Results for 'decay experiments'

993 found
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  1.  25
    Radioactive decay and the earth sun distance.John G. Cramer - unknown
    About 22 years ago, the physics world was briefly rocked by claims of evidence for a new “5 th force”, based on reanalysis of data from an early 20 th century experiment. Baron Roland von Eötvös, a Hungarian nobleman, had performed extensive measurements of the correlation between inertial mass and gravitational mass and published them in 1922. The lead article in the January 6, 1986 issue of Physical Review Letters had the unassuming title: "A Reanalysis of the Eötvös Experiment" by (...)
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  2.  81
    Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay: Status of Evidence. [REVIEW]H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz & I. V. Krivosheina - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1181-1223.
    The present experimental status in the search for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed, with emphasis on the first indication for neutrinoless double beta decay found in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment, giving first evidence for lepton number violation and a Majorana nature of the neutrinos. Future perspectives of the field are briefly outlined.
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  3.  20
    Understanding Multi-directional Democratic Decay: Lessons from the Rise of Bolsonaro in Brazil.Tom Gerald Daly - 2020 - The Law and Ethics of Human Rights 14 (2):199-226.
    On 28 October 2018 the far-right candidate Jair Bolsonaro won the presidential elections in Brazil with 55% of the vote. This result has been viewed by many as yet another instance of the global rise of authoritarian populist leaders, grouping Bolsonaro alongside the likes of Hungary’s Viktor Orbán, Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, India’s Narendra Modi, or Donald Trump in the USA – indeed, Bolsonaro has been dubbed the “Trump of the Tropics.” The focus on Bolsonaro himself reflects the strong emphasis (...)
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  4.  1
    Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay: Status of Evidence.H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz & I. V. Krivosheina - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1181-1223.
    The present experimental status in the search for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed, with emphasis on the first indication for neutrinoless double beta decay found in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment, giving first evidence for lepton number violation and a Majorana nature of the neutrinos. Future perspectives of the field are briefly outlined.
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  5.  87
    Aphantasia and the Decay of Mental Images.Steve Humbert-Droz - 2019 - In Florian Cova & Sébastien Réhault (eds.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Aesthetics. Londres, Royaume-Uni: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 167-174.
    Testimonies about aphantasia are still surprisingly rare, more than a century after Galton. It is therefore difficult to understand how a person devoid of (a kind of) imagination actually thinks. In order to outline "what it is like" to be aphantasic, I will start by compiling two qualitative interviews with aphantasics that I will then compare with other testimonies collected in literature and online. The fact that aphantasia is poorly documented may also explain why few philosophers (with the notable exception (...)
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  6. First Evidence for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay.H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (5):813-829.
    Double beta decay is indispensable to solve the question of the neutrino mass matrix together with ν oscillation experiments. Recent analysis of the most sensitive experiment since nine years—the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment in Gran-Sasso—yields a first indication for the neutrinoless decay mode. This result is the first evidence for lepton number violation and proves the neutrino to be a Majorana particle. We give the present status of the analysis in this report. It excludes several of the neutrino mass (...)
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  7.  20
    On Peres' Statement “Opposite Momenta Lead to Opposite Directions,” Decaying Systems and Optical Imaging.W. Struyve, W. De Baere, J. De Neve & S. De Weirdt - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (6):963-985.
    We re-examine Peres' statement “opposite momenta lead to opposite directions”. It will be shown that Peres' statement is only valid in the large distance or large time limit. In the short distance or short time limit an additional deviation from perfect alignment occurs due to the uncertainty of the location of the source. This error contribution plays a major role in Popper's orginal experimental proposal. Peres' statement applies rather to the phenomenon of optical imaging, which was regarded by him as (...)
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  8.  11
    Experiment and the Development of the Theory of Weak Interactions: Fermi's Theory.Allan Franklin - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:163 - 179.
    The fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results, and of the confirmation or refutation based on those results, is illustrated in the 1930's history of Fermi's theory of decay. Early results favored the competing theory of Konopinski and Uhlenbeck. It was found that there were experimental difficulties along with an incorrect theoretical comparison. When the experiments were corrected and the proper theoretical calculations made, the evidence favored Fermi and refuted Konopinski and Uhlenbeck. The relevance of known evidence for confirmation (...)
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  9.  88
    Suggestion for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments using reactions likee^ + e^ - to Lambda bar Lambda to pi ^ - ppi ^ + bar p.Nils A. Törnqvist - 1981 - Foundations of Physics 11 (1-2):171-177.
    Since weakly decaying particles are their own polarimeters, reactions like $\eta _c \to \Lambda \bar \Lambda , \psi \to \Lambda \bar \Lambda ,e^ + e^ - \to \mu ^ + \mu ^ -$ , etc. are interesting for testing the non-locality of quantum mechanical predictions. Although such reactions, in principle, do not exclude all classes of hidden variable theories, they can be used to complement current experiments with external polarimeters. The reaction $\eta _c \to \Lambda \bar \Lambda \to \pi (...)
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  10. On the Importance of the Bohmian Approach for Interpreting CP-Violation Experiments.Dipankar Home & A. S. Majumdar - 1999 - Foundations of Physics 29 (5):721-727.
    We argue that the inference of CP violation in experiments involving the K0-K0 system in weak interactions of particle physics is facilitated by the assumption of particle trajectories for the decaying particles and the decay products. A consistent explanation in terms of such trajectories is naturally incorporated within the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  11.  34
    On the interpretation of Feynman diagrams, or, did the LHC experiments observe H → γγ?Oliver Passon - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (2):20.
    According to the received view Feynman diagrams are a bookkeeping device in complex perturbative calculations. Thus, they do not provide a representation or model of the underlying physical process. This view is in apparent tension with scientific practice in high energy physics, which analyses its data in terms of “channels”. For example the Higgs discovery was based on the observation of the decay H → γγ – a process which can be easily represented by the corresponding Feynman diagrams. I (...)
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  12.  35
    Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses - Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation.Luke A. Parry, Fiann Smithwick, Klara K. Nordén, Evan T. Saitta, Jesus Lozano-Fernandez, Alastair R. Tanner, Jean-Bernard Caron, Gregory D. Edgecombe, Derek E. G. Briggs & Jakob Vinther - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (1):1700167.
    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspects of fossilization, applying the results directly to the interpretation of exceptionally preserved fossils may overlook the impact of other (...)
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  13.  17
    Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses - Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation.Luke A. Parry, Fiann Smithwick, Klara K. Nordén, Evan T. Saitta, Jesus Lozano-Fernandez, Alastair R. Tanner, Jean-Bernard Caron, Gregory D. Edgecombe, Derek E. G. Briggs & Jakob Vinther - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (1):1700167.
    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspects of fossilization, applying the results directly to the interpretation of exceptionally preserved fossils may overlook the impact of other (...)
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  14.  21
    The Etherino and/or the Neutrino Hypothesis.Ruggero Maria Santilli - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):670-711.
    By using a language as accessible to as broad an audience as possible, in this paper we identify serious insufficiencies of the neutrino and quark hypotheses for the synthesis of the neutrons from protons and electrons inside stars according to the familiar reaction ${{\rm p}^+ + \bar {\nu} + {\rm e}^-\rightarrow {\rm n}}$ . We introduce, apparently for the first time, the hypothesis that the energy and spin needed for the synthesis of the neutron originate either from the environment or (...)
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  15.  46
    Quantitative Parsimony, Explanatory Power and Dark Matter.William L. Vanderburgh - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (2):317-327.
    Baker argues that quantitative parsimony—the principle that hypotheses requiring fewer entities are to be preferred over their empirically equivalent rivals—is a rational methodological criterion because it maximizes explanatory power. Baker lends plausibility to his account by confronting it with the example of postulating of the neutrino in order to resolve a discrepancy in Beta decay experiments. Baker’s account is initially attractive, but I argue that its details are problematic and that it yields undesirable consequences when applied to the (...)
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  16. Thoughtlessness and religious decadence in Iran: a sojourn in comparative political theory.Alireza Shomali - 2019 - Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Political decay in Islamic societies has for the most part been the subject of structural analyses while philosophical studies have been rare, often speculative and deterministic. Thoughtlessness and Religious Decadence in Iran: A Sojourn in Comparative Political Theory explores from a theoretical perspective the problem of democracy deficit--or, political decadence--, in contemporary Iran and, by implication, in present-day Middle Eastern societies. This decadence, the book argues, is in part a religion-based decadence, and deliverance from it requires collective thoughtfulness about (...)
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  17. A Revolutionary New Metaphysics, Based on Consciousness, and a Call to All Philosophers.Lorna Green - manuscript
    June 2022 A Revolutionary New Metaphysics, Based on Consciousness, and a Call to All Philosophers We are in a unique moment of our history unlike any previous moment ever. Virtually all human economies are based on the destruction of the Earth, and we are now at a place in our history where we can foresee if we continue on as we are, our own extinction. As I write, the planet is in deep trouble, heat, fires, great storms, and record flooding, (...)
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  18. On the (Im)possibility of Scalable Quantum Computing.Andrew Knight - manuscript
    The potential for scalable quantum computing depends on the viability of fault tolerance and quantum error correction, by which the entropy of environmental noise is removed during a quantum computation to maintain the physical reversibility of the computer’s logical qubits. However, the theory underlying quantum error correction applies a linguistic double standard to the words “noise” and “measurement” by treating environmental interactions during a quantum computation as inherently reversible, and environmental interactions at the end of a quantum computation as irreversible (...)
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  19.  14
    From The Corner to The Wire: On Nonfiction, Fiction, and Truth.Margrethe Vaage - 2017 - Journal of Literary Theory 2 (11):255-271.
    The orthodox view in analytical film theory is that the difference between fiction and nonfiction is anchored in communicative practice. Whereas the creator of nonfiction can be seen as asserting something as true, the creator of fiction merely asks of its spectators that they imagine the work’s content. This could be labelled an intention-response theory of the difference between fiction and nonfiction. While watching Supersize Me I am as a spectator very much aware of director Morgan Spurlock making an argument (...)
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  20.  10
    On Fundamentals: an Adventure: PHILOSOPHY.Douglas Fawcett - 1932 - Philosophy 7 (28):381-393.
    Most men experience from time to time a wish to know something about the character of the larger reality in which they live, move, and have their being; something much more fundamental than any department of research classed as “scientific” can provide. And the most incurably practical of us has good reason for cherishing this wish. Metaphysics, i.e. inquiry into the general nature of reality, makes appeal first to the contemplative student interested in knowledge for its own sake, but it (...)
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  21. Mad Speculation and Absolute Inhumanism: Lovecraft, Ligotti, and the Weirding of Philosophy.Ben Woodard - 2011 - Continent 1 (1):3-13.
    continent. 1.1 : 3-13. / 0/ – Introduction I want to propose, as a trajectory into the philosophically weird, an absurd theoretical claim and pursue it, or perhaps more accurately, construct it as I point to it, collecting the ground work behind me like the Perpetual Train from China Mieville's Iron Council which puts down track as it moves reclaiming it along the way. The strange trajectory is the following: Kant's critical philosophy and much of continental philosophy which has followed, (...)
     
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  22.  7
    From mistaking fakeness to mistake in fakeness. Artificial ruins between aesthetics and deception.Zoltán Somhegyi - 2021 - Studi di Estetica 19.
    Aesthetic attraction and artful execution of the object, careful design and seemingly blatant falsification by the creator, voluntarily accepted counterfeit imitation and celebration of a melancholy-filled illusion – these, and many other, often contradictory, particularities can describe one of the most complex aesthetic phenomena, that of fake ruins. Questions of perfection and mistake, accurate planning and permissive randomness, genuineness and authenticity – or the convincing justification of aesthetic experience despite the complete lack of them – profound references to the nature (...)
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  23. Detecting deviations from randomness.Jiaying Zhao & Daniel Osherson - unknown
    We explore the ability to distinguish random from non-random events. Randomness is defined in terms of radioactive decay whereas non-randomness is quantified by excess repetitions (“repeat”) or alternations (“switch”) between successive bits. In the first four experiments no mention was made of randomness, probability, or related concepts in task instructions. We found superior performance in distinguishing random stimuli from repeat stimuli compared to switch stimuli. The last three experiments explicitly evoked the concept of randomness, thus allowing comparison (...)
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  24.  13
    Systemic Corruption: Constitutional Ideas for an Anti-Oligarchic Republic.Camila Vergara - 2020 - Princeton University Press.
    A bold new approach to combatting the inherent corruption of representative democracy This provocative book reveals how the majority of modern liberal democracies have become increasingly oligarchic, suffering from a form of structural political decay first conceptualized by ancient philosophers. Systemic Corruption argues that the problem cannot be blamed on the actions of corrupt politicians but is built into the very fabric of our representative systems. Camila Vergara provides a compelling and original genealogy of political corruption from ancient to (...)
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  25. Gonzo Strategies of Deceit: An Interview with Joaquin Segura.Brett W. Schultz - 2011 - Continent 1 (2):117-124.
    Joaquin Segura. Untitled (fig. 40) . 2007 continent. 1.2 (2011): 117-124. The interview that follows is a dialogue between artist and gallerist with the intent of unearthing the artist’s working strategies for a general public. Joaquin Segura is at once an anomaly in Mexico’s contemporary art scene at the same time as he is one of the most emblematic representatives of a larger shift toward a post-national identity among its youngest generation of artists. If Mexico looks increasingly like a foreclosed (...)
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  26. Making contact with observations.Ioannis Votsis - 2007 - In Mauricio Suarez, Mauro Dorato & Miklos Redei (eds.), EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences · Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer. pp. 267--277.
    A stalwart view in the philosophy of science holds that, even when broadly construed so as to include theoretical auxiliaries, theories cannot make direct contact with observations. This view owes much to Bogen and Woodward’s influential distinction between data and phenomena. According to them, data are typically the kind of things that are observable or measurable like "bubble chamber photographs, patterns of discharge in electronic particle detectors and records of reaction times and error rates in various psychological experiments". Phenomena (...)
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  27.  1
    Harlem: The Unmaking of a Ghetto.Camilo José Vergara & Timothy J. Gilfoyle - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    For more than a century, Harlem has been the epicenter of black America, the celebrated heart of African American life and culture—but it has also been a byword for the problems that have long plagued inner-city neighborhoods: poverty, crime, violence, disinvestment, and decay. Photographer Camilo José Vergara has been chronicling the neighborhood for forty-three years, and Harlem: The Unmaking of a Ghetto is an unprecedented record of urban change. Vergara began his documentation of Harlem in the tradition of such (...)
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  28. Feyerabend’s rule and dark matter.David Merritt - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):8921-8942.
    Paul Feyerabend argued that theories can be faced with experimental anomalies whose refuting character can only be recognized by developing alternatives to the theory. The alternate theory must explain the experimental results without contrivance and it must also be supported by independent evidence. I show that the situation described by Feyerabend arises again and again in experiments or observations that test the postulates in the standard cosmological model relating to dark matter. The alternate theory is Milgrom’s modified dynamics. I (...)
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  29.  52
    Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics Brussels–Austin style.Robert C. Bishop - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (1):1-30.
    The fundamental problem on which Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels–Austin Group have focused can be stated briefly as follows. Our observations indicate that there is an arrow of time in our experience of the world (e.g., decay of unstable radioactive atoms like uranium, or the mixing of cream in coffee). Most of the fundamental equations of physics are time reversible, however, presenting an apparent conflict between our theoretical descriptions and experimental observations. Many have thought that the observed arrow of (...)
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  30. A superluminal effect with oscillating neutrinos.Eugene V. Stefanovich - unknown
    A simple quantum relativistic model of ν µ − ντ neutrino oscillations in the OPERA experiment is presented. This model suggests that the two components in the neutrino beam are separated in space. After being created in a meson decay, the µ-neutrino moves 18 meters ahead of the beam’s center of energy, while the τ -neutrino is behind. Both neutrinos have subluminal speeds, however the advanced start of the ν µ explains why it arrives in the detector 60 ns (...)
     
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  31.  18
    Literary bioinformatics studies: The genetic code mystique.Adam Zaretsky - 2018 - Technoetic Arts 16 (3):267-276.
    What is life and what does it mean to be in the living political universe of entitiness without rhyme or reason? Flappy exudate, a bag in a bag, corpuscles of corporeality, worms (or flesh tubes) with appendages, even the cult of first involution – these are our body pods and the hunger and thirst of being-in. How can the situation of anatomical form be analysed without the illusion of instrumentalized reflection? Perhaps by amalgamating the categories and their issues. The issuance (...)
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  32.  1
    Relativizing Newton.Ramzi Suleiman - 2020 - New York: Nova Science Publishers.
    Relativizing Newton" is a first step towards a simple and beautiful theory of everything. The theory, termed "Information Relativity" (IR) takes a novel approach to physics that overlooks all post-Newtonian physics. It stands on the shoulders of Newtonian dynamics, but modifies it by accounting for the time-travel of information from one reference-frame to another, a fact which somehow was ignored by Galileo Galilee and Isaac Newton, and which remained ill-treated by the all post-Newtonian theories, including Einstein's relativity and quantum theories. (...)
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  33.  35
    Spillovers from Coordination to Cooperation – Evidence for the Interdependence Hypothesis?Hannes Rusch & Christoph Luetge - 2016 - Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences 10 (4):284-296.
    It has recently been proposed that the evolution of human cooperativeness might, at least in part, have started as the cooptation of behavioral strategies evolved for solving problems of coordination to solve problems with higher incentives to defect, i.e. problems of cooperation. Following this line of thought, we systematically tested human subjects for spillover effects from simple coordination tasks (2x2 Stag Hunt games, SH) to problems of cooperation (2x2 Prisoner’s Dilemma games, PD) in a laboratory experiment with rigorous controls to (...)
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  34. The Metaphysical Problem of Intermittent Existence and the Possibility of Resurrection.David B. Hershenov - 2003 - Faith and Philosophy 20 (1):24-36.
    If one does not possess an immaterial and immortal soul, then the prospect of conscious experience after death would appear to depend upon the metaphysical possibility of the resurrection of one’s biological life.[i] By “resurrection,” I don’t mean just the possibility that a dead but still existing and well preserved individual could be brought back to life. My contention is that the human organism can even cease to exist, perhaps as a result of cremation or extensive decay, and yet (...)
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  35.  47
    Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: radioisotopes as historical tracers of molecular biology.Angela N. H. Creager - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 40 (1):29-42.
    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists labeled phage with (...)
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  36.  17
    Uber einige Motive bei Baudelaire.Walter Benjamin - 1939 - Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung 8 (1-2):50-91.
    The essay begins with the estrangement of the great lyrical poetry from the public since the middle of the 19th century. It is conceived in terms of an historical change in the structure of human experiencing.That is first demonstrated in Bergson. The autor interprets „Matière et Mémoire“ as the attempt to vindicate through the category of memory the possibility of genuine, that is, tradition-forming experience as against the mode of experience in the industrial age. Proust has more closely determined Bergson's (...)
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  37. Statistical concepts in philosophy of science.Patrick Suppes - 2007 - Synthese 154 (3):485--496.
    This article focuses on the role of statistical concepts in both experiment and theory in various scientific disciplines, especially physics, including astronomy, and psychology. In Sect. 1 the concept of uncertainty in astronomy is analyzed from Ptolemy to Laplace and Gauss. In Sect. 2 theoretical uses of probability and statistics in science are surveyed. Attention is focused on the historically important example of radioactive decay. In Sect. 3 the use of statistics in biology and the social sciences is examined, (...)
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  38.  4
    Pitches that Wire Together Fire Together: Scale Degree Associations Across Time Predict Melodic Expectations.Niels J. Verosky & Emily Morgan - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (10):e13037.
    The ongoing generation of expectations is fundamental to listeners’ experience of music, but research into types of statistical information that listeners extract from musical melodies has tended to emphasize transition probabilities and n‐grams, with limited consideration given to other types of statistical learning that may be relevant. Temporal associations between scale degrees represent a different type of information present in musical melodies that can be learned from musical corpora using expectation networks, a computationally simple method based on activation and (...). Expectation networks infer the expectation of encountering one scale degree followed in the near (but not necessarily immediate) future by another given scale degree, with previous work suggesting that scale degree associations learned by expectation networks better predict listener ratings of pitch similarity than transition probabilities. The current work outlines how these learned scale degree associations can be combined to predict melodic continuations and tests the resulting predictions on a dataset of listener responses to a musical cloze task previously used to compare two other models of melodic expectation, a variable‐order Markov model (IDyOM) and Temperley's music‐theoretically motivated model. Under multinomial logistic regression, all three models explain significant unique variance in human melodic expectations, with coefficient estimates highest for expectation networks. These results suggest that generalized scale degree associations informed by both adjacent and nonadjacent relationships between melodic notes influence listeners’ melodic predictions above and beyond n‐gram context, highlighting the need to consider a broader range of statistical learning processes that may underlie listeners’ expectations for upcoming musical events. (shrink)
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  39.  10
    The Ethics of Surgical Interventions for Body Integrity Identity Disorder and Gender Dysphoria.Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco - 2022 - Nova et Vetera 20 (4):1003-1023.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:The Ethics of Surgical Interventions for Body Integrity Identity Disorder and Gender DysphoriaNicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco, O.P.IntroductionOn May 20, 2009, Fox News featured a report that described the life of a man named "John" who had spent his life struggling with Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID).1 In a phone interview, John admitted that he remembers wanting to amputate his leg when he was between seven and eleven years of (...)
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  40.  21
    Mechanisms of Reference Frame Selection in Spatial Term Use: Computational and Empirical Studies.Holger Schultheis & Laura A. Carlson - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):276-325.
    Previous studies have shown that multiple reference frames are available and compete for selection during the use of spatial terms such as “above.” However, the mechanisms that underlie the selection process are poorly understood. In the current paper we present two experiments and a comparison of three computational models of selection to shed further light on the nature of reference frame selection. The three models are drawn from different areas of human cognition, and we assess whether they may be (...)
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  41. Processing Relative Clauses in Supportive Contexts.Evelina Fedorenko, Steve Piantadosi & Edward Gibson - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (3):471-497.
    Results from two self-paced reading experiments in English are reported in which subject- and object-extracted relative clauses (SRCs and ORCs, respectively) were presented in contexts that support both types of relative clauses (RCs). Object-extracted versions were read more slowly than subject-extracted versions across both experiments. These results are not consistent with a decay-based working memory account of dependency formation where the amount of decay is a function of the number of new discourse referents that intervene between (...)
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  42. Meillassoux’s Virtual Future.Graham Harman - 2011 - Continent 1 (2):78-91.
    continent. 1.2 (2011): 78-91. This article consists of three parts. First, I will review the major themes of Quentin Meillassoux’s After Finitude . Since some of my readers will have read this book and others not, I will try to strike a balance between clear summary and fresh critique. Second, I discuss an unpublished book by Meillassoux unfamiliar to all readers of this article, except those scant few that may have gone digging in the microfilm archives of the École normale (...)
     
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  43.  33
    An improved cognitive model of the Iowa and Soochow Gambling Tasks with regard to model fitting performance and tests of parameter consistency.Junyi Dai, Rebecca Kerestes, Daniel J. Upton, Jerome R. Busemeyer & Julie C. Stout - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:126715.
    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT) are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning model (EVL) and the prospect valence learning model (PVL), have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL (...)
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  44.  85
    Urgency.Jon Elster - 2009 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 52 (4):399 – 411.
    It is generally recognized that emotional states induce impatience, in the sense of a heightened preference for early rewards over later rewards. In this article I argue that they also induce urgency, in the sense of a preference for early action over later action. I adduce scattered evidence for the existence of the phenomenon and sketch a possible experiment that might demonstrate it, while also noting that it may be hard to distinguish urgency-based action from action based on the anticipation (...)
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  45.  14
    Mass-Energy and the Neutron in the Early Thirties.Roger H. Stuewer - 1993 - Science in Context 6 (1):195-238.
    The ArgumentEinstein's mass-energy relationship was not confirmed experimentally until 1933 when Bainbridge showed that the Cockcroft-Walton experiment afforded a test of it. Earlier, however, it had been used constantly in the analysis of nuclear reactions, as can be seen in those involved in the determination of the mass of the neutron. Chadwick in 1932 was convinced that the neutron mass was about 1.0067 amu (atomic mass units), indicating that the neutron was a proton-electron compound, since that figure was less than (...)
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  46.  18
    Emotional memory for words: Separating content and context.Barbara Brierley, Nicholas Medford, Philip Shaw & Anthony S. David - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (3):495-521.
    We developed a technique to examine the effects of emotional content and context on verbal memory. Two sets of sentences were devised: in the first, each sentence was emotionally arousing due to the inclusion of an emotional “target” word. In the second set, “targets” were replaced with well-matched neutral words. Subjects read aloud a selection of emotional and neutral sentences, and were then surprised with memory tasks after a range of time delays. Emotional target words were remembered significantly better than (...)
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  47.  16
    An Account of Interference in Associative Memory: Learning the Fan Effect.Robert Thomson, Anthony M. Harrison, J. Gregory Trafton & Laura M. Hiatt - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):69-82.
    Associative learning is an essential feature of human cognition, accounting for the influence of priming and interference effects on memory recall. Here, we extend our account of associative learning that learns asymmetric item-to-item associations over time via experience by including link maturation to balance associations between longer-term stability while still accounting for short-term variability. This account, combined with an existing account of activation strengthening and decay, predicts both human response times and error rates for the fan effect for both (...)
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  48.  26
    On the Mössbauer Effect and the Rigid Recoil Question.Mark Davidson - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (3):327-354.
    The rigid recoil of a crystal is the accepted mechanism for the Mössbauer effect. It’s at odds with the special theory of relativity which does not allow perfectly rigid bodies. The standard model of particle physics which includes QED should not allow any signals to be transmitted faster than the speed of light. If perturbation theory can be used, then the X-ray emitted in a Mössbauer decay must come from a single nuclear decay vertex at which the 4-momentum (...)
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  49.  35
    Recognizing strong random reals.Daniel Osherson - 2008 - Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (1):56-63.
    1. Characterizing randomness. Consider a physical process that, if suitably idealized, generates an indefinite sequence of independent random bits. One such process might be radioactive decay of a lump of uranium whose mass is kept at just the level needed to ensure that the probability is one-half that no alpha particle is emitted in the nth microsecond of the experiment. Let us think of the bits as drawn from {0, 1} and denote the resulting sequence by x with coordinates (...)
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  50.  43
    Mathematical principles of reinforcement.Peter R. Killeen - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):105-135.
    Effective conditioning requires a correlation between the experimenter's definition of a response and an organism's, but an animal's perception of its behavior differs from ours. These experiments explore various definitions of the response, using the slopes of learning curves to infer which comes closest to the organism's definition. The resulting exponentially weighted moving average provides a model of memory that is used to ground a quantitative theory of reinforcement. The theory assumes that: incentives excite behavior and focus the excitement (...)
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