Results for 'evolution'

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  1. Population, Des maladies dites «de civilisation», etc. Ne pourront PAS.Tendances Êvolutives des Systèmes Éducatifs - 1975 - Paideia 4:31.
     
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  2. Editorial offices: The eugenics society■ 69 eccleston square■ london• swi• Victoria 2091.Society'S. Evolution - 1964 - The Eugenics Review 56:1.
     
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  3.  49
    Toward a science of other minds: Escaping the argument by analogy.Cognitive Evolution Group, Since Darwin, D. J. Povinelli, J. M. Bering & S. Giambrone - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (3):509-541.
    Since Darwin, the idea of psychological continuity between humans and other animals has dominated theory and research in investigating the minds of other species. Indeed, the field of comparative psychology was founded on two assumptions. First, it was assumed that introspection could provide humans with reliable knowledge about the causal connection between specific mental states and specific behaviors. Second, it was assumed that in those cases in which other species exhibited behaviors similar to our own, similar psychological causes were at (...)
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  4.  5
    Glaube im Kontext naturwissenschaftlicher Vernunft.Rainer Isak, Gèunter Altner, Tagung "Gottes Handeln In der Welt" & Tagung "Alles ist Evolution" (eds.) - 1997 - Freiburg i. Br.: Verlag der Katholischen Akademie der Erzdiözese Freiburg.
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  5. Charles SUSANNE.Religions Et Rationalite & de L'évolution Humaine L'exemple - 2005 - Cahiers Internationaux de Symbolisme 110:139.
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  6. Free will and determinism.On Free Will, Bio-Cultural Evolution Hans Fink, Niels Henrik Gregersen & Problem Torben Bo Jansen - 1991 - Zygon 26 (3):447.
  7.  64
    The evolution of public health ethics frameworks: systematic review of moral values and norms in public health policy.Mahmoud Abbasi, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali, Abbas Karimi & Forouzan Akrami - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (3):387-402.
    Given the evolution of the public health (PH) and the changes from the phenomenon of globalization, this area has encountered new ethical challenges. In order to find a coherent approach to address ethical issues in PH policy, this study aimed to identify the evolution of public health ethics (PHE) frameworks and the main moral values and norms in PH practice and policy. According to the research questions, a systematic search of the literature, in English, with no time limit (...)
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  8.  18
    Evolution as entropy: toward a unified theory of biology.D. R. Brooks - 1988 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by E. O. Wiley.
    "By combining recent advances in the physical sciences with some of the novel ideas, techniques, and data of modern biology, this book attempts to achieve a new and different kind of evolutionary synthesis. I found it to be challenging, fascinating, infuriating, and provocative, but certainly not dull."--James H, Brown, University of New Mexico "This book is unquestionably mandatory reading not only for every living biologist but for generations of biologists to come."--Jack P. Hailman, Animal Behaviour , review of the first (...)
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  9.  7
    Evolution, Kultur und Rechtssystem: Beiträge zur new political ecology.Robert Weimar - 2002 - New York: P. Lang. Edited by Guido Leidig.
    Der Wandel der kulturellen Verhältnisse führt zu einer Zuspitzung des Verhältnisses von Gesellschaft und Rechtssystem. In diesem Prozess gestaltet New Political Ecology (NPE) Umwelt und Rechtssystem und ist zugleich evolutiv ausgerichtet. NPE erfährt Evolution in der Zeit als Überfluss und in eigenartiger Vernetzung als knappes Gut. Diese Verbindung basiert auf Zusammenhängen, die bisher noch nicht systematisch bearbeitet worden sind. Dabei geht es ganz wesentlich auch um das Verhältnis von Staat und moderner Risikogesellschaft. Wissenschaftlicher Fortschritt erweist sich vor diesem Hintergrund (...)
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  10. The evolution of altruistic punishment.Robert Boyd, Herbert Gintis, Samuel Bowles, Peter Richerson & J. - 2003 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (6):3531-3535.
     
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  11.  7
    L'Evolution créatrice.Henri Bergson - 1910 - [n. p.]: Presses Universitaires de France - PUF.
    La philosophie n'est pas seulement le retour de l'esprit à lui-même, la coïncidence de la conscience humaine avec le principe vivant d'où elle émane, une prise de contact avec l'effort créateur. Elle est l'approfondissement du devenir en général, l'évolutionnisme vrai, et par conséquent le vrai prolongement de la science - pourvu qu'on entende par ce dernier mot un ensemble de vérités constatées ou démontrées, et non pas une certaine scolastique nouvelle qui a poussé pendant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle (...)
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  12.  35
    Evolution and ethics.Thomas Henry Huxley - 1896 - Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. Edited by Thomas Henry Huxley.
    Evolution and ethics. Prolegomena (1894).--Evolution and ethics (1893).--Science and morals (1886).--Capital, the mother of labour (1890).--Social diseases and worse remedies (1891): Preface. The struggle for existence in human society. Letters to the Times. Legal opinions. The articles of war of the Salvation Army.
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  13.  51
    Evolution: the triumph of an idea.Carl Zimmer - 2001 - New York: HarperPerennial.
    This remarkable book presents a rich and up-to-date view of evolution that explores the far-reaching implications of Darwin's theory and emphasizes the power, significance, and relevance of evolution to our lives today. After all, we ourselves are the product of evolution, and we can tackle many of our gravest challenges -- from lethal resurgence of antiobiotic-resistant diseases to the wave of extinctions that looms before us -- with a sound understanding of the science.
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  14.  7
    Cultural Evolution.Kate Distin - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Kate Distin proposes a theory of cultural evolution and shows how it can help us to understand the origin and development of human culture. Distin introduces the concept that humans share information not only in natural languages, which are spoken or signed, but also in artefactual languages like writing and musical notation, which use media that are made by humans. Languages enable humans to receive and transmit variations in cultural information and resources. In this way, they (...)
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  15.  21
    Evolution and Ethics, and Other Essays.Thomas Henry Huxley - 1893 - New York: American Mathematical Society.
    Evolution and ethics: prolegomena--Evolution and ethics.--Science and morals.--Capital, the mother of labour.--Social diseases and worse remedies.
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  16.  15
    The Evolution of Agency and Other Essays.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents a collection of linked essays written by one of the leading philosophers of biology, Kim Sterelny, on the topic of biological evolution. The first half of the book explores most of the main theoretical controversies about evolution and selection. Sterelny argues that genes are not the only replicators: non-genetic inheritance is also extremely important, and is no mere epiphenomenon of gene selection. The second half of the book applies some of these ideas in considering cognitive (...)
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  17.  55
    Creative evolution.Henri Bergson - 1911 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. Edited by Keith Ansell-Pearson, Michael Kolkman & Michael Vaughan.
    Henri Bergson (1859-1941) is one of the truly great philosophers of the modernist period, and there is currently a major renaissance of interest in his unduly neglected texts and ideas amongst philosophers, literary theorists, and social theorists. Creative Evolution (1907) is the text that made Bergson world-famous in his own lifetime; in it Bergson responds to the challenge presented to our habits of thought by modern evolutionary theory, and attempts to show that the theory of knowledge must have its (...)
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  18.  90
    Creative evolution.Henri Bergson (ed.) - 1911 - New York,: The Modern library.
    Henri Bergson (1859-1941) is one of the truly great philosophers of the modernist period, and there is currently a major renaissance of interest in his unduly neglected texts and ideas amongst philosophers, literary theorists, and social theorists. Creative Evolution (1907) is the text that made Bergson world-famous in his own lifetime; in it Bergson responds to the challenge presented to our habits of thought by modern evolutionary theory, and attempts to show that the theory of knowledge must have its (...)
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  19. Is Evolution Algorithmic?Marcin Miłkowski - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (4):465-475.
    In Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, Daniel Dennett claims that evolution is algorithmic. On Dennett’s analysis, evolutionary processes are trivially algorithmic because he assumes that all natural processes are algorithmic. I will argue that there are more robust ways to understand algorithmic processes that make the claim that evolution is algorithmic empirical and not conceptual. While laws of nature can be seen as compression algorithms of information about the world, it does not follow logically that they are implemented as algorithms (...)
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  20. Evolution and the levels of selection.Samir Okasha - 2006 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? The question of levels of selection - on which biologists and philosophers have long disagreed - is central to evolutionary theory and to the philosophy of biology. Samir Okasha's comprehensive analysis gives a clear account of the philosophical issues at stake in the current debate.
  21. Beyond evolution: human nature and the limits of evolutionary explanation.Anthony O'Hear - 1997 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In this controversial new book O'Hear takes a stand against the fashion for explaining human behavior in terms of evolution. He contends that while the theory of evolution is successful in explaining the development of the natural world in general, it is of limited value when applied to the human world. Because of our reflectiveness and our rationality we take on goals and ideals which cannot be justified in terms of survival-promotion or reproductive advantage. O'Hear examines the nature (...)
  22.  19
    The Evolution of a National Research Funding System: Transformative Change Through Layering and Displacement.Kaare Aagaard - 2017 - Minerva 55 (3):279-297.
    This article outlines the evolution of a national research funding system over a timespan of more than 40 years and analyzes the development from a rather stable Humboldt-inspired floor funding model to a complex multi-tiered system where new mechanisms continually have been added on top of the system. Based on recent contributions to Historical Institutionalism it is shown how layering and displacement processes gradually have changed the funding system along a number of dimensions and thus how a series of (...)
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  23.  73
    The Evolution of Mind, Brain, and Culture.Gary Hatfield & Holly Pittman (eds.) - 2013 - University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Descartes boldly claimed: "I think, therefore I am." But one might well ask: Why do we think? How? When and why did our human ancestors develop language and culture? In other words, what makes the human mind human? _Evolution of Mind, Brain, and Culture_ offers a comprehensive and scientific investigation of these perennial questions. Fourteen essays bring together the work of archaeologists, cultural and physical anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers, geneticists, a neuroscientist, and an environmental scientist to explore the evolution of (...)
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  24. The Evolution of Denial.Luca Incurvati & Giorgio Sbardolini - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
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  25. The Evolution of Coding in Signaling Games.Jeffrey A. Barrett - 2009 - Theory and Decision 67 (2):223-237.
    Signaling games with reinforcement learning have been used to model the evolution of term languages (Lewis 1969, Convention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; Skyrms 2006, “Signals” Presidential Address. Philosophy of Science Association for PSA). In this article, syntactic games, extensions of David Lewis’s original sender–receiver game, are used to illustrate how a language that exploits available syntactic structure might evolve to code for states of the world. The evolution of a language occurs in the context of available vocabulary (...)
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  26.  8
    L'évolution créatrice.Henri Bergson - 2007 - Presses Universitaires de France - PUF.
    Si la vie est une évolution, alors elle doit expliquer jusqu'à la connaissance, l'intelligence, la science et la technique de l'homme, l'homo faber ; si il y a en elle de la création, alors ce n'est pas un postulat extérieur, mais dans son histoire et dans notre vie même qu'on doit l'expérimenter. dans L'évolution créatrice, Bergson pousse ainsi la théorie de l'évolution et l'expérience de la " durée " jusqu'au bout, sans admettre ni une création transcendante ni une vie sans (...)
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  27.  42
    The Evolution Wars: A Guide to the Debates.Michael Ruse - 2000 - Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO.
    Draws on history, science, and philosophy to examine the development of evolutionary thought through the past two and a half centuries. Focuses on the great debates, including the 19th century clash over the nature of classification and debates about the fossil record, genetics, and human nature.
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  28.  28
    The evolution of consciousness.Euan M. Macphail - 1998 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Are non-human animals conscious? When do babies begin to feel pain? What function is served by consciousness? What evidence could resolve these issues? In The Evolution of Consciousness, psychologist Euan Macphail tackles these questions and more by exploring such topics as: animal cognition; unconscious learning and perception in humans; infantile amnesia; theory of mind in primates; and the nature of pleasure and pain. Experimental results are placed in theoretical context by tracing the development of concepts of consciousness in animals (...)
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  29. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.Russell Powell & Carlos Mariscal - 2015 - Interface Focus 5 (6):1-13.
    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the ‘tape of life’ would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution—the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions—which many interpret as evidence against Gould’s thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute (...)
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  30.  9
    Extraterrestrial altruism: evolution and ethics in the cosmos.Douglas A. Vakoch (ed.) - 2014 - New York: Springer.
    Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Technological civilizations that transmit signals for the benefit of others, but with no immediate gain for themselves, certainly seem to be altruistic. But does this make biological sense? Should we (...)
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  31.  31
    Human evolution: a philosophical anthropology.Mary Maxwell - 1984 - New York: Columbia University Press.
  32.  42
    Communication and the Evolution of Society.Jürgen Habermas & Thomas McCarthy - 1991
    In this important volume Habermas outlines the views which form the basis of his critical theory of modern societies. The volume comprises five interlocking essays, which together define the contours of his theory of communication and of his substantive account of social change. ′What is Universal Pragmatics?′ is the best available statement of Habermas′s programme for a theoryof communication based on the analysis of speech acts. In the following two essays Habermas draws on the work of Kohlberg and others to (...)
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  33.  8
    Evolution of mathematical concepts.Raymond Louis Wilder - 1968 - New York,: Wiley.
    Treating mathematical science as a distinct cultural entity subject to environmental factors which influence its evolution, the author examines the creation and development of its major concepts since early times.
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  34.  17
    Social Evolution.Benjamin Kidd - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    In 1894, the British sociologist Benjamin Kidd published Social Evolution, an influential book that summarised and evaluated the prevailing social theories at the end of the nineteenth century: Karl Marx's socialism and Herbert Spencer's social Darwinism. Both of these conflicting theories were based on Darwinian evolutionary theory. In this book, Kidd discusses the immense changes that applied science has brought to the world and the interconnectedness of everyone. The book's ten chapters include discussions of the conditions of human progress, (...)
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  35. Evolution, error and intentionality.Daniel C. Dennett - 1981 - In Daniel Clement Dennett (ed.), The Intentional Stance. MIT Press.
    Sometimes it takes years of debate for philosophers to discover what it is they really disagree about. Sometimes they talk past each other in long series of books and articles, never guessing at the root disagreement that divides them. But occasionally a day comes when something happens to coax the cat out of the bag. "Aha!" one philosopher exclaims to another, "so that's why you've been disagreeing with me, misunderstanding me, resisting my conclusions, puzzling me all these years!".
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  36.  26
    The Evolution of Relevance.Thomas C. Scott-Phillips - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (4):583-601.
    With human language, the same utterance can have different meanings in different contexts. Nevertheless, listeners almost invariably converge upon the correct intended meaning. The classic Gricean explanation of how this is achieved posits the existence of four maxims of conversation, which speakers are assumed to follow. Armed with this knowledge, listeners are able to interpret utterances in a contextually sensible way. This account enjoys wide acceptance, but it has not gone unchallenged. Specifically, Relevance Theory offers an explicitly cognitive account of (...)
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  37. Emergent Evolution.C. Lloyd Morgan - 1923 - London,: Williams & Norgate.
    EMERGENT EVOLUTION- THE GIFFORD LECTURES DELIVERED IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ST.
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  38.  13
    Teaching evolution in a creation nation.Adam Laats - 2016 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by Harvey Siegel.
    No fight over what gets taught in American classrooms is more heated than the battle over humanity’s origins. For more than a century we have argued about evolutionary theory and creationism (and its successor theory, intelligent design), yet we seem no closer to a resolution than we were in Darwin’s day. In this thoughtful examination of how we teach origins, historian Adam Laats and philosopher Harvey Siegel offer crucial new ways to think not just about the evolution debate but (...)
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  39. The evolution of learning: An experiment in genetic connectionism.David Chalmers - 1992 - In Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School Workshop. Morgan Kaufmann.
    This paper explores how an evolutionary process can produce systems that learn. A general framework for the evolution of learning is outlined, and is applied to the task of evolving mechanisms suitable for supervised learning in single-layer neural networks. Dynamic properties of a network’s information-processing capacity are encoded genetically, and these properties are subjected to selective pressure based on their success in producing adaptive behavior in diverse environments. As a result of selection and genetic recombination, various successful learning mechanisms (...)
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  40.  10
    Evolution and Human Values.Robert Wesson & Patricia A. Williams (eds.) - 1995 - BRILL.
    Initiated by Robert Wesson, _Evolution and Human Values_ is a collection of newly written essays designed to bring interdisciplinary insight to that area of thought where human evolution intersects with human values. The disciplines brought to bear on the subject are diverse - philosophy, psychiatry, behavioral science, biology, anthropology, psychology, biochemistry, and sociology. Yet, as organized by co-editor Patricia A. Williams, the volume falls coherently into three related sections. Entitled Evolutionary Ethics, the first section brings contemporary research to an (...)
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  41.  68
    The evolution of medieval thought.David Knowles - 1962 - [London]: Longmans.
    "One of the many merits of this book is that it places Western scholasticism in its setting--and this both in space and in time. Plotinus lives on, Aristotle comes back to life again, Averroes breaks in--but this is not the right word, for this Muslim philosopher and his Western Christian disciples are inmates of the same house. Professor Knowles brings out the unity of Islamic and Western Christian culture. Medieval Islam and Western Christendom had a common mental heritage of Jewish (...)
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  42. Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective.Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci - 1998 - Sinauer.
    Phenotypic Evolution explicitly recognizes organisms as complex genetic-epigenetic systems developing in response to changing internal and external environments. As a key to a better understanding of how phenotypes evolve, the authors have developed a framework that centers on the concept of the Developmental Reaction Norm. This encompasses their views: (1) that organisms are better considered as integrated units than as disconnected parts (allometry and phenotypic integration); (2) that an understanding of ontogeny is vital for evaluating evolution of adult (...)
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  43.  14
    The Evolution of Human Vocal Emotion.Gregory A. Bryant - 2020 - Emotion Review 13 (1):25-33.
    Vocal affect is a subcomponent of emotion programs that coordinate a variety of physiological and psychological systems. Emotional vocalizations comprise a suite of vocal behaviors shaped by evolution to solve adaptive social communication problems. The acoustic forms of vocal emotions are often explicable with reference to the communicative functions they serve. An adaptationist approach to vocal emotions requires that we distinguish between evolved signals and byproduct cues, and understand vocal affect as a collection of multiple strategic communicative systems subject (...)
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  44. The Evolution of Imagination.Stephen T. Asma - 2017 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Guided by neuroscience, animal behavior, evolution, philosophy, and psychology, Asma burrows deep into the human psyche to look right at the enigmatic but powerful engine that is our improvisational creativity—the source, he argues, of our remarkable imaginational capacity. How is it, he asks, that a story can evoke a whole world inside of us? How are we able to rehearse a skill, a speech, or even an entire scenario simply by thinking about it? How does creativity go beyond experience (...)
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  45.  28
    Theistic evolution: the Teilhardian heresy.Wolfgang Smith - 2012 - Tacoma, WA: Angelico Press-Sopha Perennis.
    Evolution: a closer look -- Forgotten truths -- Complexity-consciousness: law or myth? -- In search of creative union -- Omega hypothesis -- God of evolution -- Biblical fall and evolutionist ascent -- New Eschaton in historical perspective -- Socialization and super-organism -- New religion -- Teilhard de Chardin: biographical facts -- Riddle of Genesis 2.4-5.
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  46.  4
    Evolution and ethics: and other essays.Thomas Henry Huxley - 1893 - New York: Barnes & Noble.
    Let us now imagine that some administrative authority, as far superior in power and intelligence to men, as men are to their cattle, is set over the colony, charged to deal with its human elements in such a manner as to assure the victory of the settlement over the antagonistic influences of the state of nature in which it is set down. He would proceed in the same fashion as that in which the gardener dealt with his garden.
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  47.  33
    A Better Ape: The Evolution of the Moral Mind and How it Made Us Human.Victor Kumar & Richmond Campbell - 2022 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Edited by Richmond Campbell.
    Humans are moral creatures. Among all life on Earth, we alone experience rich moral emotions, follow complex rules governing how we treat one another, and engage in moral dialogue. But how did human morality evolve? And can humans become morally evolved? -/- In A Better Ape, Victor Kumar and Richmond Campbell draw on the latest research in the biological and social sciences to explain the key role that morality has played in human evolution. They explore the moral traits that (...)
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  48.  7
    Evolution education in the American South: culture, politics, and resources in and around Alabama.Christopher D. Lynn, Amanda L. Glaze, William A. Evans & Laura K. Reed (eds.) - 2017 - New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This volume reaches beyond the controversy surrounding the teaching and learning of evolution in the United States, specifically in regard to the culture, politics, and beliefs found in the Southeast. The editors argue that despite a deep history of conflict in the region surrounding evolution, there is a wealth of evolution research taking place—from biodiversity in species to cultural evolution and human development. In fact, scientists, educators, and researchers from around the United States have found their (...)
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  49.  5
    Evolution and the humanities.David Holbrook - 1987 - New York: St. Martin's Press.
  50.  21
    The contours of evolution: In defence of Darwin's tree of life paradigm.Peter T. S. van der Gulik, Wouter D. Hoff & Dave Speijer - 2024 - Bioessays 46 (5):2400012.
    Both the concept of a Darwinian tree of life (TOL) and the possibility of its accurate reconstruction have been much criticized. Criticisms mostly revolve around the extensive occurrence of lateral gene transfer (LGT), instances of uptake of complete organisms to become organelles (with the associated subsequent gene transfer to the nucleus), as well as the implications of more subtle aspects of the biological species concept. Here we argue that none of these criticisms are sufficient to abandon the valuable TOL concept (...)
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