University spin-outs, creating businesses from university intellectual property, are a relatively common phenomena. As a knowledge transfer channel, the spin-out business model is attracting extensive attention. In this paper, the impacts of six equities on the acquisition of USOs, including founders, university, banks, business angels, venture capitals, and other equity, are comprehensively analyzed based on theoretical and empirical studies. Firstly, the average distribution of spin-out equity at formation is calculated based on the sample data of 350 UK USOs. According to (...) this distribution, a radial basis function neural network model is employed to forecast the effects of each equity on the acquisition. To improve the classification accuracy, the novel set-membership method is adopted in the training process of the RBF NN. Furthermore, a simulation test is carried out to measure the effects of six equities on the acquisition of USOs. The simulation results show that the increase of university’s equity has a negative effect on the acquisition of USOs, whereas the increase of remaining five equities has positive effects. Finally, three suggestions are provided to promote the development and growth of USOs. (shrink)
Whale optimization algorithm, known as a novel nature-inspired swarm optimization algorithm, demonstrates superiority in handling global continuous optimization problems. However, its performance deteriorates when applied to large-scale complex problems due to rapidly increasing execution time required for huge computational tasks. Based on interactions within the population, WOA is naturally amenable to parallelism, prompting an effective approach to mitigate the drawbacks of sequential WOA. In this paper, field programmable gate array is used as an accelerator, of which the high-level synthesis utilizes (...) open computing language as a general programming paradigm for heterogeneous System-on-Chip. With above platform, a novel parallel framework of WOA named PWOA is presented. The proposed framework comprises two feasible parallel models called partial parallel and all-FPGA parallel, respectively. Experiments are conducted by performing WOA on CPU and PWOA on OpenCL-based FPGA heterogeneous platform, to solve ten well-known benchmark functions. Meanwhile, other two classic algorithms including particle swarm optimization and competitive swarm optimizer are adopted for comparison. Numerical results show that the proposed approach achieves a promising computational performance coupled with efficient optimization on relatively large-scale complex problems. (shrink)
Resource saving has become an integral aspect of manufacturing in industry 4.0. This paper proposes a multisystem optimization algorithm, inspired by implicit parallelism of heuristic methods, to solve an integrated production scheduling with resource saving problem in textile printing and dyeing. First, a real-world integrated production scheduling with resource saving is formulated as a multisystem optimization problem. Then, the MSO algorithm is proposed to solve multisystem optimization problems that consist of several coupled subsystems, and each of the subsystems may contain (...) multiple objectives and multiple constraints. The proposed MSO algorithm is composed of within-subsystem evolution and cross-subsystem migration operators, and the former is to optimize each subsystem by excellent evolution operators and the later is to complete information sharing between multiple subsystems, to accelerate the global optimization of the whole system. Performance is tested on a set of multisystem benchmark functions and compared with improved NSGA-II and multiobjective multifactorial evolutionary algorithm. Simulation results show that the MSO algorithm is better than compared algorithms for the benchmark functions studied in this paper. Finally, the MSO algorithm is successfully applied to the proposed integrated production scheduling with resource saving problem, and the results show that MSO is a promising algorithm for the studied problem. (shrink)
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and (...) made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant. (shrink)
This book presents a new theory of how children acquire language and discusses its implications for a wide range of topics. It explores the roles of innateness and experience in language acquisition, provides further evidence for the theory of Universal Grammar, and shows how linguistic development in children is a driving force behind language shifts and changes.Charles Yang surveys a wide range of errors in children's language and identifies overlooked patterns. He combines these with work in biological evolution in (...) order to develop a model of language acquisition by which to understand the interaction between children's internal linguistic knowledge and their external linguistic experience. He then presents evidence from his own and others' research in the acquisition of syntax and morphology and data from historical language change to test its validity. The model is the first to make quantitative and cross-linguistic predictions about child language. It may also be deployed as a predictive model of language change which, when the evidence is available, could explain why grammars change in a particular direction at a particular time.Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language is a pioneering work at the centre of current concerns in linguistics and cognitive science. It will interest all those concerned to understand and explain language acquisition, Universal Grammar, and language change. (shrink)
The study presents a critical account of Confucius' life and undertakes a thorough analysis of his works and writings. Rather than the more usual examination of Confucius' teachings, the book examines the character and behaviour of the man himself, placed into contrast with the values he expresses in his works. For students and researchers in Chinese studies, The Ethics of Confucius will offer a fresh perspective on the life and character of a man whose writings have been very influential in (...) China and the wider world, for the last two thousand years. (shrink)
The elucidation of the gauge principle ``is the most pressing problem in current philosophy of physics" Redhead. This paper argues two points that contribute to this elucidation in the context of Yang-Mills theories. 1) Yang-Mills theories, including quantum electrodynamics, form a class. They should be interpreted together. To focus on electrodynamics is a mistake. 2) The essential role of gauge and BRST surplus is to provide a local theory that can be quantized and would be equivalent to the (...) quantization of the non-local reduced theory. (shrink)
What is happiness? Is happiness about feeling good or about being good? Across five studies, we explored the nature and origins of our happiness concept developmentally and crosslinguistically. We found that surprisingly, children as young as age 4 viewed morally bad people as less happy than morally good people, even if the characters all have positive subjective states (Study 1). Moral character did not affect attributions of physical traits (Study 2), and was more powerfully weighted than subjective states in attributions (...) of happiness (Study 3). Moreover, moral character but not intelligence influenced children and adults’ happiness attributions (Study 4). Finally, Chinese people responded similarly when attributing happiness with two words, despite one (“Gao Xing”) being substantially more descriptive than the other (“Kuai Le”) (Study 5). Therefore, we found that moral judgment plays a relatively unique role in happiness attributions, which is surprisingly early emerging and largely independent of linguistic and cultural influences, and thus likely reflects a fundamental cognitive feature of the mind. (shrink)
Yang Chu is a shadowy figure in classical China brought under philosophical scrutiny. By providing a physical definition of human nature, Yang Chu freed the Chinese elite from the public roles and relationships that defined them, making possible new nonpublic, nonritual forms of individual self-awareness and self-cultivation. The Yangists valorized private and family life at the expense of public, court life.
In _Philosophical Horizons_ Yang draws freely from Confucian, Daoist, and Buddhist texts, alongside great Western philosophers to provide penetrating discussions of some of the most important issues in modern philosophy—especially those topics related to comparative and Chinese philosophy.
Contemporary globalization is largely shaped by the predominant position and strength of the United States, and the concept of globalization is cast upon the polity and social aspects of P.R. China after Reform and Opening. Globalization, though substantially varied in a modern scene, is not without historical and cultural roots. The future holds anew, whereas newly arisen pieces of knowledge and information shed new light on the past, the blood and violence of the political progress on the Chinese soil. This (...) paper digs into the interactive aspect of the Chinese civilization with Western Civilization, and an empirical understanding on the evolvement of the country / nation to the recent shaping, with implication of which might change the dynamic of the Asian area after the global power politics whereof after World War II. (shrink)