Fracturing is a key factor for shale oil and gas enrichment and high production. An accurate fracture model can effectively guide shale oil and gas exploration and development. The establishment of a natural fracture model must address the challenges of difficult data acquisition and poor representativeness of data points. To solve these problems, we have developed a method of shale-reservoir natural fracture modeling based on microseismic monitoring data. This method includes three steps. First, we establish an initial natural fracture model (...) based on scale classification, vertical stratification, and genetic classification. Second, the shape and density of the hydraulic fractures are interpreted by microseismic monitoring data to calibrate the initial model of the shale reservoir natural fractures. Third, we verify the rationality of the model by assessment of the fracture porosity and permeability values. The results show that it is possible to calibrate the natural fracture density model using the fracture shape and density as determined by microseismic monitoring. And we predict that an ideal hydraulic fracture network can be formed when the body density of the natural fracturing is greater than 0.3 m2/m3. The crude production of wells is negatively correlated with the development of large-scale structural fractures and positively correlated with small-scale structural fractures. The well trajectory should run through small-scale fracture development sections as much as possible, avoiding large-scale, high-angle fracture areas. This method provides a new approach to model natural fractures in shale reservoirs that has wide applicability and can be used for modeling shale oil and gas reservoirs. (shrink)
A major controversy in the study of the "Analects" has been over the relation between two central concepts, ren (humanity, human excellence) and li (rites, rituals of propriety). Confucius seems to have said inconsistent things about this relation. Some passages appear to suggest that ren is more fundamental than li, while others seem to imply the contrary. It is therefore not surprising that there have been different interpretations and characterizations of this relation. Using the analogy of language grammar and mastery (...) of a language, it is proposed here that we should understand li as a cultural grammar and ren as the mastery of a culture. In this account, society cultivates its members through li toward the goal of ren, and persons of ren manifest their human excellence through their practice of li. (shrink)
Li Zehou stands among the most influential Chinese philosophers in the post-Mao era. His notion of subjectality is of paramount importance for current developments in contemporary Chinese philosophy. It belongs to the central concepts in Li's theoretical framework, around which his entire philosophical system is constructed. With his elaboration of this concept, Li expanded the problem of the self in post-revolutionary modernism. The present article analyzes the theoretical bases of this concept, exposes its importance in the scope of contemporary Chinese (...) theory and shows why and how it represents a call for a new humanism. Through a multidimensional comparative perspective, the author also explains why the human subject, which is based upon Li's notion of subjectality, has the potential not only to transform modern alienation into a real “human condition,” that is, into spiritually fulfilled society of autonomous individuals but also to fill up the prevailing “vacuum of values.”. (shrink)
Available for the first time in English, Li Zehou's philosophical aesthetics interpret the historical origins and evolution of aesthetic experience and their significance to the intellectual, emotional, and spiritual growth of human beings. Although LI's ideas have been debated in China for more than two decades, his conversations with Jane Cauvel will now allow Western students and philosophers to re-encounter Chinese and Western conceptions of aesthetics, and the way art shapes indiciduals, societies, technology, and the future of humankind.