Results for 'degrees of consciousness'

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  1. Degrees of Consciousness.Andrew Y. Lee - 2023 - Noûs 57 (3):553-575.
    Is a human more conscious than an octopus? In the science of consciousness, it’s oftentimes assumed that some creatures (or mental states) are more conscious than others. But in recent years, a number of philosophers have argued that the notion of degrees of consciousness is conceptually confused. This paper (1) argues that the most prominent objections to degrees of consciousness are unsustainable, (2) examines the semantics of ‘more conscious than’ expressions, (3) develops an analysis of (...)
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  2. Are There Degrees of Self-Consciousness?Raphaël Millière - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (3-4):252-282.
    It is widely assumed that ordinary conscious experience involves some form of sense of self or consciousness of oneself. Moreover, this claim is often restricted to a ‘thin’ or ‘minimal’ notion of self-consciousness, or even ‘the simplest form of self-consciousness’, as opposed to more sophisticated forms of self-consciousness which are not deemed ubiquitous in ordinary experience. These formulations suggest that self-consciousness comes in degrees, and that individual subjects may differ with respect to the degree (...)
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  3.  15
    Vicarious attention, degrees of enhancement, and the contents of consciousness.Azenet Lopez - 2022 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 3.
    How are attention and consciousness related? Can we learn what the contents of someone’s consciousness are if we know the targets of their attention? What can we learn about the contents of consciousness if we know the targets of attention? Although introspection might suggest that attention and consciousness are intimately connected, a good body of recent findings in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience brings compelling reasons to believe that they are two separate and independent processes. This (...)
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  4. Quantity of experience: brain-duplication and degrees of consciousness[REVIEW]Nick Bostrom - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (2):185-200.
    If a brain is duplicated so that there are two brains in identical states, are there then two numerically distinct phenomenal experiences or only one? There are two, I argue, and given computationalism, this has implications for what it is to implement a computation. I then consider what happens when a computation is implemented in a system that either uses unreliable components or possesses varying degrees of parallelism. I show that in some of these cases there can be, in (...)
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  5. Consciousness and degrees of belief.D. H. Mellor - 1980 - In Prospects for Pragmatism. Cambridge University Press.
  6. Complexity and the Evolution of Consciousness.Walter Veit - 2023 - Biological Theory 18 (3):175-190.
    This article introduces and defends the “pathological complexity thesis” as a hypothesis about the evolutionary origins of minimal consciousness, or sentience, that connects the study of animal consciousness closely with work in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology. I argue that consciousness is an adaptive solution to a design problem that led to the extinction of complex multicellular animal life following the Avalon explosion and that was subsequently solved during the Cambrian explosion. This is the economic trade-off problem (...)
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  7.  34
    Hemispheric interaction and consciousness: Degree of handedness predicts the intensity of a sensory illusion.Christopher L. Niebauer, Justin Aselage & Christian Schutte - 2002 - Laterality 7 (1):85-96.
  8. Confidence Levels or Degrees of Sentience?Walter Veit - 2022 - Asian Bioethics Review 15 (1):93-97.
    I applaud recent improvements upon previous guidelines for the assessment of pain in non-human species and the application of their framework towards decapod crustaceans. Rather than constituting a mere intermediate solution between the scientific difficulty of settling questions of animal consciousness and the need for a framework for the purposes of animal welfare legislation, I will argue that the longer lists of criteria for animal sentience should make us realize that animal sentience is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that must be (...)
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  9. Degrees of freedom.Timothy O'Connor - 2009 - Philosophical Explorations 12 (2):119 – 125.
    I propose a theory of freedom of choice on which it is a variable quality of individual conscious choices that has several dimensions that admit of degrees, even though - as many theorists have traditionally supposed - it also has as a necessary condition the possession of a capacity that is all or nothing. I argue that the proposed account better fits the phenomenology of ostensibly free actions, as well as empirical findings in the human sciences.
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  10.  15
    On the Issue of Conscious Activity. Du Renzhi - 1982 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 14 (1):3-24.
    The issue of conscious activity has figured in our discussion both academically and politically since the founding of the People's Republic. However, up to now there are still people who are unclear about the issue and entertain many mistaken ideas about conscious activity. One case is mistaking conscious activity as voluntarism in which one can "do whatever one likes"; their blind and reckless action has in practice caused losses and damages to varying degrees. In another case conscious activity is (...)
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  11.  55
    Neural Correlates of Consciousness Meet the Theory of Identity.Michal Polák & Tomáš Marvan - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:381399.
    One of the greatest challenges of consciousness research is to understand the relationship between consciousness and its implementing substrate. Current research into the neural correlates of consciousness regards the biological brain as being this substrate, but largely fails to clarify the nature of the brain-consciousness connection. A popular approach within this research is to construe brain-consciousness correlations in causal terms: the neural correlates of consciousness are the causes of states of consciousness. After introducing (...)
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  12.  5
    Yates [1970], who obtained a low minimal degree as a corollary to his con.of Minimal Degrees Below - 1996 - In S. B. Cooper, T. A. Slaman & S. S. Wainer (eds.), Computability, enumerability, unsolvability: directions in recursion theory. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 81.
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  13. Psychedelic Expansion of Consciousness: A Phenomenological Study in Terms of Attention.Jason K. Day & Susanne Schmetkamp - 2022 - InCircolo 13:111-135.
    Induced by intake of the psychedelic substances LSD, psilocybin, DMT and mescaline, psychedelic experiences have been extensively described by subjects as entailing a most unusual increase in the scope and quality of their consciousness. Accordingly, psychedelic experiences have been widely characterised as an “expansion of consciousness.” This article poses the following question, as yet unaddressed in contemporary philosophy and the tradition of phenomenology: to what exactly does “expansion of consciousness” refer as a general characterisation of psychedelic experiences, (...)
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  14.  20
    He is author of From Information to Transformation: Education for the Evolution of Consciousness (Peter Lang, 2000). Peter L. Nelson, Ph. D., is a research consultant. He began his formal study of consciousness after graduating from both San Francisco State Uni-versity with a degree in psychology in 1968 and the Haight-Ashbury in 1969. [REVIEW]Kaisa Ptihakka - 2000 - In Tobin Hart, Peter L. Nelson & Kaisa Puhakka (eds.), Transpersonal Knowing: Exploring the Horizon of Consciousness. State University of New York Press. pp. 319.
  15.  68
    Th e Elements of Consciousness and Their Neurodynnamic Correlates.Bruce J. MacLennan - 1996 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (5-6):409-424.
    The ‘hard problem’ is hard because of the special epistemological status of consciousness, which does not, however, preclude its scientific investigation. Data from phenomenologically trained observers can be combined with neurological investigations to establish the relation between experience and neurodynamics. Although experience cannot be reduced to physical phenomena, parallel phenomenological and neurological analyses allow the structure of experience to be related to the structure of the brain. Such an analysis suggests a theoretical entity, an elementary unit of experience, the (...)
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  16. An integral theory of consciousness.Ken Wilber - 1997 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (1):71-92.
    An extensive data search among various types of developmental and evolutionary sequences yielded a ‘four quadrant’ model of consciousness and its development . Each of these dimensions was found to unfold in a sequence of at least a dozen major stages or levels. Combining the four quadrants with the dozen or so major levels in each quadrant yields an integral theory of consciousness that is quite comprehensive in its nature and scope. This model is used to indicate how (...)
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  17. The cognitive neuroscience of consciousness, mysticism and psi.B. L. Lancaster - forthcoming - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies.
    The greatest contemporary challenge in the arena of cognitive neuroscience concerns the relation between consciousness and the brain. Over recent years the focus of work in this area has switched from the analysis of diverse spatial regions of the brain to that of the timing of neural events. It appears that two conditions are necessary in order for neural events to become correlated with conscious experience. First, the firing of assemblies of neurones must achieve a degree of coherence, and, (...)
     
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  18. Neural correlates of consciousness are not pictorial representations.Geraint Rees & Chris Frith - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):999-1000.
    O'Regan & Noë (O&N) are pessimistic about the prospects for discovering the neural correlates of consciousness. They argue that there can be no one-to-one correspondence between awareness and patterns of neural activity in the brain, so a project attempting to identify the neural correlates of consciousness is doomed to failure. We believe that this degree of pessimism may be overstated; recent empirical data show some convergence in describing consistent patterns of neural activity associated with visual consciousness.
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  19.  54
    Explaining metamers: Right degrees of freedom, not subjectivism.Michael T. Turvey, Virgil Whitmyer & Kevin Shockley - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):105-116.
  20.  38
    A Multi‐Factor Account of Degrees of Awareness.Peter Fazekas & Morten Overgaard - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1833-1859.
    In this paper we argue that awareness comes in degrees, and we propose a novel multi-factor account that spans both subjective experiences and perceptual representations. At the subjective level, we argue that conscious experiences can be degraded by being fragmented, less salient, too generic, or flash-like. At the representational level, we identify corresponding features of perceptual representations—their availability for working memory, intensity, precision, and stability—and argue that the mechanisms that affect these features are what ultimately modulate the degree of (...)
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  21.  17
    Imaging in Severe Disorders of Consciousness: Rethinking Consciousness, Identity, and Care in a Relational Key.Andrea Vicini - 2012 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 32 (1):169-191.
    FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING DETECTS DEGREES of consciousness in a few vegetative patients, despite the difficulty of establishing any form of communication with them at the bedside. What are the implications of our understanding of consciousness in defining one's identity? How do we care for these patients? To answer these questions, I propose relationality as an appropriate ethical resource. Relationality supports a renewed understanding of consciousness, identity, and care; it addresses the associated ethical issues; and it (...)
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  22. Minds that Matter: Seven Degrees of Moral Standing.Julian Friedland - 2004 - Between the Species 13 (4).
    Prominent non-speciesist attempts to determine the amount of moral standing properly attributable to conscious beings argue that certain non-human animals should be granted the highest consideration as self-conscious persons. Most of these theories also include a lesser moral standing for the sentient, or merely conscious, non-person. Thus, the standard approach has been to advocate a two-tiered theory—'sentience' or 'consciousness' and 'self-consciousness' or 'personhood'. While the first level seems to present little interpretative difficulty, the second has recently been criticized (...)
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  23.  48
    A neural correlate of consciousness related to repression.Howard Shevrin, Jess H. Ghannam & Benjamin W. Libet - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (2):334-41.
    In previous research Libet discovered that a critical time period for neural activation is necessary in order for a stimulus to become conscious. This necessary time period varies from subject to subject. In this current study, six subjects for whom the time for neural activation of consciousness had been previously determined were administered a battery of psychological tests on the basis of which ratings were made of degree of repressiveness. As hypothesized, repressive subjects had a longer critical time period (...)
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  24.  30
    Multiple Factors and Multiple Mechanisms Determine the Quality of Conscious Experiences: A Reply to Anzulewicz and Wierzchoń.Peter Fazekas & Morten Overgaard - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):2101-2103.
    In this Letter to the Editor, we seize the opportunity to respond to the recent comments by Anzulewicz and Wierzchoń, and further clarify and extend the scope of our original paper. We re‐emphasize that conscious experiences come in degrees, and that there are several factors that determine this degree. Endorsing the suggestions of Anzulewicz and Wierzchoń, we discuss that besides low‐level attentional mechanisms, high‐level attentional and non‐attentional mechanisms might also modulate the quality of conscious experiences.
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  25.  39
    Handedness and the fringe of consciousness: Strong handers ruminate while mixed handers self-reflect.Christopher Lee Niebauer - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):730-745.
    Previous research found that mixed handers were more likely than strong handers to update their beliefs . It was assumed that this was due to greater degrees of communication between the two cerebral hemispheres in mixed handers. Niebauer and Garvey made connections between this model of updating beliefs and metacognitive processing. The current work proposes that variations in interhemispheric interaction contribute to differences in consciousness, specifically when consciousness is used in rumination versus the metacognitive task of self-reflection. (...)
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  26.  35
    “Calling Out” in Class: Degrees of Candor in Addressing Social Injustices in Racially Homogenous and Heterogeneous U.S. History Classrooms.Hillary Parkhouse & Virginia R. Massaro - 2019 - Journal of Social Studies Research 43 (1):17-31.
    Teaching for social justice requires an ability to address sensitive issues such as racism and sexism so that students can gain critical consciousness of these pervasive social realities. However, the empirical literature thus far provides minimal exploration of the factors teachers consider in deciding how to address these issues. This study explores this question through ethnographic case studies of two urban, 11th grade U.S. History classrooms. Differing classroom racial demographics and teacher instructional goals resulted in two distinct pedagogical approaches (...)
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  27. What Is the Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness?Adam Pautz - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (1-2):1-2.
    In the first instance, IIT is formulated as a theory of the physical basis of the 'degree' or ‘level’ or ‘amount’ of consciousness in a system. In addition, integrated information theorists have tried to provide a systematic theory of how physical states determine the specific qualitative contents of episodes of consciousness: for instance, an experience as of a red and round thing rather than a green and square thing. I raise a series of questions about the central explanatory (...)
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  28.  56
    What if phenomenal consciousness admits of degrees?Robert Van Gulick - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):528-529.
    If the phenomenality of consciousness admits of degrees and can be partial and indeterminate, then Block's inference to the best explanation may need to be revaluated both in terms of the supposed data on phenomenal overflow and the range of alternatives against which his view is compared.
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  29.  20
    A Neural Correlate of Consciousness Related to Repression.Howard Shevrin, Jess H. Ghannam & Benjamin Libet - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (2):334-341.
    In previous research Libet discovered that a critical time period for neural activation is necessary in order for a stimulus to become conscious. This necessary time period varies from subject to subject. In this current study, six subjects for whom the time for neural activation of consciousness had been previously determined were administered a battery of psychological tests on the basis of which ratings were made of degree of repressiveness. As hypothesized, repressive subjects had a longer critical time period (...)
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  30. Sensation's ghost: The nonsensory fringe of consciousness.Bruce Mangan - 2001 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 7.
    Non-sensory experiences represent almost all context information in consciousness. They condition most aspects of conscious cognition including voluntary retrieval, perception, monitoring, problem solving, emotion, evaluation, meaning recognition. Many peculiar aspects of non-sensory qualia (e.g., they resist being 'grasped' by an act of attention) are explained as adaptations shaped by the cognitive functions they serve. The most important nonsensory experience is coherence or "rightness." Rightness represents degrees of context fit among contents in consciousness, and between conscious and non-conscious (...)
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  31. Medical AI, Inductive Risk, and the Communication of Uncertainty: The Case of Disorders of Consciousness.Jonathan Birch - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Some patients, following brain injury, do not outwardly respond to spoken commands, yet show patterns of brain activity that indicate responsiveness. This is “cognitive-motor dissociation” (CMD). Recent research has used machine learning to diagnose CMD from electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. These techniques have high false discovery rates, raising a serious problem of inductive risk. It is no solution to communicate the false discovery rates directly to the patient’s family, because this information may confuse, alarm and mislead. Instead, we need a procedure (...)
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  32. EEG oscillatory states as neuro-phenomenology of consciousness as revealed from patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states.Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):149-169.
    The value of resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in revealing neural constitutes of consciousness (NCC) was examined. We quantified the dynamic repertoire, duration and oscillatory type of EEG microstates in eyes-closed rest in relation to the degree of expression of clinical self-consciousness. For NCC a model was suggested that contrasted normal, severely disturbed state of consciousness and state without consciousness. Patients with disorders of consciousness were used. Results suggested that the repertoire, duration and oscillatory type of EEG (...)
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  33. Review of Consciousness in Action, by Susan Hurley. [REVIEW]Keith Frankish - 2006 - Mind 115:156-9.
    Questions about the relation between mind and world have long occupied philosophers of mind. In _Consciousness in Action_ Susan Hurley invites us to adopt a ninety-degree shift and consider the relation between perception and action. The central theme of the book is an attack on what Hurley dubs the _Input-Output Picture_ of perception and actionthe picture of perceptions as sensory inputs to the cognitive system and intentions as motor outputs from it, with the mind occupying the buffer zone in between. (...)
     
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  34. The Multi-Dimensional Approach to Drug-Induced States: A Commentary on Bayne and Carter’s “Dimensions of Consciousness and the Psychedelic State”.Raphaël Millière & Martin Fortier - 2020 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 2020 (1):1-5.
    Bayne and Carter argue that the mode of consciousness induced by psychedelic drugs does not fit squarely within the traditional account of modes as levels of consciousness, and favor instead a multi-dimensional account according to which modes of consciousness differ along several dimensions—none of which warrants a linear ordering of modes. We discuss the assumption that psychedelic drugs induce a single or paradigmatic mode of consciousness, as well as conceptual issues related to Bayne and Carter’s main (...)
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  35.  37
    The sense of conscious will.Gene M. Heyman - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):663-664.
    Wegner's conclusion that conscious will is an illusion follows from a key omission in his analysis. Although he describes conscious will as an experience, akin to one of the senses, he omits its objective correlate. The degree to which behavior can be influenced by its consequences (voluntariness) provides an objective correlate for conscious will. With conscious will anchored to voluntariness, the illusion disappears.
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  36.  8
    A matter of consciousness – Introducing Zora Neale Hurston and Katie G. Cannon.Hans S. A. Engdahl - 2021 - HTS Theological Studies 77 (3).
    This article involves a close reading of two African American authors, Zora Neale Hurston, an acclaimed novelist and Katie Cannon, an influential theological ethicist. Texts from Steve Biko on black consciousness and from James Cone on liberation theology are used as methodological tools in trying to ascertain the degree to which Hurston and Cannon espouse a black consciousness. A strong resonance of black consciousness will indeed be found in Hurston’s and Cannon’s texts. The conclusion drawn is that (...)
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    It is never lawful or ethical to withdraw life-sustaining treatment from patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness.Charles Foster - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):265-270.
    In English law there is a strong presumption that life should be maintained. This article contends that this presumption means that it is always unlawful to withdraw life-sustaining treatment from patients in permanent vegetative state and minimally conscious state, and that the reasons for this being the correct legal analysis mean also that such withdrawal will always be ethically unacceptable. There are two reasons for this conclusion. First, the medical uncertainties inherent in the definition and diagnosis of PVS/MCS are such (...)
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  38.  35
    ConsScale: A pragmatic scale for measuring the level of consciousness in artificial agents.Raul Arrabales, Agapito Ledezma & Araceli Sanchis - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (3-4):3-4.
    One of the key problems the field of Machine Consciousness is currently facing is the need to accurately assess the potential level of consciousness that an artificial agent might develop. This paper presents a novel artificial consciousness scale designed to provide a pragmatic and intuitive reference in the evaluation of MC implementations. The version of ConsScale described in this work provides a comprehensive evaluation mechanism which enables the estimation of the potential degree of consciousness of most (...)
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  39.  37
    Spinoza's Idea of Idea Doctrine: A Theory of Consciousness.Henk Keizer - 2019 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 4:579-599.
    Abstract: This article invalidates a central objection that has been brought up against Spinoza’s idea of idea doctrine as a theory of consciousness. Key point in the argument is that the perfection of ideas of ideas is as variable as the perfection of ideas and corresponds to the perfection of the associated bodies. This allows ideas of ideas to account for various degrees of consciousness. In its application to human beings the theory covers important aspects of (...): to know that one knows a thing, to know what one knows and to know that is our mind that knows the thing. The doctrine is a theory of the self-reflectivity of ideas that explains the immediate awareness of thoughts. The author argues that the idea of idea doctrine is the make-up of a comprehensive theory of consciousness throughout nature. Keywords:. (shrink)
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  40. The principle of continuity and Leibniz's theory of consciousness.Larry M. Jorgensen - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):pp. 223-248.
    Leibniz viewed the principle of continuity, the principle that all natural changes are produced by degrees, as a useful heuristic for evaluating the truth of a theory. Since the Cartesian laws of motion entailed discontinuities in the natural order, Leibniz could safely reject it as a false theory. The principle of continuity has similar implications for analyses of Leibniz's theory of consciousness. I briefly survey the three main interpretations of Leibniz's theory of consciousness and argue that the (...)
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  41.  26
    Sensory Integration and the Unity of Consciousness.David Bennett, David J. Bennett & Christopher Hill (eds.) - 2014 - Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
    Philosophers and cognitive scientists address the relationships among the senses and the connections between conscious experiences that form unified wholes. In this volume, cognitive scientists and philosophers examine two closely related aspects of mind and mental functioning: the relationships among the various senses and the links that connect different conscious experiences to form unified wholes. The contributors address a range of questions concerning how information from one sense influences the processing of information from the other senses and how unified states (...)
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  42.  65
    Variety of extent, degree and unity in self-consciousness.Sophie Bryant - 1897 - Mind 6 (21):71-89.
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  43. Variety of Extent, Degree, and Unity in Self-Consciousness.S. Bryant - 1897 - Philosophical Review 6:422.
     
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  44. Amplifying phenomenal information: Toward a fundamental theory of consciousness.Liane Gabora - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (8):3-29.
    from non-conscious components by positing that consciousness is a universal primitive. For example, the double aspect theory of information holds that infor- mation has a phenomenal aspect. How then do you get from phenomenal infor- mation to human consciousness? This paper proposes that an entity is conscious to the extent it amplifies information, first by trapping and integrating it through closure, and second by maintaining dynamics at the edge of chaos through simul- taneous processes of divergence and convergence. (...)
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  45.  27
    Peirce’s legacy for contemporary consciousness studies, the emergence of consciousness from qualia, and its evanescence in habits.Winfried Nöth - 2021 - Semiotica 2021 (243):49-103.
    The paper argues that contemporary consciousness studies can profit from Charles S. Peirce’s philosophy of consciousness. It confronts mainstream tendencies in contemporary consciousness studies, including those which consider consciousness as an unsolvable mystery, with Peirce’s phenomenological approach to consciousness. Peirce’s answers to the following contemporary issues are presented: phenomenological consciousness and the qualia, consciousness as self-controlled agency of humans, self-control and self-reflection, consciousness and language, self-consciousness and introspection, consciousness and the (...)
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  46.  26
    How Contextual and Relational Aspects Shape the Perspective of Healthcare Providers on Decision Making for Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: A Qualitative Interview Study.Catherine Rodrigue, Richard Riopelle, James L. Bernat & Eric Racine - 2013 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 3 (3):261-273.
    Disorders of consciousness (DOC) are a family of related neurological syndromes characterized by deficits of varying degrees of wakefulness (e.g., sleep–wake cycles and arousal) or awareness (e.g., reacting to stimuli, interacting with the environment). Although coma rarely persists for more than a few weeks, some patients remain in a subsequent vegetative state or a minimally conscious state for months or years. Caring for patients with DOC raises ethical questions, but the perspectives of healthcare providers on these questions remain (...)
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  47.  54
    The Anthropic Principle for the Evolutionary Biology of Consciousness: Beyond Anthropocentrism and Anthropomorphism.Daichi G. Suzuki - 2022 - Biosemiotics 15 (1):171-186.
    The evolutionary origin of consciousness has been a growing area of study in recent years. Nevertheless, there is intense debate on whether the existence of phenomenal consciousness without the cerebral cortex is possible. The corticocentrists have an empirical advantage because we are quasi-confident that we humans are conscious and have the well-developed cortex as the site of our consciousness. However, their prejudice can be an anthropic bias similar to the anthropocentric prejudice in pre-Darwinian natural history. In this (...)
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  48.  30
    Reductive Model of the Conscious Mind.Wieslaw Galus & Janusz Starzyk (eds.) - 2021 - Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
    Research on natural and artificial brains is proceeding at a rapid pace. However, the understanding of the essence of consciousness has changed slightly over the millennia, and only the last decade has brought some progress to the area. Scientific ideas emerged that the soul could be a product of the material body and that calculating machines could imitate brain processes. However, the authors of this book reject the previously common dualism—the view that the material and spiritual-psychic processes are separate (...)
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  49.  31
    Presumed post-mortem donors: the degree of information among university students.Ivone Maria Resende Figueiredo Duarte, Cristina Maria Nogueira da Costa Santos & Rita da Silva Clemente Pinho - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-16.
    BackgroundOrgan transplantation represents the most effective and acceptable therapy for end-stage organ failure. However, its frequent practice often leads to a shortage of organs worldwide. To solve this dilemma, some countries, such as Portugal, have switched from an opt-in to an opt-out system, which has raised concerns about respect for individual autonomy. We aimed to evaluate whether young university students are aware of this opt-out system so that they can make informed, autonomous and conscious decisions, as well as to identify (...)
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  50.  32
    Ecological foundations of cognition. II: Degrees of freedom and conserved quantities in animal-environment systems.Robert E. Shaw & M. T. Turvey - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (11-12):11-12.
    Cognition means different things to different psychologists depending on the position held on the mind-matter problem. Ecological psychologists reject the implied mind-matter dualism as an ill-posed theoretic problem because the assumed mind-matter incommensurability precludes a solution to the degrees of freedom problem. This fundamental problem was posed by both Nicolai Bernstein and James J. Gibson independently. It replaces mind-matter dualism with animal-environment duality -- a better posed scientific problem because commensurability is assured. Furthermore, when properly posed this way, a (...)
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