Results for 'conflict'

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  1. The Conflict of Interpretations: Essays in Hermeneutics.Paul Ricoeur - 1974 - Northwestern University Press.
    This collection brings together twenty-two later essays by Paul Ricoeur under the topics of structuralism, psychoanalysis, hermeneutics, and religion.
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  2. Conflicting Reasons in the Small-Improvement Argument.Johan E. Gustafsson & Nicolas Espinoza - 2010 - Philosophical Quarterly 60 (241):754-763.
    The small-improvement argument is usually considered the most powerful argument against comparability, viz the view that for any two alternatives an agent is rationally required either to prefer one of the alternatives to the other or to be indifferent between them. We argue that while there might be reasons to believe each of the premises in the small-improvement argument, there is a conflict between these reasons. As a result, the reasons do not provide support for believing the conjunction of (...)
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  3. The Conflict of Evidence and Coherence.Alex Worsnip - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 96 (1):3-44.
    For many epistemologists, and for many philosophers more broadly, it is axiomatic that rationality requires you to take the doxastic attitudes that your evidence supports. Yet there is also another current in our talk about rationality. On this usage, rationality is a matter of the right kind of coherence between one's mental attitudes. Surprisingly little work in epistemology is explicitly devoted to answering the question of how these two currents of talk are related. But many implicitly assume that evidence -responsiveness (...)
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  4. The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts.Axel Honneth - 1995 - Polity.
    In this pathbreaking study, Axel Honneth argues that "the struggle for recognition" is, and should be, at the center of social conflicts.
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  5. Conflicting Appearances.Myles Burnyeat - 1981 - In Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 65: 1979. pp. 69--111.
     
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  6. Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex: An Update.Matthew M. Botvinick, Jonathan D. Cohen & Cameron S. Carter - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):539-546.
    One hypothesis concerning the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is that it functions, in part, to signal the occurrence of conflicts in information processing, thereby triggering compensatory adjustments in cognitive control. Since this idea was first proposed, a great deal of relevant empirical evidence has accrued. This evidence has largely corroborated the conflict-monitoring hypothesis, and some very recent work has provided striking new support for the theory. At the same time, other findings have posed specific challenges, especially concerning (...)
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  7.  6
    Justice is Conflict.Stuart Hampshire - 2000 - Princeton University Press.
    This book, which inaugurates the Princeton Monographs in Philosophy series, starts from Plato's analogy in the Republic between conflict in the soul and conflict in the city. Plato's solution required reason to impose agreement and harmony on the warring passions, and this search for harmony and agreement constitutes the main tradition in political philosophy up to and including contemporary liberal theory. Hampshire undermines this tradition by developing a distinction between justice in procedures, which demands that both sides in (...)
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  8.  61
    Democracy and Moral Conflict.Robert B. Talisse - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    Why democracy? Most often this question is met with an appeal to some decidedly moral value, such as equality, liberty, dignity or even peace. But in contemporary democratic societies, there is deep disagreement and conflict about the precise nature and relative worth of these values. And when democracy votes, some of those who lose will see the prevailing outcome as not merely disappointing, but morally intolerable. How should citizens react when confronted with a democratic result that they regard as (...)
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  9. Conflict of Interest in the Professions.Michael Davis & Andrew Stark (eds.) - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Conflicts of interest pose special problems for the professions. Even the appearance of a conflict of interest can undermine essential trust between professional and public. This volume is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the ramifications and problems associated with important issue. It contains fifteen new essays by noted scholars and covers topics in law, medicine, journalism, engineering, financial services, and others.
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  10.  94
    Conflict of Interest Policies in Science and Medical Journals: Editorial Practices and Author Disclosures.Sheldon Krimsky & L. S. Rothenberg - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2):205-218.
    This study examines the extent to which scientific and biomedical journals have adopted conflict of interest (COI) policies for authors, and whether the adoption and content of such policies leads to the publishing of authors’ financial interest disclosure statements by such journals. In particular, it reports the results of a survey of journal editors about their practices regarding COI disclosures. About 16 percent of 1396 highly ranked scientific and biomedical journals had COI policies in effect during 1997. Less than (...)
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  11.  32
    Conflict Monitoring and Cognitive Control.Matthew M. Botvinick, Todd S. Braver, Deanna M. Barch, Cameron S. Carter & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (3):624-652.
  12.  65
    Role Conflict, Mindfulness, and Organizational Ethics in an Education-Based Healthcare Institution.Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin & Philip E. Varca - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (3):455 - 469.
    Role conflict occurs when a job possesses inconsistent expectations incongruent with individual beliefs, a situation that precipitates considerable frustration and other negative work outcomes. Increasing interest in processes that reduce role conflict is, therefore, witnessed. With the help of information collected from a large sample of individuals employed at an education-based healthcare institution, this study identified several factors that might decrease role conflict, namely mindfulness and organizational ethics. In particular, the results indicated that mindfulness was associated with (...)
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  13. Healthy Conflict in Contemporary American Society: From Enemy to Adversary.Jason A. Springs - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    US citizens perceive their society to be one of the most diverse and religiously tolerant in the world today. Yet seemingly intractable religious intolerance and moral conflict abound throughout contemporary US public life - from abortion law battles, same-sex marriage, post-9/11 Islamophobia, public school curriculum controversies, to moral and religious dimensions of the Black Lives Matter and Occupy Wall Street movements, and Tea Party populism. Healthy Conflict in Contemporary American Society develops an approach to democratic discourse and coalition-building (...)
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  14.  6
    Land, Conflict, and Justice: A Political Theory of Territory.Avery Kolers - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    Territorial disputes have defined modern politics, but political theorists and philosophers have said little about how to resolve such disputes fairly. Is it even possible to do so? If historical attachments or divine promises are decisive, it may not be. More significant than these largely subjective claims are the ways in which people interact with land over time. Building from this insight, Avery Kolers evaluates existing political theories and develops an attractive alternative. He presents a novel link between political legitimacy (...)
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  15. Normative Conflicts and the Structure of Normativity.Andrew Reisner - 2015 - In Iwao Hirose & Andrew Reisner (eds.), Weighing and Reasoning: Themes from the Work of John Broome. Oxford University Press.
    This paper considers the relation between the sources of normativity, reasons, and normative conflicts. It argues that common views about how normative reasons relate to their sources have important consequences for how we can understand putative normative conflicts.
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  16. The Conflict of the Faculties =.Immanuel Kant - 1979 - University of Nebraska Press.
    It is in the interest of the totalitarian state that subjects not think for themselves, much less confer about their thinking. Writing under the hostile watch of the Prussian censorship, Immanuel Kant dared to argue the need for open argument, in the university if nowhere else. In this heroic criticism of repression, first published in 1798, he anticipated the crises that endanger the free expression of ideas in the name of national policy. Composed of three sections written at different times, (...)
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  17. Conciliation, Conflict, or Complementarity: Responses to Three Voices in the Hinduism and Science Discourse.C. Mackenzie Brown - 2012 - Zygon 47 (3):608-623.
    Abstract This essay is a response to three review articles on two recently published books dealing with aspects of Hinduism and science: Jonathan Edelmann's Hindu Theology and Biology: The Bhāgavata Purāṇa and Contemporary Theory, and my own, Hindu Perspectives on Evolution: Darwin, Dharma and Design. The task set by the editor of Zygon for the three reviewers was broad: they could make specific critiques of the two books, or they could use them as starting points to engage in a broad (...)
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  18.  1
    Moral Conflicts of Organ Retrieval: A Case for Constructive Pluralism.Charles C. Hinkley Ii (ed.) - 2005 - Brill | Rodopi.
    This book addresses ethical conflicts arising from saving the lives of patients who need a transplant while treating living and dead donors, organ sellers, animals, and embryos with proper moral regard. Our challenge is to develop a better world in the light of debatable values and uncertain consequences.
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  19. Conflicting Reasons, Unconflicting ‘Ought's.Shyam Nair - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (3):629-663.
    One of the popular albeit controversial ideas in the last century of moral philosophy is that what we ought to do is explained by our reasons. And one of the central features of reasons that accounts for their popularity among normative theorists is that they can conflict. But I argue that the fact that reasons conflict actually also poses two closely related problems for this popular idea in moral philosophy. The first problem is a generalization of a problem (...)
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  20. Moral Conflict and Political Legitimacy.Thomas Nagel - 1987 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 16 (3):215-240.
  21.  43
    Conflict, Metacognition, and Analytic Thinking.Valerie A. Thompson & Stephen C. Johnson - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):215-244.
    One hundred and three participants solved conflict and non-conflict versions of four reasoning tasks using a two-response procedure: a base rate task, a causal reasoning task, a denominator neglect task, and a categorical syllogisms task. Participants were asked to give their first, intuitive answer, to make a Feeling of Rightness judgment, and then were given as much time as needed to rethink their answer. They also completed a standardized measure of IQ and the actively open-minded thinking questionnaire. The (...)
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  22.  27
    Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research.David B. Resnik - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (6):1661-1669.
    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.
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  23.  1
    Literary Conflict Between M.H. Panhwar and Dr. N.A. Baloch: An Archival Research.Aijaz Thaheem, Naseem Sarwar & Mumtaz Bhutto - 2022 - Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 61 (1):67-81.
    The purpose of this study is to offer a brief biography of Mr. M.H. Panhwar and Dr. Nabi Bux Khan Baloch, as well as their work in Sindhological studies along with a brief description of their literary differences on the origin of Sindhi language and history. A systematic literature review methodology was used to explore the contribution and contradiction of both the scholars. The study found that both the scholars were renowned researchers who worked in the fields of history, archaeology, (...)
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  24. Cultures. Conflict - Analysis - Dialogue: Proceedings of the 29th International Ludwig Wittgenstein-Symposium in Kirchberg, Austria.Christian Kanzian (ed.) - 2007 - Walter de Gruyter.
    What can systematic philosophy contribute to come from conflict between cultures to a substantial dialogue? - This question was the general theme of the 29th international symposium of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society in Kirchberg. Worldwide leading philosophers accepted the invitation to come to the conference, whose results are published in this volume, edited by Christian Kanzian Edmund Runggaldier. The sections are dedicated to the philosophy of Wittgenstein, Logics and Philosophy of Language, Decision- and Action Theory, Ethical Aspects of (...)
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  25.  79
    Moral Conflicts Between Groups of Agents.Barteld Kooi & Allard Tamminga - 2008 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (1):1-21.
    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a *moral conflict* if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agent deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like "In the interest of group F of agents, group G of agents ought to see to it that phi". We provide a formal language and a consequentialist semantics. An illustration of our semantics (...)
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  26.  52
    Conflicts of Law and Morality.Kent Greenawalt (ed.) - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    Powerful emotion and pursuit of self-interest have many times led people to break the law with the belief that they are doing so with sound moral reasons. This study is a comprehensive philosophical and legal analysis of the gray area in which the foundations of law and morality clash. This objective book views these oblique circumstances from two perspectives: that of the person who faces a possible conflict between the claims of morality and law and must choose whether or (...)
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  27.  45
    Mental Conflict.A. W. Price - 1994 - Routledge.
    As earthquakes expose geological faults, so mental conflict reveals tendencies to rupture within the mind. Dissension is rife not only between people but also within them, for each of us is subject to a contrariety of desires, beliefs, motivations, aspirations. What image are we to form of ourselves that might best enable us to accept the reality of discord, or achieve the ideal of harmony? Greek philosophers offer us a variety of pictures and structures intended to capture the actual (...)
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  28.  18
    Decision Conflict Drives Reaction Times and Utilitarian Responses in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Alejandro Rosas, Juan Pablo Bermúdez & David Aguilar-Pardo - 2019 - Judgment and Decision Making 14:555-564.
    In the sacrificial moral dilemma task, participants have to morally judge an action that saves several lives at the cost of killing one person. According to the dual process corrective model of moral judgment suggested by Greene and collaborators (2001; 2004; 2008), cognitive control is necessary to override the intuitive, deontological force of the norm against killing and endorse the utilitarian perspective. However, a conflict model has been proposed more recently to account for part of the evidence in favor (...)
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  29.  52
    Conflict Monitoring in Dual Process Theories of Thinking.Wim De Neys & Tamara Glumicic - 2008 - Cognition 106 (3):1248-1299.
  30.  19
    Conflicts of Interest and the Future of Medicine: The United States, France, and Japan.Marc A. Rodwin - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The heart of the matter -- The evolution of the French medicine -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of interest in France -- The rise of a protected medical market : the United States before 1950 -- The commercial transformation : the United States, 1950-1980 -- The logic of medical markets : the United States, 1980 to the present -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of interest in the United States -- The evolution of Japanese medicine -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of (...)
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  31.  91
    Clarifying Conflict of Interest.Howard Brody - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):23 - 28.
    As the debate over how to manage or discourage physicians? financial conflicts of interest with the drug and medical device industries has become more heated, critics have questioned or dismissed the concept of ?conflict of interest? itself. A satisfactory definition relates conflict of interest to concerns about maintaining social trust and distinguishes between breaches of ethical duty and temptations to breach duty. Numerous objections to such a definition have been offered, none of which prevails on further analysis. Those (...)
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  32. The Conflict of Rigidity and Precision in Designation.Daniele Bertini - 2020 - Logos and Episteme: An International Journal of Epistemology 11 (1):19-27.
    My paper provides reasons in support of the view that vague identity claims originate from a conflict between rigidity and precision in designation. To put this stricly, let x be the referent of the referential terms P and Q. Then, that the proposition “that any x being both a P and a Q” is vague involves that the semantic intuitions at work in P and Q reveal a conflict between P and Q being simultaneously rigid and precise designators. (...)
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  33.  57
    Conflicts of Interest in Recommendations to Use Computerized Neuropsychological Tests to Manage Concussion in Professional Football Codes.Bradley Partridge & Wayne Hall - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (1):63-74.
    Neuroscience research has improved our understanding of the long term consequences of sports-related concussion, but ethical issues related to the prevention and management of concussion are an underdeveloped area of inquiry. This article exposes several examples of conflicts of interest that have arisen and been tolerated in the management of concussion in sport (particularly professional football codes) regarding the use of computerized neuropsychological (NP) tests for diagnosing concussion. Part 1 outlines how the recommendations of a series of global protocols for (...)
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  34.  78
    Business-Conflict Linkages: Revisiting MNCs, CSR, and Conflict.Dima Jamali & Ramez Mirshak - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (3):443-464.
    Heightened interest in business-conflict linkages has materialized with the advent of globalization and the rise of multinational corporations (MNCs). We examine business-conflict linkages in this article both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, we examine three streams of the relevant academic literature: the academic business and society literature, the practitioner business and society literature, and the international business political behavior literature and argue that there is room and indeed need for their cross fertilization and integration in research on business-conflict (...)
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  35.  11
    Mental Conflict.A. W. Price - 1994 - Routledge.
    As earthquakes expose geological faults, so mental conflict reveals tendencies to rupture within the mind. Dissension is rife not only between people but also within them, for each of us is subject to a contrariety of desires, beliefs, motivations, aspirations. What image are we to form of ourselves that might best enable us to accept the reality of discord, or achieve the ideal of harmony? Greek philosophers offer us a variety of pictures and structures intended to capture the actual (...)
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  36.  17
    Conflict Talk and Argumentative Strategies in Highly Adversarial Talk Shows: The Case of Al-Jazeera’s The Opposite Direction.Khaled Abu Abbas, Muhammad A. Badarneh & Fathi Migdadi - 2013 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 9 (1):93-121.
    This study examines the conflict strategies used in the highly adversarial and popular Arabic-language talk show broadcasted weekly on Al-Jazeera satellite channel, known as Al-Ittijah Al-Mu’aakis 'The Opposite Direction'. The study identifies the conflict strategies and verbal conflict expressions and approaches them in the light of Interactional Sociolinguistics. The analysis of three episodes debating three different topics shows that disputants used several types of strategies including "impoliteness", "aggravated impoliteness", topic restriction, lengthy holding of the floor, and sarcasm. (...)
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  37.  80
    Practical Conflicts: New Philosophical Essays.Peter Baumann & Monika Betzler (eds.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Practical conflicts pervade human life. Agents have many different desires, goals, and commitments, all of which can come into conflict with each other. How can practical reasoning help to resolve these practical conflicts? In this collection of essays a distinguished roster of philosophers analyse the diverse forms of practical conflict. Their aim is to establish an understanding of the sources of these conflicts, to investigate the challenge they pose to an adequate conception of practical reasoning, and to assess (...)
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  38.  38
    Ethical Conflicts with Hospitals: The Perspective of Nurses and Physicians.A. Gaudine, S. M. LeFort, M. Lamb & L. Thorne - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (6):756-766.
    Nurses and physicians may experience ethical conflict when there is a difference between their own values, their professional values or the values of their organization. The distribution of limited health care resources can be a major source of ethical conflict. Relatively few studies have examined nurses' and physicians' ethical conflict with organizations. This study examined the research question ‘What are the organizational ethical conflicts that hospital nurses and physicians experience in their practice?’ We interviewed 34 registered nurses, (...)
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  39.  24
    Conflict(s) of Interest in Peer Review: Its Origins and Possible Solutions.Anton Oleinik - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics (1):1-21.
    Scientific communication takes place at two registers: first, interactions with colleagues in close proximity—members of a network, school of thought or circle; second, depersonalised transactions among a potentially unlimited number of scholars can be involved (e.g., author and readers). The interference between the two registers in the process of peer review produces a drift toward conflict of interest. Three particular cases of peer review are differentiated: journal submissions, grant applications and applications for tenure. The current conflict of interest (...)
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  40.  52
    The Conflict of Interpretations.Hans-Georg Gadamer & Paul Ricoeur - 1982 - In Ronald Bruzina & Bruce Wilshire (eds.), Phenomenology: Dialogues and Bridges. State University of New York Press. pp. 299--321.
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  41.  17
    Conflicts of Interest, Institutional Corruption, and Pharma: An Agenda for Reform.Marc A. Rodwin - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):511-522.
    Why do physicians have financial conflicts of interest? They arise because society expects physicians to act in their patients’ interest, while simultaneously, financial incentives encourage physicians to practice medicine in ways that promote their own interests or those of third parties. Because physicians’ clinical choices, referrals, and prescriptions affect the fortune of third parties, these third parties may offer physicians financial incentives to make income-driven clinical choices. In the past, physicians and scholars typically conceived of conflicts of interest as an (...)
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  42. Understanding Conflict and Change in a Multicultural World.H. Roy Kaplan - 2014 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Learning about the history of cultural conflict helps teachers reduce it in classrooms. This book shows our common origins and reviews sources of conflict in the former Yugoslavia, Northern Ireland, and the Middle East. It reveals how prejudice and stereotypes about racial and religious minorities create problems in our schools.
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  43. Conflicts of Normativity.Andrew Reisner - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    The thesis contains my early work arguing against evidentialism for reasons for belief (chapter 1), my early argument that rationality is not normative (chapter 2), an argument that rationality is not responding reasons, at least understood in one way (chapter 2), a general discussion of how normative conflicts might (appear to) arise in many different ways (chapter 3), a discussion of how to weigh pragmatic and evidential reasons for belief (chapter 4), and a discussion of the general structure of normativity (...)
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  44.  1
    Conflicts in Interpretation.Petra Hendriks (ed.) - 2010 - Equinox.
    Conflicts in Interpretation applies novel methods of constraint interaction, derived from connectionist theories and implemented in linguistics within the framework of Optimality Theory, to core semantic and pragmatic issues such as polysemy, negation, (in) definiteness, focus, anaphora, and rhetorical structure. It explores the hypothesis that a natural language grammar is a set of potentially conflicting constraints on forms and meanings. Moreover, it hypothesizes that competent language users not only optimize from an input form to the optimal output meaning for this (...)
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  45.  67
    Conflicts of Interest in Financial Intermediation.Guido Palazzo & Lena Rethel - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):193-207.
    The last years have seen a surge of scandals in financial intermediation. This article argues that the agency structure inherent to most forms of financial intermediation gives rise to conflicts of interest. Though this does not excuse scandalous behavior it points out market imperfections. There are four types of conflicts of interest: personal-individual, personal-organizational, impersonal-individual, and finally, impersonal-organizational conflicts. Analyzing recent scandals we find that all four types of conflicts of interest prevail in financial intermediation.
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  46.  3
    A Conflict of Paradigms: Social Epistemology and the Collapse of Literary Education.Rebecca K. Webb - 2007 - Lexington Books.
    In this combined examination of the history, theories, and practices in the teaching of English, the author presents compelling insight and practical solutions to the crisis in English education and the conflict among critical theories, radical pedagogy, classroom practice, epistemics, the pressure to vocationalize the curriculum, and the corporatization of institutes of learning.
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  47.  88
    Charitable Conflicts of Interest.Chris MacDonald, Michael McDonald & Wayne Norman - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):67 - 74.
    This paper looks at conflicts of interest in the not-for-profit sector. It examines the nature of conflicts of interest and why they are of ethical concern, and then focuses on the way not-for-profit organisations are especially prone to and vulnerable to conflict-of-interest scandals. Conflicts of interest corrode trust; and stakeholder trust (particularly from donors) is the lifeblood of most charities. We focus on some specific challenges faced by charitable organisations providing funding for scientific (usually medical) research, and examine a (...)
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  48.  45
    Conflict and Decision.Robert J. Ackermann - 1967 - Philosophy of Science 34 (2):188-193.
    In Howard Kahane's current reply to my previous discussion of Goodman's elimination rules, he suggests both that the notion of conflict required by the first elimination rule cannot be made clear, and that both proposed revisions of the second elimination rule are too strong [4]. These seem to me to be the points which require settlement, and I would like to discuss them in this paper.
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    Conflicts of Interest: Challenges and Solutions in Business, Law, Medicine, and Public Policy.Don A. Moore (ed.) - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection explores the subject of conflicts of interest. It investigates how to manage conflicts of interest, how they can affect well-meaning professionals, and how they can limit the effectiveness of corporate boards, undermine professional ethics, and corrupt expert opinion. Legal and policy responses are considered, some of which (e.g., disclosure) are shown to backfire and even fail. The results offer a sobering prognosis for professional ethics and for anyone who relies on professionals who have conflicts of interest. The contributors (...)
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  50.  16
    Conflicting Demands on a Modern Healthcare Service: Can Rawlsian Justice Provide a Guiding Philosophy for the NHS and Other Socialized Health Services?Zoë Fritz & Caitríona Cox - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (5):609-616.
    We explore whether a Rawlsian approach might provide a guiding philosophy for the development of a healthcare system, in particular with regard to resolving tensions between different groups within it. We argue that an approach developed from some of Rawls’ principles – using his ‘veil of ignorance’ and both the ‘difference’ and ‘just savings’ principles which it generates – provides a compelling basis for policy making around certain areas of conflict. We ask what policies might be made if those (...)
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