Västvärldens åldrande befolkning anses ofta ställa krav på nya former av vård och omsorg. Olika typer av informations- och kommunikationstekniskt baserat vårdstöd framhålls ofta som en lösning. Tekniken medger en rad olika fördelar, exempelvis tätare tillsyn, kontinuerliga mätningar av vitala funktioner, med möjlighet att kontinuerligt ställa diagnos, och snabb respons på larm, men de tekniska lösningarna får också etiska implikationer. I den här artikeln beskrivs och exemplifieras IKT-baserad vård och omsorg och teknikens påverkan på centrala värden som personlig integritet, autonomi, (...) frivillighet och informerat samtycke diskuteras. Interaktiv etisk teknikvärdering föreslås för att bättre inkorporera alla berörda parters behov av och synpunkter på den här typen av vårdstöd.Nyckelord: autonomi, etik, frivillighet, informerat samtycke, interaktiv etisk teknikvärdering, IKT-baserat vårdstöd, hemvård, personlig integritet, robotteknik, sensorteknik, säkerhet, trygghet, valfrihetEnglish summary: When health care moves in – the ethics of mobile health careAn ageing population in the Western world is typically taken to require novel forms of health care. Different types of Information and Communication based services and functions are presented as a solution. Even if such technology imply benefits in terms of more frequent attendance, continuous monitoring and diagnoses of vital signs and quick response to alarms, the technology also gives raise to ethical concerns. This article describes and exemplifies ICT-based health care and discusses implications on central values like privacy, autonomy, freedom of choice and informed consent. Interactive ethical technology assessment is suggested as a means to better incorporate the needs of all concerned parties and their perspectives on this type of support. (shrink)
Content of the Turkish book: -/- Prof. Dr. Yaman Örs* is one of the most important professors who studied and improved the studies in bioethics in Turkey. The book consists of his related papers in Turkish. There are five main chapters in this book: (1) Main Lines of Yaman Örs’s Approach to Scientific Philosophy, (2) His Writings on Ethics, (3) The Ethics of Philosophy, (4) His Writings on Bioethics, and (5) His Papers on Medical Ethics. For each chapter, small introductory (...) parts are written by the editor in order to make it easier for the reader to follow the thoughts of Örs. -/- *Department of Medical Ethics (Ret.), School of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey. (shrink)
Den finske filosof Jaakko Hintikka er en af det 20. århundredes mest indflydelsesrige tænkere. Han blev født i 1929 i Vantaa i Finland og studerede filosofi og matematik ved universitetet i Helsinki under Eino Kaila og G.H. von Wright. Kaila er ikke kendt af mange - om end han af sin samtid blev anset som en sand naturfilosof, kyndig i såvel humaniora som naturvidenskab - men von Wright, den finske filosof med det tyskklingende efternavn, ringer måske en klokke. For nu (...) lige at få kongerækken på plads overtog von Wright i en periode Ludwig Wittgensteins professorat i Cambridge og Wittgensteins lærermester (for en tid) var ingen ringere end Lord Bertrand Russell. I begyndelsen af 1950'erne fik Hintikka en stilling på Harvard University og har sidenhen beklædt fornemme professorater blandt andet på Stanford University, Florida State University (samtidig med hans altid faste professorat på universitetet i Helsinki) og Boston University, hvor han stadig virker på fuld tid, selv om han snart passerer de 80. (shrink)
The modern outlines of philosophical didactics are justified on theoretical grounds. But there is a gap between theory and practice, which is bridged neither by Rehfus nor by Martens. Martens defines philosophers as experts of a certain scientific community. Dialogue with students, as a pragmatic turn undertaken systematically, is the place of philosophy. “Philosophical didactics is both: knowledge and ability of joint self-determination.” However, the above dialogical partnership remains a postulated construct. Rehfus’s position states the same, claiming that the consciousness (...) of modernity is going through a crisis, and that, accordingly, philosophy may help to restore ego-identity. Yet, the school can not solve the problem of evaluation of the process of ego restoration. Concepts and theoretical constructs are, nevertheless, not identical with reality, they are heuristic instruments. Society and history are not monistic constructs to be comprehended by the mind, but possibilities to be comprehended fundamentally. Taking the narrative upon oneself contributes to scientific propaedeutics by providing an approach valid for narration. (shrink)
Examining Turkey’s Gezi Park protests of 2013 as a representative case of the globally surging protest movements since 2011, this study claims that the basic aim of the protests is to contest the foundational rationality of the modern state, which, I argue, is based on a patriarchal social contract that empowers the state with the authority to represent the interests and speak on behalf of citizens using a logic of protection, and to construct, enforce, and monitor a regime of citizenship (...) where citizens can only function as emasculated subjects who are dependent on the protection of the state. Based on an analysis of the use of gender metaphors and familial tropes by the AKP government, and the subversive use of humor and irony by the protestors, this article demonstrates that the protests target the patriarchal premises of modern statehood, both in its democratic (fraternal patriarchy) and authoritarian (paternalistic patriarchy) forms, and the state’s disciplinary, regulatory, and remedial interventions toward the interpellation of the citizen as an infantile or feminine subject who is not capable of meeting their needs and interests on their own, and whose life, therefore, needs to be continually monitored, controlled, and regulated by the state. Drawing on criticism brought to the contractual foundations of the modern state by feminist political theorists, this study makes use of the notion of modern patriarchy as a story told by social contract theories, which generates a power relationship between the state and the citizen based on the projection of threat where the state assumes the role of the protector. I conclude that objecting to these modern forms of subjugation, the Gezi Park protests call for a post-patriarchal state where it no longer resorts to a patriarchal protectionist logic that is justified through the claim that it represents the interests of its citizens. By envisioning such a post-patriarchal state, I interpret the protests as a call for the renegotiation of the foundational premises of modern statehood such that the state-citizenship relationship is radically reformulated to enable a more empowered and autonomous citizen. (shrink)
Most studies on Ibn Khaldūn have emphasized the similarities between his thought and the ideas and models of the modern social sciences. It is these similarities and parallels that lie at the root of the high esteem in which he is held in both the East and the West today. But the differences between his thought and the modern social sciences are perhaps more fecund, offering a new window onto the great thinker with the potential to improve our understanding of (...) the man and to reveal alternative frameworks to the entrenched social-scientific models of our age.In this context, one of the most noteworthy characteristics of Ibn Khaldūn's thought, and one that distinguishes it from mainstream... (shrink)
Artikkelen er en analyse av to formaliserte etiske retningslinjer som skal gjelde i norske akademiske institusjoner. Den ene er utarbeidet for forvaltningen og den andre for forskningen. Analysen gjøres ved å sammenligne to dokumenter som inneholder etiske retningslinjer. Videre knyttes analysen til ulike «etos» som skiller forvaltningen og forskningen. Artikkelen går særlig inn på normene lydighet og frihet, som framstår som mest motsetningsfylte når de «møtes» i akademia. Det drøftes hvordan dette påvirker legitimiteten til akademia.Nøkkelord: akademia, byråkrati, etos, forskningsetikk, forvaltningsetikkEnglish (...) summary: Ethics on a collision course – when bureaucratic ethics and research ethics meetThe article is an analysis of two formal ethical guidelines for Norwegian academic institutions. One is prepared for the governmental bureaucracy and the other is research ethics. The analysis is done by comparing two documents containing the code of conduct for each field. Further analysis is related to the differing «ethos» that separates the bureaucracy from the research. The article dwells on the norms of obedience and freedom that emerge as the most contradictory. The closing discussion is on how this affects the legitimacy of academia. (shrink)
The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of Turkish pregnant women and antenatal health care providers towards prenatal HIV testing. A self-administered questionnaire was used. The relationships between the different groups' knowledge and attitudes were analysed by using the chi-squared statistic. A total of 494 pregnant women and 181 care providers participated. Forty-four per cent of the pregnant women thought that prenatal HIV testing should be mandatory, and 84% of the health care providers thought it should be (...) performed routinely or be mandatory. The majority of the pregnant women (74%) and half of the care providers agreed that the test results should be disclosed first to the pregnant woman. The study results also revealed that most of the prenatal care providers would not protect pregnant women's autonomy and privacy, contrary to the pregnant women's own preferences. It is essential to establish national prenatal HIV testing policies in order to prevent unethical practices and ensure satisfaction for pregnant women and health care providers. (shrink)
In this paper, I present an obstacle to realizing John Rawls’s system of justice. The basic liberties have lexical priority, but they risk undermining fair equality of opportunity, because freedom of speech allows us to spread false prejudices. I present the obstacle through a pastiche of a notable fiction writer from the Indian sub-continent.
The controversial French philosopher Jacques Derrida is associated with the claim that, in the West, speech has historically been prioritized over writing. In this paper, I present some obvious counterexamples, though I am an admirer. I also raise a challenge to the social theories of Pierre Bourdieu, though I fear they are not wrong. The paper is written as a pastiche of a notable fiction writer from the Indian subcontinent, but set in the West.
This article reviews the common models of pious women's agency in the literature with respect to pious feminist perceptions in Turkey, and calls for a relational approach to subjectivity and autonomy. After critically assessing individualistic models of pious women's autonomy as well as the main theoretical tenets of Saba Mahmood's landmark study on the women's piety movement in Egypt, I argue that previous models cannot fully explain the second stage of pious subjectivity-formation in the pious feminist narratives in Turkey, which (...) combines habituation with informed choice. In the intersection of applied theory and ethnographic empirical research, my study posits the need for a relational reformulation of these common models that can account for self-constitutive engagement with multiple discursive traditions, and the importance of complex and interrelated webs of relationships. I suggest that Jennifer Nedelsky's relational self and relational autonomy and Kenneth Gergen's relational multi-being might provide a starting point for such an approach. (shrink)