Results for 'exemplars'

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  1. Exemplarism in Moral Education: Problems with Applicability and Indoctrination.Michel Croce - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (3):291-302.
    This article introduces an account of moral education grounded in Zagzebski’s recent Exemplarist Moral Theory and discusses two problems that have to be solved for the account to become a realistic alternative to other educational models on the market, namely the limited-applicability problem and the problem of indoctrination. The first problem raises worries about the viability of the account in ordinary circumstances. The second charges the proposed educational model with indoctrinating students. The main goal of this article is to show (...)
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  2. Moral Exemplars in Education: A Liberal Account.Michel Croce - 2020 - Ethics and Education (x):186-199.
    This paper takes issue with the exemplarist strategy of fostering virtue development with the specific goal of improving its applicability in the context of education. I argue that, for what matters educationally, we have good reasons to endorse a liberal account of moral exemplarity. Specifically, I challenge two key assumptions of Linda Zagzebski’s Exemplarist Moral Theory (2017), namely that moral exemplars are exceptionally virtuous agents and that imitating their behavior is the main strategy for acquiring the virtues. I will (...)
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  3.  42
    Moral Exemplars in the Analects: The Good Person is That.Amy Olberding - 2011 - Routledge.
    In this study, Olberding proposes a new theoretical model for reading the _Analects_. Her thesis is that the moral sensibility of the text derives from an effort to conceptually capture and articulate the features seen in exemplars, exemplars that are identified and admired pre-theoretically and thus prior to any conceptual criteria for virtue. Put simply, Olberding proposes an "origins myth" in which Confucius, already and prior to his philosophizing knows _whom _he judges to be virtuous. The work we (...)
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  4. Forgiveness, Exemplars, and the Oppressed.Myisha Cherry - 2017 - In Kathryn J. Norlock (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Forgiveness. Maryland, USA: pp. 55-72.
    I argue that while moral exemplars are useful, we must be careful in our use of them. I first describe forgiveness exemplars that are often used to persuade victims to forgive such as Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr., and Jesus of Nazareth. I also explain how, for Kant, highlighting these figures as moral exemplars can be useful. I then explain two kinds of rhetorical strategies that are used when attempting to convince victims to forgive. Last, I (...)
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  5. Attainable and Relevant Moral Exemplars Are More Effective Than Extraordinary Exemplars in Promoting Voluntary Service Engagement.Hyemin Han, Jeongmin Kim, Changwoo Jeong & Geoffrey L. Cohen - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8:283.
    The present study aimed to develop effective moral educational interventions based on social psychology by using stories of moral exemplars. We tested whether motivation to engage in voluntary service as a form of moral behavior was better promoted by attainable and relevant exemplars or by unattainable and irrelevant exemplars. First, experiment 1, conducted in a lab, showed that stories of attainable exemplars more effectively promoted voluntary service activity engagement among undergraduate students compared with stories of unattainable (...)
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  6. Exemplars, Ethics, and Illness Narratives.Ian Kidd - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):323-334.
    Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling—for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reason: an inferentialist style that generates the (...)
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  7.  48
    Exemplars and Nudges: Combining Two Strategies for Moral Education.Engelen Bart, Thomas Alan, Alfred Archer & van de Ven Niels - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (3):346-365.
    This article defends the use of narratives about morally exemplary individuals in moral education and appraises the role that ‘nudge’ strategies can play in combination with such an appeal to exemplars. It presents a general conception of the aims of moral education and explains how the proposed combination of both moral strategies serves these aims. An important aim of moral education is to make the ethical perspective of the subject—the person being educated—more structured, more salient and therefore more ‘navigable’. (...)
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  8.  13
    Exploring the Role of Exemplarity in Education: Two Dimensions of the Teacher’s Task.Morten Timmermann Korsgaard - 2019 - Ethics and Education 14 (3):271-284.
    ABSTRACTThis paper explores the role of exemplarity in education through a conceptualisation of two different dimensions of exemplarity in educational practice. Pedagogical exemplarity, which relates to the pedagogical and ethical dimension of educational practice. In other words, this dimension explores the educational moments when someone takes up an exemplary function in educational practice. Didactical exemplarity, which relates to the exemplary function of subject matter or educational content. In other words, this dimension explores the educational moments when something takes up an (...)
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  9. False Exemplars: Admiration and the Ethics of Public Monuments.Benjamin Cohen Rossi - 2020 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 18 (1).
    In recent years, a new generation of activists has reinvigorated debate over the public commemorative landscape. While this debate is in no way limited to statues, it frequently crystallizes around public representations of historical figures who expressed support for the oppression of certain groups or contributed to their past or present oppression. In this paper, I consider what should be done about such representations. A number of philosophers have articulated arguments for modifying or removing public monuments. Joanna Burch-Brown (2017) grounds (...)
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  10.  5
    Exemplar-Based Model of Social Judgment.Eliot R. Smith & Michael A. Zárate - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (1):3-21.
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  11.  68
    Exemplar Reasoning About Biological Models and Diseases: A Relation Between the Philosophy of Medicine and Philosophy of Science.Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1986 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):63-80.
    the structure of medical science with a special focus on the role of generalizations and universals in medicine, and (2) philosophy of medicine's relation with the philosophy of science. I argue that a usually overlooked aspect of Kuhnian paradigms, namely, their characteristic of being "exemplars", is of considerable significance in the biomedical sciences. This significance rests on certain important differences from the physical sciences in the nature of theories in the basic and the clinical medical sciences. I describe those (...)
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  12. Moral Exemplars and Exemplarism: Guest Editors' Preface.Maria Silvia Vaccarezza & Michel Croce - 2018 - Ethics and Politics 20 (2):9-14.
  13. Spiritual Exemplars.Ian James Kidd - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 79 (4):410-424.
    This paper proposes that spiritual persons are an excellent focus for the study of 'living religion' and offers a methodology for doing so. By ‘spiritual persons’, I have in mind both exemplary figures – like Jesus or the Buddha – and the multitude of ‘ordinary’ spiritual persons whose lives are led in aspiration to the spiritual goods the exemplars manifest (enlightenment, say, or holiness). I start with Linda Zagzebski's recent argument that moral persuasion primarily occurs through encounters with (...) of moral qualities, of a sort that invite admiration and emulation. A plurality of modes of spiritual exemplarity is distinguished, each reflecting a distinct form of spiritual aspiration, which will show in the lives of the members of different traditions. I develop this claim by focusing on the ways that spiritual aspirants can encounter exemplars through their depictions in spiritual narrative. It emerges that narrative encounters can activate certain forms of admiration and enable certain forms of emulation if they depict the suffering of exemplars. (shrink)
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  14.  4
    An Exemplar-Based Random Walk Model of Speeded Classification.Robert M. Nosofsky & Thomas J. Palmeri - 1997 - Psychological Review 104 (2):266-300.
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  15. Educating Through Exemplars: Alternative Paths to Virtue.Michel Croce & Maria Silvia Vaccarezza - 2017 - Theory and Research in Education 15 (1):5-19.
    This paper confronts Zagzebski’s exemplarism with the intertwined debates over the conditions of exemplarity and the unity-disunity of the virtues, to show the advantages of a pluralistic exemplar-based approach to moral education (PEBAME). PEBAME is based on a prima facie disunitarist perspective in moral theory, which amounts to admitting both exemplarity in all respects and single-virtue exemplarity. First, we account for the advantages of PEBAME, and we show how two figures in recent Italian history (Giorgio Perlasca and Gino Bartali) satisfy (...)
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  16.  29
    Principles, Exemplars, and Uses of History in Early 20th Century Genetics.Jeffrey M. Skopek - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):210-225.
    This paper is concerned with the uses of history in science. It focuses in particular on Anglo-American genetics and on university textbooks—where the canon of a science is consolidated, as the heterogeneous approaches and controversies of its practice are rendered unified for its reproduction. Tracing the emergence and eventual standardization of geneticists’ use of a case-based method of teaching in the 1920s–1950s, this paper argues that geneticists created historical environments in their textbooks—spaces in which students developed an understanding of the (...)
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  17.  12
    Exemplarity, Expressivity, Education.Carsten Fogh Nielsen - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (3):381-392.
    This paper proposes that Catherine Elgin’s and Nelson Goodman’s work on exemplification is relevant for discussions within moral philosophy and moral education. Generalizing Elgin’s and Goodman’s account of exemplification to also cover ethics the paper develops a two-factor account of moral exemplarity. According to this account, instantiation and expressivity are individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for someone or something to function as a moral exemplar. Applying this two-factor account of exemplarity to discussions within the philosophy of moral education the (...)
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  18. Which Moral Exemplars Inspire Prosociality?Hyemin han, Clifford Ian Workman, Joshua May, Payton Scholtens, Kelsie J. Dawson, Andrea L. Glenn & Peter Meindl - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-28.
    Some stories of moral exemplars motivate us to emulate their admirable attitudes and behaviors, but why do some exemplars motivate us more than others? We systematically studied how motivation to emulate is influenced by the similarity between a reader and an exemplar in social or cultural background (Relatability) and how personally costly or demanding the exemplar’s actions are (Attainability). Study 1 found that university students reported more inspiration and related feelings after reading true stories about the good deeds (...)
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  19.  30
    From Exemplar to Grammar: A Probabilistic Analogy‐Based Model of Language Learning.Rens Bod - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (5):752-793.
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  20.  33
    Multilevel Exemplar Theory.Michael Walsh, Bernd Möbius, Travis Wade & Hinrich Schütze - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (4):537-582.
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  21. Negative Epistemic Exemplars.Mark Alfano & Emily Sullivan - 2019 - In Benjamin Sherman & Stacey Goguen (eds.), Overcoming Epistemic Injustice: Social and Psychological Perspectives. Rowman & Littlefield.
    In this chapter, we address the roles that exemplars might play in a comprehensive response to epistemic injustice. Fricker defines epistemic injustices as harms people suffer specifically in their capacity as (potential) knowers. We focus on testimonial epistemic injustice, which occurs when someone’s assertoric speech acts are systematically met with either too little or too much credence by a biased audience. Fricker recommends a virtue­theoretic response: people who do not suffer from biases should try to maintain their disposition towards (...)
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  22.  4
    Principles, Exemplars, and Uses of History in Early 20th Century Genetics.Jeffrey M. Skopek - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):210-225.
  23. Adversity, Wisdom, and Exemplarism.Ian Kidd - 2018 - Journal of Value Inquiry 52 (4):379-393.
    According to a venerable ideal, the core aim of philosophical practice is wisdom. The guiding concern of the ancient Greek, Indian, and Chinese traditions was the nature of the good life for human beings and the nature of reality. Central to these traditions is profound recognition of the subjection to adversities intrinsic to human life. I consider paradigmatic exemplars of wisdom, from ancient Western and Asian traditions, and the ways that experiences of adversity shaped their life. The suggestion is (...)
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  24.  28
    Abstracta, Exemplars, and Choice: Comments on Art and Art-Attempts.Keith Lehrer - 2018 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 52 (2):23.
    Art and Art-Attempts by Christy Mag Uidhir is an excellent book about the philosophy of art.1 It is full of insight. It is brilliantly precise. Indeed, it is a model of analytic precision. This discussion will be concerned with the role of the intention of the artist in art, which is central to the book, and Mag Uidhir’s discussion of abstracta and instantiation. I shall argue that intention should be replaced with choice and that abstracta should be replaced with exemplar (...)
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  25.  6
    Exemplar Effects in Categorization and Multiple-Cue Judgment.Peter Juslin, Henrik Olsson & Anna-Carin Olsson - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (1):133.
  26.  33
    Exemplarization and Self-Presentation: Lehrer and Meinong on Consciousness. [REVIEW]Johann C. Marek - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (1):119-129.
    Alexius Meinong's specific use of the term "self-presentation" had a significant influence on modern epistemology and philosophical psychology. To show that there are remarkable parallels between Meinong's account of the self-presentation of experiences and Lehrer's account of the exemplarization of experiences is one of this paper's main objectives. Another objective is to put forward some comments and critical remarks to Lehrer's approach. One of the main problems can be expressed by the following: The process of using a particular experience as (...)
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  27.  2
    Exemplars of Truth.Keith Lehrer - 2019 - Oup Usa.
    The monograph explains how knowledge requires the capacity to justify or defend the target claim of knowledge. Defensibility is based on a background system. Lehrer argues that reflection on experience yields a self-referential exemplar representation.This is the novel contribution of his new book to truth about the perceptual world.
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  28. Beauty, Virtue, and Religious Exemplars.Ian James Kidd - 2017 - Religious Studies 53 (2):171-181.
    This paper explores the beauty of religious exemplars Ð those special persons whose conduct and comportment marks their life out as one that exemplifies a religious life. Such exemplars are consistently described as beautiful, but it is not clear how or why. I suggest that we can make sense of the aesthetically aspect of religious exemplarity by adopting a Ôvirtue-centricÕ theory of beauty that understands the beautiful in terms of the expression or manifestation of virtues. Religious exemplars (...)
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  29.  35
    The Exemplar View.Edward E. Smith & Douglas L. Medin - 2002 - In Daniel Levitin (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Psychology: Core Readings. MIT Press. pp. 277--292.
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  30. Moral Exemplars: Reflections on Schindler, the Trocmes, and Others.Lawrence A. Blum - 1988 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 13 (1):196-221.
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  31. Exemplars, Institutions, and Self-Knowledge in Schopenhauer as Educator.Sacha Golob - 2020 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (1):46-66.
    As a face in the mirror, so the morals of men are easily corrected with an exemplar.As Christopher Janaway observed, “the topic of Schopenhauer as Educator is really education rather than Schopenhauer.”2 Indeed, Nietzsche described it as addressing a “problem of education without equal”.3 This article reconstructs the pedagogical challenge and solution presented by Nietzsche in that text. It is obvious that Schopenhauer’s example is meant to underpin Nietzsche’s new pedagogy; what is less obvious is how exactly that exemplary role (...)
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  32. Prototypes, Exemplars, and Theoretical & Applied Ethics.John Jung Park - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):237-247.
    Concepts are mental representations that are the constituents of thought. EdouardMachery claims that psychologists generally understand concepts to be bodies of knowledge or information carrying mental states stored in long term memory that are used in the higher cognitive competences such as in categorization judgments, induction, planning, and analogical reasoning. While most research in the concepts field generally have been on concrete concepts such as LION, APPLE, and CHAIR, this paper will examine abstract moral concepts and whether such concepts may (...)
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  33.  76
    Exemplarization: A Solution to the Problem of Consciousness?Martina Fürst - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (1):141-151.
    In recent publications, Keith Lehrer developed the intriguing idea of a special mental process– exemplarization – and applied it in a sophisticated manner to different phenomena such as intentionality, representation of the self, the knowledge of ineffable content (of art works) and the problem of (phenomenal) consciousness. In this paper I am primarily concerned with the latter issue. The target of this paper is to analyze whether exemplarization, besides explaining epistemic phenomena such as immediate and ineffable knowledge of experiences, can (...)
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  34.  37
    Exemplars and Scientific Change.David L. Hull - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:479 - 503.
    Philosophers have distinguished a metaphysical category which they term "historical entities" or "continuants". Such particulars are spatiotemporally localized and develop continuously through time while retaining internal cohesiveness. Species, social groups and conceptual systems can be profitably treated as historical entities. No damage is done to preanalytic intuitions in treating social groups as historical entities; both biological species and conceptual systems can be construed as historical entities only by modifying the ordinary way of viewing both. However, if species and conceptual systems (...)
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  35. The Exemplar Approach to Science and Religion.Seungbae Park - 2019 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 6 (2):183–194.
    We can judge whether some activities are scientific or religious, depending on how similar they are to exemplar scientific activities or to exemplar religious activities, even if we cannot specify the necessary and sufficient conditions for science and religion. The absence of the demarcation between science and religion does not justify the school policy of teaching the creationist hypothesis that God created the universe any more than it justifies the religious policy of teaching evolutionary theory, quantum mechanics, and the Big (...)
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  36. Exemplar Causality as Similitudo Aequivoca in Peter Auriol.Chiara Paladini - 2018 - In Jacopo Falà & Irene Zavattero (eds.), Divine Ideas in Franciscan Thought (XIIIth-XIVth century). pp. 203-238.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the theory of exemplary causality of Peter Auriol (1280-1322). Until at least the late 13th century, medieval authors claim that the world is orderly and intelligible because God created it according to the models existing eternally in his mind (i.e. divine ideas). Auriol challenges the view of his predecessors and contemporaries. He argues that assuming divine ideas amounts to assuming multiplicity in God and therefore questioning the principle of his absolute simplicity. To (...)
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  37.  26
    ALCOVE: An Exemplar-Based Connectionist Model of Category Learning.John K. Kruschke - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (1):22-44.
  38. Nietzsche’s Polychrome Exemplarism.Mark Alfano - 2018 - Ethics and Politics 2:45-64.
    In this paper, I develop an account of Nietzschean exemplarism. Drawing on my previous work, I argue that an agent’s instincts and other drives constitute her psychological type. In this framework, a drive counts as a virtue to the extent that it is well-calibrated with the rest of the agent’s psychic economy and meets with sentiments of approbation from the agent’s community. Different virtues are fitting for different types, and different types elicit different discrete emotions in people with fine-tuned affective (...)
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  39.  12
    Exemplarity and Chosenness: Rosenzweig and Derrida on the Nation of Philosophy.Dana Hollander - 2008 - Stanford University Press.
    " Taking as its cue Derrida's readings of German-Jewish authors and his ongoing interest in questions of Jewishness, this book pairs his philosophy with that of Franz Rosenzweig, who developed a theory of Judaism for which election is ...
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  40.  31
    Exemplars, Models and Principles in Classical Genetics.Pablo Lorenzano - 2005 - In José Luis Falguera, Concha Martínez & José Miguel Sagüillo (eds.), Current Topics in Logic and Analytic Philosophy/Temas actuales de Lógica y Filosofía Analítica. University of Santiago de Compostela. pp. 89-102.
    Taking as starting point Kuhn’s analysis of science textbooks and its application to Sinnott and Dunn’s (1925), it will be discussed the problem of the existence of laws in biology. In particular, it will be showed, in accordance with the proposals of Darden (1991) and Schaffner (1980, 1986, 1993), the relevance of the exemplars, diagrammatically or graphically represented, in the way in which is carried out the teaching and learning process of classical genetics, inasmuch as the information contained in (...)
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  41.  6
    On Exemplar-Based Exemplar Representations: Reply to Ennis.Robert M. Nosofsky - 1988 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117 (4):412-414.
  42.  25
    Exemplar Similarity and Rule Application.Ulrike Hahn, Mercè Prat-Sala, Emmanuel M. Pothos & Duncan P. Brumby - 2010 - Cognition 114 (1):1-18.
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  43.  60
    Moral Exemplars in the Analects: The Good Person is That by Amy Olberding (Review).Michael Ing - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (3):439-442.
    In Moral Exemplars in the Analects, Amy Olberding offers a self-reflexive and thought-provoking interpretation of the Analects. Scholars of China will find her book valuable in that it provides a holistic reading of the Analects that preserves the tensions in the text. Ethicists will find it valuable in that it furthers discussion on the role of emulating paradigmatic figures in moral development.Olberding characterizes her project as an attempt to "discern a governing logic that renders the Analects' compelling moral sensibility (...)
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    Stories, Exemplars, and Freedom.Keith Lehrer - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (1):1-17.
    Fischer has argued elegantly that the free actions of a person, the actions of self-expression, play a special role in the story of the person. They are the vehicles of content for the construction of that story. I argue that the experiences of those actions by a person are both representations in the story of a life, vehicles of content, and an exhibit of the content represented, the life itself. Experiences become exemplars that refer back to themselves becoming part (...)
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  45.  45
    Exemplars in Environmental Ethics: Taking Seriously the Lives of Thoreau, Leopold, Dillard and Abbey.Nathan Andersen - 2010 - Ethics, Place and Environment 13 (1):43 – 55.
    It is argued that certain individuals can and should be considered 'morally exemplary' with respect to the environment. This can be so even where there is no universally applicable ethical principle they employ, and no canonical set of virtues they exhibit. The author identifies Henry David Thoreau, Aldo Leopold, Annie Dillard and Edward Abbey as potential 'environmental exemplars,' focusing for the purposes of the essay on individuals who have written compelling autobiographical works in defense of a way of life (...)
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  46.  17
    Exemplars, Prototypes, Similarities, and Rules in Category Representation: An Example of Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis.Michael D. Lee & Wolf Vanpaemel - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (8):1403-1424.
  47. Alcove-an Exemplar-Based Connectionist Model of Category Learning.Jk Kruschke & Rm Nosofsky - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):475-475.
  48.  9
    Spinoza on Ingenium and Exemplarity: Some Consequences for Educational Theory.Johan Dahlbeck - 2021 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 40 (1):1-21.
    This article turns to the neglected pedagogical concept of ingenium in order to address some shortcomings of the admiration–emulation model of Linda Zabzebski’s influential exemplarist moral theory. I will start by introducing the problem of the admiration-emulation model by way of a fictional example. I will then briefly outline the concept of ingenium such as it appears in a Renaissance context, looking particularly at the pedagogical writings of Juan Luis Vives. This will set the stage for the next part, looking (...)
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  49. Virtue Theory and Exemplars.Linda Zagzebski - 2012 - Philosophical News 4.
    This essay outlines an approach to virtue theory that makes the foundation of the theory direct reference to virtuous exemplars, modeled on the famous theory of direct reference, devised in the seventies by Hilary Putnam and Saul Kripke. The basic idea is that exemplars are persons like that, just as water is liquid like that, and humans are members of the same species as that, and so on. In this theory exemplars are picked out directly through the (...)
     
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  50.  37
    Role Models and Moral Exemplars: How Do Employees Acquire Virtues by Observing Others?Dennis J. Moberg - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (3):675-696.
    Role modeling is widely thought to be a principal vehicle for acquiring the virtues. Yet, little is known about role modeling as a process. This paper surveys the behavioral sciences for insights about how one person can find the actions of another person so inspirational that the person attempts to reproduce the behavior in question. In general, such inspiration occurs when an observer sees a model similar to herself, wrestling with a problem she is having, such that the model’s accomplishments (...)
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