for Vaccination Supporters.Sacha Altay & Hugo Mercier - 2020 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 26 (4):567-578.
    Efficiently communicating information on vaccination is crucial to maintaining a high level of immunization coverage, but it implies finding the right content for the right audience. Provaccination individuals, who represent the majority of the population, and who have been neglected in the literature, could play an important role relaying provaccination messages through informal discussions, if only these messages are (a) found plausible, (b) remembered, and (c) shared. We conducted 7 experiments on 2,761 provaccination online participants (United States and United Kingdom), (...)
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