Results for 'civilians'

602 found
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  1.  25
    Sparing Civilians.Seth Lazar - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Killing civilians is worse than killing soldiers. If any moral principle commands near universal assent, this one does. Few moral principles have been more widely and more viscerally affirmed. And yet, in recent years it has faced a rising tide of dissent. Political and military leaders seeking to slip the constraints of the laws of war have cavilled and qualified. Their complaints have been unwittingly aided by philosophers who, rebuilding just war theory from its foundations, have concluded that this (...)
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  2.  15
    Civilian Immunity Without the Doctrine of Double Effect.Yitzhak Benbaji & Susanne Burri - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (1):50-69.
    Civilian Immunity is the legal and moral protection that civilians enjoy against the effects of hostilities under the laws of armed conflict and according to the ethics of killing in war. Immunity specifies different permissibility conditions for directly targeting civilians on the one hand, and for harming civilians incidentally on the other hand. Immunity is standardly defended by appeal to the Doctrine of Double Effect. We show that Immunity's prohibitive stance towards targeting civilians directly, and its (...)
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  3. Civilian Immunity, Supreme Emergency, and Moral Disaster.Igor Primoratz - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (4):371-386.
    Any plausible position in the ethics of war and political violence in general will include the requirement of protection of civilians (non-combatants, common citizens) against lethal violence. This requirement is particularly prominent, and particularly strong, in just war theory. Some adherents of the theory see civilian immunity as absolute, not to be overridden in any circumstances whatsoever. Others allow that it may be overridden, but only in extremis. The latter position has been advanced by Michael Walzer under the heading (...)
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  4.  34
    Civilian Liability.Helen Frowe - 2019 - Ethics 129 (4):625-650.
    Adil Ahmad Haque argues that civilians who contribute to unjust lethal threats in war, but who do not directly participate in the war, are not liable to defensive killing. His argument rests on two central claims: first, that the extent of a person’s liability to defensive harm in virtue of contributing to an unjust threat is limited to the cost that she is initially required to bear in order to avoid contributing, and, second, that civilians need not bear (...)
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  5.  68
    Civilian Immunity in War.Igor Primoratz - 2005 - Philosophical Forum 36 (1):41–58.
    The protection of noncombatants from deadly violence is the centrepiece of any account of ethical and legal constraints on war. It was a major achievement of moral progress from early modern times to World War I. Yet it has been under constant attrition since - perhaps never more so than in our time, with its 'new wars', the spectre of weapons of mass destruction, and the global terrorism alert. -/- Civilian Immunity in War, written in collaboration by eleven authors, provides (...)
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  6.  42
    Harming Civilians and the Associative Duties of Soldiers.Sara Van Goozen - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (3):584-600.
    According to International Humanitarian Law and many writing on just war theory, combatants who foresee that their actions will harm or kill innocent non-combatants are required to take some steps to reduce these merely foreseen harms. However, because often reducing merely foreseen harms place burdens on combatants – including risk to their lives – this requirement has been criticised for requiring too much of combatants. One reason why this might be the case is that combatants have duties to each other (...)
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  7.  43
    Civilians, Terrorism, and Deadly Serious Conventions.Jeremy Waldron - unknown
    This paper asks how we should regard the laws and customs of armed conflict, and specifically the rule prohibiting the targeting of civilians. What view should we take of the moral character and significance of such rules? Some philosophers have suggested that they are best regarded as useful conventions. This view is sometimes motivated by a "deep moral critique" of the rule protecting civilians: Jeff McMahan believes for example that the existing rules protect some who ought to be (...)
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  8.  79
    Killing Civilians.Gerhard Overland - 2005 - European Journal of Philosophy 13 (3):345-363.
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  9.  15
    Civilian Starvation: A Just Tactic of War?Claire Thomas - 2005 - Journal of Military Ethics 4 (2):108-118.
    Abstract There is general agreement that the targeting of civilians in war is morally wrong. But sometimes starvation tactics are accepted as being a better option than direct military attacks. This article questions this view by arguing that starvation tactics affect civilians first and inflict long-term suffering. It argues that they are not just unless they can be limited to a small area where only military personnel will be affected. It looks at the provision for starvation tactics in (...)
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  10.  7
    Civilian Immunity in War. [REVIEW]Igor Primoratz - 2009 - Analysis 69 (2):394-395.
    This collection of essays is presented as offering the first real philosophical and legal treatment of the Principle of Non-Combatant Immunity. Primoratz's own essay serves as a useful summary of some of the most influential attempts to rule in all, but only, combatants as legitimate military targets. However, this will feel like very familiar territory to those already working in Just War Theory, as will Uwe Steinhoff's essay, which surveys the same positions. Several of the essays are expositional rather than (...)
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  11.  1
    Civilian Immunity in War.Igor Primoratz (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The protection of noncombatants from deadly violence is the centrepiece of any account of ethical and legal constraints on war. It was a major achievement of moral progress from early modern times to World War I. Yet it has been under constant attrition since - perhaps never more so than in our time, with its 'new wars', the spectre of weapons of mass destruction, and the global terrorism alert. Civilian Immunity in War, written in collaboration by eleven authors, provides the (...)
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  12.  7
    Civilian Casualty Mitigation and the Rationalization of Killing.Brian Smith - 2021 - Journal of Military Ethics 20 (1):47-66.
    Of the two purposes of this article, the first is to show that the prohibition against intentionally targeting civilians is poorly suited to the current techno-rational landscape of warfare. Sophis...
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  13. Civilian Immunity in War • by Igor Primoratz, Ed.Helen Frowe - 2009 - Analysis 69 (2):394-395.
    This collection of essays is presented as offering the first real philosophical and legal treatment of the Principle of Non-Combatant Immunity . Primoratz's own essay serves as a useful summary of some of the most influential attempts to rule in all, but only, combatants as legitimate military targets. However, this will feel like very familiar territory to those already working in Just War Theory, as will Uwe Steinhoff's essay, which surveys the same positions . Several of the essays are expositional (...)
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  14. The Civilian in Modern War.Adam Roberts - 2011 - In Hew Strachan & Sibylle Scheipers (eds.), The Changing Character of War. Oxford University Press.
     
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  15. Making Drones to Kill Civilians: Is It Ethical?Edmund Byrne - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (1):81-93.
    A drone industry has emerged in the US, initially funded almost exclusively for military applications. There are now also other uses both governmental and commercial. Many military drones are still being made, however, especially for surveillance and targeted killings. Regarding the latter, this essay calls into question their legality and morality. It recognizes that the issues are complex and controversial, but less so as to the killing of non-combatant civilians. The government using drones for targeted killings maintains secrecy and (...)
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  16. Civilian Immunity, Forcing the Choice and Collective Responsibility.Seumas Miller - 2010 - In Igor Primoratz (ed.), Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
     
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  17.  10
    Risking Civilian Lives to Avoid Harm to Cultural Heritage?William Bülow - 2020 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 18 (3).
    This paper investigates the circumstances under which it is morally permissible to impose non-negligible risks of serious harm on innocent civilians in order not to endanger tangible cultural heritage during armed conflict. Building on a previous account of the value of cultural heritage, it is argued that tangible cultural heritage is valuable because of how it contributes to valuable and meaningful human lives. Taking this account as the point of departure I examine the claim that commanders should be prepared (...)
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  18.  4
    Seeing and Unmaking Civilians in Afghanistan: Visual Technologies and Contested Professional Visions.Christiane Wilke - 2017 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 42 (6):1031-1060.
    While the distinction between civilians and combatants is fundamental to international law, it is contested and complicated in practice. How do North Atlantic Treaty Organization officers see civilians in Afghanistan? Focusing on 2009 air strike in Kunduz, this article argues that the professional vision of NATO officers relies not only on recent military technologies that allow for aerial surveillance, thermal imaging, and precise targeting but also on the assumptions, vocabularies, modes of attention, and hierarchies of knowledges that the (...)
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  19.  8
    Intervening Agency and Civilian Liability.Helen Frowe - 2022 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 16 (1):181-191.
    Adam Hosein has recently proposed that a sufficient degree of intervening agency between a person’s contribution to an unjust lethal threat and the posing of that threat can exempt the contributor from liability to defensive killing. Hosein suggests that this will exempt most civilians from liability to lethal defence even if they contribute to unjust killings. I argue that intervening agency does not bear on a person’s responsibility for a threat, and does not exempt her from liability to defensive (...)
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  20.  10
    Making Civilian Casualties Count: Approaches to Documenting the Human Cost of War. [REVIEW]Izabela Steflja & Jessica Trisko Darden - 2013 - Human Rights Review 14 (4):347-366.
    Our understanding of civilian casualties is not based solely on what is reported but also who reports these human rights abuses. Competing interests at the data collection stage have impeded the development of a more thorough understanding of civilian victimization during conflict. We find that current definitions of “casualty” neglect nonphysical forms of victimization and that group-based definitions of “civilian” can obscure the role of different individuals in conflict. We contend that the dominant definition of “civilian casualty” should be expanded (...)
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  21.  6
    Defending Civilians From Defensive Killing.Adil Ahmad Haque - 2018 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 15 (6):731-749.
    Helen Frowe’s Defensive Killing is in many respects an excellent book, full of arguments that are original, interesting, important, and often persuasive. In other respects, the book is deeply unsettling, as it forcefully challenges the belief that killing ordinary civilians in armed conflict is a paradigmatic moral wrong. In particular, Frowe argues that civilians who make political, material, strategic, or financial contributions to an unjust war may lose their moral protection from intentional and collateral harm. On this point, (...)
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  22. Civilian Immunity in War: Legal Aspects.David Kretzmer - 2010 - In Igor Primoratz (ed.), Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
     
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  23.  21
    Civilian Scholarship.Jeffrey M. Perl - 2002 - Common Knowledge 8 (1):1-6.
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  24. Civilian Care in War: Lessons From Afghanistan.Peter Olsthoorn & Myriame Bollen - 2013 - In Michael Gross & Don Carrick (eds.), Military Medical Ethics forthe 21st Century. Ashgate. pp. 59-70.
    Military doctors and nurses, employees with a compound professional identity as they are neither purely soldiers nor simply doctors or nurses, face a role conflict between the clinical professional duties to a patient and obligations, express or implied, real or perceived, to the interests of a third party such as an employer, an insurer, the state, or in this context, military command (London et al. 2006). In the context of military medical ethics this is commonly called dual loyalty (or, less (...)
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  25. Civilian Immunity in War: From Augustine to Vattel.Colm McKeogh - 2010 - In Igor Primoratz (ed.), Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
     
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  26. Civilian Immunity in the 'New Wars'.Paul Gilbert - 2010 - In Igor Primoratz (ed.), Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
  27.  28
    Targeting Civilians in War - by Alexander B. Downes, Killing Civilians: Method, Madness and Morality in War - by Hugo Slim.Helen M. Kinsella - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (4):435-438.
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  28. Civilian Immunity in the Precision-Guidance Age.Hugh White - 2010 - In Igor Primoratz (ed.), Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
  29.  61
    Sparing Civilians[REVIEW]Jonathan Parry - 2020 - Philosophical Review 129 (1):135-139.
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  30.  33
    Innocent Civilians: The Morality of Killing in War.Igor Primoratz - 2004 - Contemporary Political Theory 3 (3):363-364.
  31. Civilian Immunity in War: Its Grounds, Scope and Weight.Igor Primoratz - 2010 - In Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
    Igor Primoratz presents eleven specially written essays on ethical, political, and legal issues surrounding the involvement of non-combatants in armed conflict. Written in a clear and non-technical style, this volume will appeal to students and researchers in philosophy, politics, and law, and to anyone interested in the ethics and legality of war.
     
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  32.  19
    Soldiers, Civilians, Andin BelloProportionality: A Proposed Revision.Elad Uzan - 2016 - The Monist 99 (1):87-96.
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  33.  7
    Sparing Civilians, by Seth Lazar: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, Pp. X + 158, £25. [REVIEW]David Rodin - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):206-207.
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  34. Civilians and Soldiers.Uwe Steinhoff - 2010 - In Igor Primoratz (ed.), Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
     
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  35. Targeting Civilian Infrastructure with Smart Bombs: The New Permissiveness.Henry Shue - 2010 - Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 30 (3/4):2-8.
    Common sense would suggest that the acquisition of precision-guided munitions should make it easier to avoid “collateral” damage in war. But U.S. military theorists have drawn the opposite conclusion: namely, that the more precise the weapon, the more permissive the standard for targeting should be. Henry Shue explains why this has happened—and why it is factually mistaken and morally misguided.
     
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  36.  10
    Killing Civilians.Uwe Steinhoff - 2011 - In Hew Strachan & Sibylle Scheipers (eds.), The Changing Character of War. Oxford University Press. pp. 381--393.
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  37.  16
    Some Considerations for Civilian–Peacekeeper Protection Alliances.Daniel H. Levine - 2013 - Ethics and Global Politics 6 (1):1-23.
    Protection of civilians has become enshrined as a core task for international peacekeeping missions. How to ensure that civilians are safe from violence and human rights abuses is central to developing military doctrine for peacekeeping; how safe civilians are from attack is central to how peacekeeping missions are assessed both by locals and international observers. However, protection of civilians is often seen as something that is done by active peacekeepers on behalf of passive civilians, potentially (...)
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  38.  9
    Civilian Defense and the Inhibition of Violence.Adam Roberts - 1969 - Philosophy East and West 19 (2):181-193.
  39.  31
    Civilian-Based Defense: A New Deterrence and Defense Policy.Gene Sharp - 1987 - World Futures 24 (1):227-262.
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  40.  13
    The Civilian Elite of Cairo in the Later Middle Ages. Carl F. Petry.S. Goitein - 1983 - Speculum 59 (1):195-197.
  41.  7
    Sparing Civilians, Written by Seth Lazar.Lisa Hecht - 2018 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 15 (1):112-115.
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  42.  11
    The Civilian Elite of Cairo in the Later Middle Ages.Fedwa Malti-Douglas & Carl F. Petry - 1985 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (2):355.
  43.  11
    Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System.Doug Allen - 1992 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 5 (5):40-45.
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  44. Ethics of Civilian Protection.Shunzo Majima - unknown
    In this thesis, I discuss the ethics of civilian protection in armed conflict from the perspective of applied ethics. Specifically, I attempt to explore a way to supplement the limitations of just war theory in civilian protection by providing a fundamental case for civilian protection, by way of considering insights gleaned from David Hume’s conception of justice, and from the perspective of professional military ethics. Moreover, I will further defend my argument for the protection of civilians in armed conflict (...)
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  45.  2
    Sparing Civilians.Alejandro Chehtman - 2018 - Jurisprudence 9 (2):431-437.
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  46.  29
    Democratic Authorization and Civilian Immunity.Ned Dobos - 2007 - Philosophical Forum 38 (1):81–88.
    In a recent analysis of the principle of civilian immunity, Igor Primoratz asks whether the circle of legitimate targets in war might be expanded so as to include at least some civilian bystanders. However Primoratz’ formulation of the ‘responsible bystander’ argument depends for its cogency on there being natural or non-acquired positive duties, and this is controversial. Furthermore, we feel that the citizens of a government unjustly at war are primarily and specially obliged to undermine that war, and that this (...)
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  47.  20
    What Would I Do? Civilians' Ethical Decision Making in Response to Military Dilemmas.Ann-Renée Blais & Megan M. Thompson - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (3):237-249.
    This research explored the ethical decision-making process of civilians in response to real-world military dilemmas. Results revealed the complexity of these dilemmas, with about equal proportions of civilians choosing each of two response options. The moral intensity dimension of social consensus significantly predicted moral judgment in both dilemmas, whereas that of magnitude of consequences did so in only one dilemma, partially supporting our hypothesis. Both dimensions were significant predictors of moral intent in both dilemmas as was moral judgment, (...)
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  48.  3
    Just War Theory and Civilian Casualties: Protecting the Victims of War.Marcus Schulzke - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    There are strong moral and legal pressures against harming civilians in times of conflict, yet neither just war theory nor international law is clear about what responsibilities belligerents have to correct harm once it has been inflicted. In this book, Marcus Schulzke argues that military powers have a duty to provide assistance to the civilians they attack during wars, and that this duty is entailed by civilians' right to life. Schulzke develops new just war principles requiring belligerents (...)
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  49.  1
    News of War: Civilian Poetry 1936–1945 by Rachel Galvin.Matthew B. Smith - 2019 - Substance 48 (3):112-117.
    Rachel Galvin’s News of War: Civilian Poetry 1936–1945 is a focused and forceful study of six major modernist poets who crafted similar styles in response to WWII and the Spanish Civil War: César Vallejo, W.H. Auden, Wallace Stevens, Raymond Queneau, Marianne Moore, and Gertrude Stein. A chapter is dedicated to each of these poets, with the exception of Auden, in many respects the book’s central figure, who is treated in two consecutive chapters. As can be seen in her choice of (...)
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  50. Global Civil Society, Civilians and Citizens.Mervyn Frost - 2005 - In Randall D. Germain & Michael Kenny (eds.), The Idea of Global Civil Society: Politics and Ethics in a Globalizing Era. Routledge.
     
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