Results for 'black hole electron'

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  1.  52
    Condensates in the Cosmos: Quantum Stabilization of the Collapse of Relativistic Degenerate Stars to Black Holes. [REVIEW]Mark P. Silverman - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):632-669.
    According to prevailing theory, relativistic degenerate stars with masses beyond the Chandrasekhar and Oppenheimer–Volkoff (OV) limits cannot achieve hydrostatic equilibrium through either electron or neutron degeneracy pressure and must collapse to form stellar black holes. In such end states, all matter and energy within the Schwarzschild horizon descend into a central singularity. Avoidance of this fate is a hoped-for outcome of the quantization of gravity, an as-yet incomplete undertaking. Recent studies, however, suggest the possibility that known quantum processes (...)
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  2.  27
    The Charge–Mass–Spin Relation of Clifford Polyparticles, Kerr–Newman Black Holes and the Fine Structure Constant.Carlos Castro - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (7):1091-1113.
    A Clifford-algebraic interpretation is proposed of the charge, mass, spin relationship found recently by Cooperstock and Faraoini, which was based on the Kerr–Newman metric solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell equations. The components of the polymomentum associated with a Clifford polyparticle in four dimensions provide for such a charge, mass, spin relationship without the problems encountered in Kaluza–Klein compactifications which furnish an unphysically large value for the electron charge. A physical reasoning behind such charge, mass, spin relationship is provided, followed by (...)
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  3.  56
    Black Hole Thermodynamics: More Than an Analogy?John Dougherty & Craig Callender - unknown
    Black hole thermodynamics is regarded as one of the deepest clues we have to a quantum theory of gravity. It motivates scores of proposals in the field, from the thought that the world is a hologram to calculations in string theory. The rationale for BHT playing this important role, and for much of BHT itself, originates in the analogy between black hole behavior and ordinary thermodynamic systems. Claiming the relationship is “more than a formal analogy,” (...) holes are said to be governed by deep thermodynamic principles: what causes your tea to come to room temperature is said additionally to cause the area of black holes to increase. Playing the role of philosophical gadfly, we pour a little cold water on the claim that BHT is more than a formal analogy. First, we show that BHT is often based on a kind of caricature of thermodynamics. Second, we point out an important ambiguity in what systems the analogy is supposed to govern, local or global ones. Finally, and perhaps worst, we point out that one of the primary motivations for the theory arises from a terribly controversial understanding of entropy. BHT may be a useful guide to future physics. Only time will tell. But the analogy is not nearly as good as is commonly supposed. (shrink)
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  4.  58
    Black Hole Philosophy.Gustavo E. Romero - 2021 - Crítica. Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 53 (159):73–132.
    Black holes are arguably the most extraordinary physical objects we know in the universe. Despite our thorough knowledge of black hole dynamics and our ability to solve Einstein’s equations in situations of ever increasing complexity, the deeper implications of the very existence of black holes for our understanding of space, time, causality, information, and many other things remain poorly understood. In this paper I survey some of these problems. If something is going to be clear from (...)
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  5.  70
    The Black Hole Information Paradox and the Collapse of the Wave Function.Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (4):461-470.
    The black hole information paradox arises from an apparent conflict between the Hawking black hole radiation and the fact that time evolution in quantum mechanics is unitary. The trouble is that while the former suggests that information of a system falling into a black hole disappears, the latter implies that information must be conserved. In this work we discuss the current divergence in views regarding the paradox, we evaluate the role that objective collapse theories (...)
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  6. Black-Hole Entropy as Causal Links.Djamel Dou & Rafael D. Sorkin - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (2):279-296.
    We model a black hole spacetime as a causal set and count, with a certain definition, the number of causal links crossing the horizon in proximity to a spacelike or null hypersurface Σ. We find that this number is proportional to the horizon's area on Σ, thus supporting the interpretation of the links as the “horizon atoms” that account for its entropy. The cases studied include not only equilibrium black holes but ones far from equilibrium.
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  7.  25
    Why Black Hole Information Loss is Paradoxical.David Wallace - unknown
    I distinguish between two versions of the black hole information-loss paradox. The first arises from apparent failure of unitarity on the spacetime of a completely evaporating black hole, which appears to be non-globally-hyperbolic; this is the most commonly discussed version of the paradox in the foundational and semipopular literature, and the case for calling it `paradoxical' is less than compelling. But the second arises from a clash between a fully-statistical-mechanical interpretation of black hole evaporation (...)
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  8.  17
    Are Black Holes About Information?Christian Wuthrich - unknown
    Information theory presupposes the notion of an epistemic agent, such as a scientist or an idealized human. Despite that, information theory is increasingly invoked by physicists concerned with fundamental physics, physics at very high energies, or generally with the physics of situations in which even idealized epistemic agents cannot exist. In this paper, I shall try to determine the extent to which the application of information theory in those contexts is legitimate. I will illustrate my considerations using the case of (...)
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  9. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Lorentz Symmetry.Ted Jacobson & Aron C. Wall - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1076-1080.
    Recent developments point to a breakdown in the generalized second law of thermodynamics for theories with Lorentz symmetry violation. It appears possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind in such theories, using a black hole to catalyze the conversion of heat to work. Here we describe and extend the arguments leading to that conclusion. We suggest the inference that local Lorentz symmetry may be an emergent property of the macroscopic world with origins in a (...)
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  10.  6
    Black Holes: Do They Exist?Edward Malec - 2018 - Philosophical Problems in Science 65:47-59.
    Black holes entered scientific literature as early as at the end of eighteenth century. They had been known at that time as dark stars, but their concept did not find its way to physics or astronomy, and had been abandoned for more than one hundred years. I shall sketch historical developments and discuss present mathematical and observational status of black holes.
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  11.  35
    Black Holes, Information Loss and the Measurement Problem.Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (1):120-131.
    The information loss paradox is often presented as an unavoidable consequence of well-established physics. However, in order for a genuine paradox to ensue, not-trivial assumptions about, e.g., quantum effects on spacetime, are necessary. In this work we will be explicit about these additional, speculative assumptions required. We will also sketch a map of the available routes to tackle the issue, highlighting the, often overlooked, commitments demanded of each alternative. Finally, we will display the strong link between black holes, the (...)
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  12.  49
    Black Holes, Black Scholes, and Prairie Voles: An Essay Review of Simulation and Similarity by Michael Weisberg. [REVIEW]Cailin O'Connor & James Owen Weatherall - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (4):613-626.
    An essay review of Michael Weisberg's Simulation and Similarity.
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  13.  21
    Black Hole Unitarity and Antipodal Entanglement.Gerard ’T. Hooft - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (9):1185-1198.
    Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independently, which allows for studies of space-time properties that were not possible before. Unitarity dictates space-time, as seen by a distant observer, to be topologically non-trivial. Consequently, Hawking particles are only locally thermal, (...)
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  14.  28
    The Black Hole Challenge: Precaution, Existential Risks and the Problem of Knowledge Gaps.Christian Munthe - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (1):49-60.
    ABSTRACTSo-called ‘existential risks’ present virtually unlimited reasons for probing them and responses to them further. The ensuing normative pull to respond to such risks thus seems to present us with reasons to abandon all other projects and commit all time, efforts and resources to the management of each existential risk scenario. Advocates of the urgency of attending to existential risk use arguments that seem to lead to this paradoxical result, while they often hold out a wish to avoid it. This (...)
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  15.  51
    The Case for Black Hole Thermodynamics Part I: Phenomenological Thermodynamics.David Wallace - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 64:52-67.
    I give a fairly systematic and thorough presentation of the case for regarding black holes as thermodynamic systems in the fullest sense, aimed at students and non-specialists and not presuming advanced knowledge of quantum gravity. I pay particular attention to the availability in classical black hole thermodynamics of a well-defined notion of adiabatic intervention; the power of the membrane paradigm to make black hole thermodynamics precise and to extend it to local-equilibrium contexts; the central role (...)
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  16.  81
    Black Hole Fluctuations and Backreaction in Stochastic Gravity.Sukanya Sinha, Alpan Raval & B. L. Hu - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (1):37-64.
    We present a framework for analyzing black hole backreaction from the point of view of quantum open systems using influence functional formalism. We focus on the model of a black hole described by a radially perturbed quasi-static metric and Hawking radiation by a conformally coupled massless quantum scalar field. It is shown that the closed-time-path (CTP) effective action yields a non-local dissipation term as well as a stochastic noise term in the equation of motion, the Einstein–Langevin (...)
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  17. Black Hole Versus Cosmological Horizon Entropy.Tamara M. Davis & P. C. W. Davies - unknown
    The generalized second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases when all event horizons are attributed with an entropy proportional to their area. We test the generalized second law by investigating the change in entropy when dust, radiation and black holes cross a cosmological event horizon. We generalize for flat, open and closed Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universes by using numerical calculations to determine the cosmological horizon evolution. In most cases, the loss of entropy from within the cosmological horizon is more (...)
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  18.  54
    Classical Black Holes Are Hot.Erik Curiel - unknown
    In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical (...)
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  19.  40
    The Case for Black Hole Thermodynamics, Part II: Statistical Mechanics.David Wallace - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 66:103-117.
    I present in detail the case for regarding black hole thermodynamics as having a statistical-mechanical explanation in exact parallel with the statistical-mechanical explanation believed to underly the thermodynamics of other systems. I focus on three lines of argument: zero-loop and one-loop calculations in quantum general relativity understood as a quantum field theory, using the path-integral formalism; calculations in string theory of the leading-order terms, higher-derivative corrections, and quantum corrections, in the black hole entropy formula for extremal (...)
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  20.  23
    Black Holes as Atoms.Jarmo Mäkelä - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (12):1809-1849.
    Stationary spacetimes containing a black hole have several properties akin to those of atoms. For instance, such spacetimes have only three classical degrees of freedom, or observables, which may be taken to be the mass, the angular momentum, and the electric charge of the hole. There are several arguments supporting a proposal originally made by Bekenstein that quantization of these classical degrees of freedom gives an equal spacing for the horizon area spectrum of black holes. We (...)
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  21.  25
    Virtual Black Holes and Space–Time Structure.Gerard ’T. Hooft - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (10):1134-1149.
    In the standard formalism of quantum gravity, black holes appear to form statistical distributions of quantum states. Now, however, we can present a theory that yields pure quantum states. It shows how particles entering a black hole can generate firewalls, which however can be removed, replacing them by the ‘footprints’ they produce in the out-going particles. This procedure can preserve the quantum information stored inside and around the black hole. We then focus on a subtle (...)
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  22.  16
    Black Holes in the Fabric of the Nation’: Refugees in Mohsin Hamid’sExit West.Michael Perfect - 2019 - Journal for Cultural Research 23 (2):187-201.
    ABSTRACTThis article explores the representation of refugees in Mohsin Hamid’s Exit West, a novel which has been widely celebrated for its response to the refugee crisis of its contemporary moment....
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  23. Presentism Meets Black Holes.Gustavo E. Romero & Daniela Pérez - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (3):293-308.
    Presentism is, roughly, the metaphysical doctrine that maintains that whatever exists, exists in the present. The compatibility of presentism with the theories of special and general relativity was much debated in recent years. It has been argued that at least some versions of presentism are consistent with time-orientable models of general relativity. In this paper we confront the thesis of presentism with relativistic physics, in the strong gravitational limit where black holes are formed. We conclude that the presentist position (...)
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  24.  35
    Singularities and Black Holes.Erik Curiel - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philsophy.
  25.  1
    A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes.Stephen W. Hawking - 1988 - Bantam.
    A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology by British physicist Stephen Hawking. It was first published in 1988. Hawking wrote the book for readers who have no prior knowledge of the universe and people who are interested in learning.
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  26.  22
    On Black Hole Complementarity.Jeroen van Dongen & Sebastian de Haro - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (3):509-525.
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  27.  28
    Lost horizon? – modeling black holes in string theory.Nick Huggett & Keizo Matsubara - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-19.
    The modeling of black holes is an important desideratum for any quantum theory of gravity. Not only is a classical black hole metric sought, but also agreement with the laws of black hole thermodynamics. In this paper, we describe how these goals are achieved in string theory. We review black hole thermodynamics, and then explicate the general stringy derivation of classical spacetimes, the construction of a simple black hole solution, and the (...)
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  28.  29
    Black Holes: Interfacing the Classical and the Quantum.B. P. Kosyakov - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (7):678-694.
    The central idea of this paper is that forming the black hole horizon is attended with the transition from the classical regime of evolution to the quantum one. We offer and justify the following criterion for discriminating between the classical and the quantum: creations and annihilations of particle-antiparticle pairs are impossible in the classical reality but possible in the quantum reality. In flat spacetime, we can switch from the classical picture of field propagation to the quantum picture by (...)
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  29.  41
    On Black Hole Complementarity.Jeroen van Dongen & Sebastian de Haro - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (3):509-525.
  30.  19
    Cosmological Black Holes and the Direction of Time.Gustavo E. Romero, Daniela Pérez & Federico G. López Armengol - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (2):415-426.
    Macroscopic irreversible processes emerge from fundamental physical laws of reversible character. The source of the local irreversibility seems to be not in the laws themselves but in the initial and boundary conditions of the equations that represent the laws. In this work we propose that the screening of currents by black hole event horizons determines, locally, a preferred direction for the flux of electromagnetic energy. We study the growth of black hole event horizons due to the (...)
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  31.  3
    Singularities, Black Holes, and Cosmic Censorship: A Tribute to Roger Penrose. [REVIEW]Klaas Landsman - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-38.
    In the light of his recent Nobel Prize, this pedagogical paper draws attention to a fundamental tension that drove Penrose’s work on general relativity. His 1965 singularity theorem does not in fact imply the existence of black holes. Similarly, his versatile definition of a singular space–time does not match the generally accepted definition of a black hole. To overcome this, Penrose launched his cosmic censorship conjecture, whose evolution we discuss. In particular, we review both his own formulation (...)
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  32.  19
    The Many Definitions of a Black Hole.Erik Curiel - 2019 - Nature Astronomy 3:27-34.
    Although black holes are objects of central importance across many fields of physics, there is no agreed upon definition for them, a fact that does not seem to be widely recognized. Physicists in different fields conceive of and reason about them in radi- cally different, and often conflicting, ways. All those ways, however, seem sound in the relevant contexts. After examining and comparing many of the definitions used in practice, I consider the problems that the lack of a universally (...)
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  33.  50
    Black Holes and Quantum Coherence.Robert M. Wald - 1986 - Foundations of Physics 16 (5):499-506.
    We attempt to gain some insight into the issue of whether pure states evolve to density matrices in the black hole evaporation process by examining the mode functions of the particles entering the black hole which are correlated with the particles which escape to infinity. We show that these particles enter the black hole singularity at relatively early times. This tends to support the view that pure states evolve to density matrices, i.e., that in (...)
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  34.  8
    Black Hole Remnants and Classical Vs. Quantum Gravity.Peter Bokulich - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (S3):S407-S423.
    Belot, Earman, and Ruetsche dismiss the black hole remnant proposal as an inadequate response to the Hawking information loss paradox. I argue that their criticisms are misplaced and that, properly understood, remnants do offer a substantial reply to the argument against the possibility of unitary evolution in spacetimes that contain evaporating black holes. The key to understanding these proposals lies in recognizing that the question of where and how our current theories break down is at the heart (...)
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  35.  6
    Evaporating Black-Holes, Wormholes, and Vacuum Polarisation: Must They Always Conserve Charge?Jonathan Gratus, Paul Kinsler & Martin W. McCall - 2019 - Foundations of Physics 49 (4):330-350.
    A careful examination of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory shows that due to the underlying mathematical assumptions required for Stokes’ Theorem, global charge conservation cannot be guaranteed in topologically non-trivial spacetimes. However, in order to break the charge conservation mechanism we must also allow the electromagnetic excitation fields \, \ to possess a gauge freedom, just as the electromagnetic scalar and vector potentials \ and \ do. This has implications for the treatment of electromagnetism in spacetimes where black holes (...)
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  36.  6
    Quantum Black Holes as Solvents.Paweł Horodecki, Michał Eckstein & Erik Aurell - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-13.
    Almost all of the entropy in the universe is in the form of Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of super-massive black holes. This entropy, if it satisfies Boltzmann’s equation S=logN\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$S=\log \mathcal{N}$$\end{document}, hence represents almost all the accessible phase space of the Universe, somehow associated to objects which themselves fill out a very small fraction of ordinary three-dimensional space. Although time scales are very long, it is believed that black holes will eventually evaporate (...)
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  37.  14
    Cosmological Black Holes and the Direction of Time.Federico López Armengol, Daniela Pérez & Gustavo Romero - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (2):415-426.
    Macroscopic irreversible processes emerge from fundamental physical laws of reversible character. The source of the local irreversibility seems to be not in the laws themselves but in the initial and boundary conditions of the equations that represent the laws. In this work we propose that the screening of currents by black hole event horizons determines, locally, a preferred direction for the flux of electromagnetic energy. We study the growth of black hole event horizons due to the (...)
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  38.  25
    Black Holes and Revelations: Michel Henry and Jean‐Luc Marion on the Aesthetics of the Invisible.Peter Joseph Fritz - 2009 - Modern Theology 25 (3):415-440.
    This essay examines how Michel Henry's and Jean‐Luc Marion's continuation of phenomenology's turn to the invisible relates to painting, aesthetics, and theology. First, it discusses Henry and Marion's redefinition of phenomenality. Second, it explores Henry's “Kandinskian” description of abstract painting as expressing “Life.” Third, it explicates Marion's “Rothkoian” rehabilitation of the idol and renewed zeal for the icon—both phenomena exemplify “givenness.” Fourth, it unpacks my thesis: Henry's phenomenology, theologically applied, exercises an inadequate Kantian apophasis, characterized by a sublime sacrifice of (...)
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  39.  47
    Black Hole Remnants and Classical Vs. Quantum Gravity.Peter Bokulich - 2001 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S407-.
    Belot, Earman, and Ruetsche (1999) dismiss the black hole remnant proposal as an inadequate response to the Hawking information loss paradox. I argue that their criticisms are misplaced and that, properly understood, remnants do offer a substantial reply to the argument against the possibility of unitary evolution in spacetimes that contain evaporating black holes. The key to understanding these proposals lies in recognizing that the question of where and how our current theories break down is at the (...)
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  40.  15
    Philosophical Issues About Black Holes.Gustavo E. Romero - unknown
    Black holes are extremely relativistic objects. Physical processes around them occur in a regime where the gravitational field is extremely intense. Under such conditions, our representations of space, time, gravity, and thermodynamics are pushed to their limits. In such a situation philosophical issues naturally arise. In this chapter I review some philosophical questions related to black holes. In particular, the relevance of black holes for the metaphysical dispute between presentists and eternalists, the origin of the second law (...)
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  41. Does Black Hole Complementarity Answer Hawking’s Information Loss Paradox?Peter Bokulich - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1336-1349.
    A proper understanding of black hole complementarity as a response to the information loss paradox requires recognizing the essential role played by arguments for the applicability and limitations of effective semiclassical theories. I argue that this perspective sheds important light on the arguments advanced by Susskind, Thorlacius, and Uglum—although ultimately I argue that their position is unsatisfactory. I also consider the argument offered by ’t Hooft for the breakdown of microcausality around black holes, and conclude that it (...)
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  42.  20
    Like Black Holes in the Sky: The Warped Epistemology of Conspiracy Theories.Maarten Boudry - unknown
    What, if anything, is wrong with conspiracy theories? A conspiracy refers to a group of people acting in secret to achieve some nefarious goal. But given that the pages of history are full of such plots, why are CTs regarded with suspicion? Just like with the traditional demarcation problem, philosophers disagree about where to draw the line between legitimate hypotheses about conspiracies and unfounded ‘conspiracy theories’. Some believe that there is no such demarcation line to be drawn, that each CT (...)
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  43. Black Holes Viewed From Within: Hell in Ancient Egyptian Thought.Erik Hornung - 1994 - Diogenes 42 (165):133-156.
  44.  14
    Black Hole Perturbations: A Review of Recent Analytical Results. [REVIEW]Donato Bini & Andrea Geralico - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (10):1349-1363.
    We review the gravitational self-force program to analytically compute first-order metric perturbations in a Schwarzschild black hole spacetime in the case of a perturbing mass moving on a slightly eccentric equatorial orbit. The perturbed metric components should then be combined into gauge-invariant quantities to be associated with physical observables. In this way, for example, one determines the various “potentials” entering the Effective-One-Body model, i.e., a powerful formalism for the description of the gravitational interaction of two masses, which is (...)
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  45.  18
    Black Hole Materialism.Christopher Neil Gamble & Thomas Nail - 2020 - Rhizomes: Cultural Studies in Emerging Knowledge 36.
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  46.  21
    What Is a Black Hole?Erik Curiel - unknown
    Although black holes are objects of central importance across many fields of physics, there is no agreed upon definition for them, a fact that does not seem to be widely recognized. Physicists in different fields conceive of and reason about them in radically different, and often conflicting, ways. All those ways, however, seem sound in the relevant contexts. After examining and comparing many of the definitions used in practice, I consider the problems that the lack of a universally accepted (...)
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  47. Black Holes–Fact or Fiction?J. O. Campbell - 1998 - Apeiron 5 (3-4):151-156.
  48. Intellectual Black Holes and Bullshit.Stephen Law - 2011 - Free Inquiry 31.
  49.  48
    Two Purposes of Black Hole Production.Clément Vidal - 2012 - Foundations of Science 17 (1):13-15.
    Crane envisions the speculative conjecture that intelligent civilizations might want and be able to produce black holes in the very far future. He implicitly suggests two main purposes of this enterprise: (i) energy production and (ii) universe production. We discuss those two options. The commentary is obviously highly speculative and should be read accordingly.
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  50.  52
    Singularities and Black Holes.Erik Curiel - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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