The purpose of this study was to examine the joint effect of overconfidence and fairness concern on supply chain decisions and design contracts to achieve a win-win situation within the supply chain. For this study, a centralized supply chain model was established without considering the retailers’ overconfidence and fairness concern. Furthermore, the retailers’ overconfidence and fairness concerns were introduced into the decentralized supply chain, while the Stackelberg game model between the manufacturer and the retailer was built. Furthermore, an innovative supply (...) chain contract, i.e., buyback contract, with promotional cost sharing was designed to achieve supply chain coordination along with overconfidence and fairness concern. Finally, a numerical analysis was also conducted to analyze the effect of overconfidence, fairness concern, and the validity of the contract. The principal findings of the study include the positive correlation between retailers’ overconfidence and optimal order quantity, sales effort, expected utility, and profit. Although the order quantity and sales efforts were not affected by the fairness concern of the retailer, the contract achieved coordination with a win-win outcome when the level of overconfidence and fairness concern was moderate. (shrink)
The shipping industry is developing towards intelligence rapidly. An accurate and fast method for ship image/video detection and classification is of great significance for not only the port management, but also the safe driving of Unmanned Surface Vehicle. Thus, this paper makes a self-built dataset for the ship image/video detection and classification, and its method based on an improved regressive deep convolutional neural network is presented. This method promotes the regressive convolutional neural network from four aspects. First, the feature extraction (...) layer is lightweighted by referring to YOLOv2. Second, a new feature pyramid network layer is designed by improving its structure in YOLOv3. Third, a proper frame and scale suitable for ships are designed with a clustering algorithm to reduced 60% anchors. Last, the activation function is verified and optimized. Then, the detecting experiment on 7 types of ships shows that the proposed method has advantage compared with the YOLO series networks and other intelligent methods. This method can solve the problem of low recognition rate and real-time performance for ship image/video detection and classification with a small dataset. On the testing-set, the final mAP is 0.9209, the Recall is 0.9818, the AIOU is 0.7991, and the FPS is 78–80 in video detection. Thus, this method provides a highly accurate and real-time ship detection method for the intelligent port management and visual processing of the USV. In addition, the proposed regressive deep convolutional network also has a better comprehensive performance than that of YOLOv2/v3. (shrink)
In the era of big data, data-driven methods mainly based on deep learning have been widely used in the field of intelligent fault diagnosis. Traditional neural networks tend to be more subjective when classifying fault time-frequency graphs, such as pooling layer, and ignore the location relationship of features. The newly proposed neural network named capsules network takes into account the size and location of the image. Inspired by this, capsules network combined with the Xception module is applied in intelligent fault (...) diagnosis, so as to improve the classification accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis. Firstly, the fault time-frequency graphs are obtained by wavelet time-frequency analysis. Then the time-frequency graphs data which are adjusted the pixel size are input into XCN for training. In order to accelerate the learning rate, the parameters which have bigger change are punished by cost function in the process of training. After the operation of dynamic routing, the length of the capsule is used to classify the types of faults and get the classification of loss. Then the longest capsule is used to reconstruct fault time-frequency graphs which are used to measure the reconstruction of loss. In order to determine the convergence condition, the three losses are combined through the weight coefficient. Finally, the proposed model and the traditional methods are, respectively, trained and tested under laboratory conditions and actual wind turbine gearbox conditions to verify the classification ability and reliable ability. (shrink)
In this paper, a novel bearing intelligent fault diagnosis method based on a novel krill herd algorithm and kernel extreme learning machine is proposed. Firstly, multiscale dispersion entropy is used to extract fault features of bearings to obtain a set of fault feature vectors composed of dispersion entropy. Then, it is imported into the kernel extreme learning machine for fault diagnosis. But considering the kernel function parameters σ and the error penalty factor C will affect the classification accuracy of the (...) kernel extreme learning machine, this paper uses the novel krill herd algorithm for their optimization. The opposite populations are added to the NKH in the initialization of population to improve its speed and prevent local optimum, and during the period of looking for the optimal solution, the impulse operator is introduced to ensure it has enough impulse to rush out of the local optimal once into the local optimum. Finally, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, it was applied to the bearing fault experiment of Case Western Reserve University and XJTU-SY bearing data set. The results show that the proposed method not only has good fault diagnosis performance and generalization but also has fast convergence speed and does not easily fall into the local optimum. Therefore, this paper provides a method for fault diagnosis under different loads. Meanwhile, the new method is compared and analyzed with other mainstream intelligent bearing fault diagnosis methods to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. (shrink)
Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
Sandra Field, Jeffrey Flynn, Stephen Macedo, Longxi Zhang, and Martin Powers discussed Powers’ book China and England: The Preindustrial Struggle for Social Justice in Word and Image at the American Philosophical Association’s 2020 Eastern Division meeting in Philadelphia. The panel was sponsored by the APA’s “Committee on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies” and organized by Brian Bruya.
This article describes a representation-based framework of distributed cognition. This framework considers distributed cognition as a cognitive system whose structures and processes are distributed between internal and external representations, across a group of individuals, and across space and time. The major issue for distributed research, under this framework, are the distribution, transformation, and propagation of information across the components of the distributed cognitive system and how they affect the performance of the system as a whole. To demonstrate the value of (...) this representation-based approach, the framework was used to describe and explain an important, challenging, and controversial issue — the concept of affordance. (shrink)
Compared to constraint-based causal discovery, causal discovery based on functional causal models is able to identify the whole causal model under appropriate assumptions [Shimizu et al. 2006; Hoyer et al. 2009; Zhang and Hyvärinen 2009b]. Functional causal models represent the effect as a function of the direct causes together with an independent noise term. Examples include the linear non-Gaussian acyclic model, nonlinear additive noise model, and post-nonlinear model. Currently, there are two ways to estimate the parameters in the models: (...) dependence minimization and maximum likelihood. In this article, we show that for any acyclic functional causal model, minimizing the mutual information between the hypothetical cause and the noise term is equivalent to maximizing the data likelihood with a flexible model for the distribution of the noise term. We then focus on estimation of the PNL causal model and propose to estimate it with the warped Gaussian process with the noise modeled by the mixture of Gaussians. As a Bayesian nonparametric approach, it outperforms the previous one based on mutual information minimization with nonlinear functions represented by multilayer perceptrons; we also show that unlike the ordinary regression, estimation results of the PNL causal model are sensitive to the assumption on the noise distribution. Experimental results on both synthetic and real data support our theoretical claims. (shrink)
Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place in (...) socialist countries. We might also hope to face new challenges posed in the future. (shrink)
This article assumes that a profession is a number of individuals in the same occupation voluntarily organized to earn a living by openly serving a moral ideal in a morally-permissible way beyond what law, market, morality, and public opinion would otherwise require. Our question is whether the concept of profession may have a far wider range than the term, so that, for example, pointing out that a certain language lacks a word for “profession” in our sense, is not enough to (...) show that those who speak the language also lack the concept. We believe the survey of 71 Chinese reported here begins to answer that question. This article has four parts. The first describes who was interviewed, how, when, and so on. The second describes some important features of the survey’s questions, explaining how the questions track the concept of profession. The third part reports and interprets the results relevant to our question. The forth defends a tentative answer to the question with which we began—arguing the survey supports the claim that China has a profession of engineering. This article should serve as a “proof of concept”, that is, a model for similar studies around the world both of engineering and of other occupations thought to be professions. (shrink)
If you are interested in accountability and transparency in public decision-making, this book is for you. If you are interested in ways and means of avoiding capture by vested interests when making public policy, this book is for you. If you are interested in a sustainable and efficient agri-food system which meets the needs of consumers, producers and society, this book is for you.Agriculture remains an important industry in many economies. It is also a key sector with an important role (...) to play in determining nations’, societies’ and households’ nutritional and environmental performance and outcomes. Unfortunately, the agri-food sector in many countries suffers from excessive and poorly focused levels and types of intervention, constrained growth, and unsustainable practices.In his book, Developing Successful Agriculture, Professor Zhang-Yue Zhou provides us with a comprehensive and compelling account of how Australia’s agri-food sector has become so successful even though it receive .. (shrink)
This book addresses an often-ignored theme in the mission of the current Chinese education reform: cultivating students’ individuality as a foundation of learning. Moreover, it tries to revive the Confucian tradition of self-cultivation while building a connection with the western idea of individuality to provide a meaningful resource for the current reform of Chinese education.
Unethical pro-organizational behavior is unethical behavior driven by an intention to assist an organization. This study is one of the first attempts to examine the consequences of UPB. We argue that such types of behaviors can induce failure in self-regulation and thereby give rise to counterproductive work behavior. Based on self-regulation theory, we theorize that the breakdown in three fundamental mechanisms explains the link between UPB and CWB. Moreover, moral identity internalization can temper these breakdown processes such that employees with (...) higher levels of moral identity internalization are less likely to experience moral disengagement, workplace entitlement, or self-control depleting after enacting UPB, and therefore, will engage in less CWB. We conducted a 7-day experience sampling study of 95 financial service employees in a Chinese bank to test our theoretical model. The results indicated that transgressions committed with the intention of helping the organization would ultimately harm the organization, especially for those with lower moral identity internalization. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (shrink)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming increasingly important in China. This paper investigates the implementation of instruments for dimensions of CSR that are relevant for the Chinese context and the challenges that Chinese companies face. Based on a survey among 109 Chinese companies, we find that formal instruments to implement CSR are rather common. Companies spend most effort in improving the economic aspects of CSR, such as competitiveness, product innovation and process innovation. Only a small minority of the companies set (...) concrete targets and report the realization of these targets for social and environmental goals. This indicates that the attention to social and environmental aspects of CSR is still rather loose. The most important challenges for improving CSR are strong competitive pressure, insufficient support from the government and/or nongovernmental organizations and high costs of CSR implementation. Multiple regression analysis shows that the use of instruments is positively related to company size and foreign ownership and negatively related to lack of resources and support for CSR by investors and consumers. (shrink)
More than half a century ago, a so-called Third Side appeared in China's political arena. The word "third" signified that its proponents intended to take a "middle way" amid the desperate, life-and-death battle between the Nationalist party and the Communist party. In a 1946 speech delivered at the Tianjin YMCA, entitled "A Political Line of an Intermediate Nature," Zhang Dongsun presented a clear and to-the-point formulation of this "middle way":In the political aspect, we should adopt more from the British (...) and American type of liberalism and democracy, while at the same time adopting, in the economic aspect, more from the Soviet Union's type of planned economy and socialism. From the negative aspect, we should adopt democracy but not capitalism. We should also adopt socialism but not the revolution of proletarian dictatorship. We want freedom but not an everything-goes attitude. We want cooperation but not struggle. Since we do not want an everything-goes attitude, we do not want monopolies by capitalists. Since we do not want struggle, we do not want class struggle. (shrink)
For repeatable motion of redundant mobile manipulators, the flexible base platform and the redundant manipulator have to be returned to the desired initial position simultaneously after completing the given tasks. To remedy deviations between initial position and desired position of each kinematic joint angle, a special kind of repeatable optimization for kinematic energy minimization based on terminal-time Zhang neural network with finite-time convergence is proposed for inverse kinematics of mobile manipulators. It takes the advantages that each joint of the (...) manipulator is required to return to the desired initial position not considering the initial orientation of itself for realizing repeatable kinematics control. Unlike the existed training methods, such an optimization of kinematic energy scheme based on TTZNN can not only reduce the convergent position error of each joint to zero in finite time, but also improve the convergent precision. Theoretical analysis and verifications show that the proposed optimal kinematic energy scheme accelerates the convergent rate, which is tended to be applied in practical robot kinematics. Simulation results on the manipulator with three mobile wheels substantiate the timeliness and repetitiveness of the proposed optimization scheme. (shrink)
BackgroundEthics consult services are well established, but often remain underutilized. Our aim was to identify the barriers and perceptions of the Ethics consult service for physicians, advance practice providers, and nurses at our urban academic medical center which might contribute to underutilization.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional single-health system, anonymous written online survey, which was developed by the UCSD Health Clinical Ethics Committee and distributed by Survey Monkey. We compare responses between physicians, APPs, and nurses using standard parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. (...) Satisfaction with ethics consult and likelihood of calling Ethics service again were assessed using a 0–100 scale using a 5-likert response structured and results presented using box plots and interquartile ranges.ResultsFrom January to July 2019, approximately 3800 surveys were sent to all physicians, APPs and nurses with a return rate of 5.5—10%. Although the majority of respondents had encountered an ethical dilemma only approximately half had ever requested an Ethics consult. The primary reason for physicians never having requested a consult was that they never felt the need for help. For APPs the primary reasons were not knowing an Ethics consult service was available or not knowing how to contact Ethics. For nurses, it was not knowing how to contact the Ethics consult service or not feeling the need for help. The median satisfaction score for Ethics consult services rated on a 0–100 scale, from physicians was 76, for AAPs 89, and nurses 70. The median of likelihood of consulting Ethics in the future also on a 0–100 scale was 71 for physicians, 69 for APPs, and 61 for nurses. APP’s and nurses were significantly more likely than physicians to believe that the team did not act on the Ethics consult’s recommendations.ConclusionsBased on the results presented, we were able to identify actionable steps to better engage healthcare providers—and in particular APPs and nurses—and scale up institutional educational efforts to increase awareness of the role of the Ethics consult service at our institution. Actionable steps included implementing a system of ongoing feedback that is critical for the sustainability of the Ethics service role. We hope this project can serve as a blueprint for other hospital-based Ethics consult services to improve the quality of their programs. (shrink)
This essay initiates elements of a Daoist stance as regards the basic assumptions and principles involved in debates on multiculturalism. This is to be achieved via an examination of Zhang Taiyan’s 章太炎 mid-term political philosophy, which is shaped by his interpretation and further development of Daoist thinking, especially the notion of no-thing and the idea of “achieving equality by leaving things uneven”. After explicating the basic tenets that point toward a Daoist stance on what is now called multiculturalism, I (...) discuss Zhang’s concrete proposals concerning the relation between the Han 漢 lineage and the other four major ethnic groups in the to-be-established Republic of China. I then investigate Zhang’s unique theory of the state. Lastly, I explore the discordance in Zhang Taiyan’s thinking despite his privileging of Laozi 老子 and Zhuangzi’s 莊子 ideas. (shrink)
This paper is concerned with the optimal output feedback control problem for networked control systems with Markovian packet losses. In this paper, the packet losses occur both between the sensor and controller and between the controller and actuator. Moreover, the packet loss channels are described with two-state Markov chains. Since the precise state information cannot be obtained, thus an optimal recursive estimator is designed. Furthermore, by adopting the dynamic programming approach, we derive the optimal output feedback control, which is based (...) on the solution to a given modified Riccati equation. The obtained results can be seen as an important implementation of the control theory for NCSs with unreliable communication channels. (shrink)
This essay seeks to demonstrate the following:1.the value of metaphysical cosmology to our relationship with nature, and to making policy about the environment;2.the mistaken nature and harmful consequences of the hegemonic cosmology of anthropocentrism; and,3.the possibility of Zhang Zai’s Qi/qi Great Harmony cosmology as both the refutation of and replacement for anthropocentrism.The essay concludes that ultimate moral progress of expanding the self from the narrow and exclusionary views of anthropocentrism consists in cosmocentrism, or the transformation of thought to a (...) cosmological perspective as exemplified by Zhang Zai’s Great Harmony continual cyclical process of Qi/qi. It is argued that positive metaphysical visions such as Zhang Zai’s can negate anthropocentric cosmology and inspire us to view our relationship with the environment in a fundamentally enlightened and more respectful way, which is not arrogantly self-centred, disconnected and supremacist. (shrink)
ObjectiveWe conducted the following cross-sectional study to comprehensively assess the anxiety among Chinese international students who studied online during the COVID-19 pandemic and its influencing factors.MethodsQuestionnaires were distributed through “Sojump,” and a total of 1,090 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: general situation and anxiety assessment of students. The former used a self-made questionnaire, and the international general GAD-7 scale was used to measure anxiety. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between groups, and (...) logistic regression analysis was performed for the factors with differences.ResultsAnxiety was found in 707 of 1,090 international students. Chi-square test and multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the incidence of anxiety was higher in the group under 22 years of age than in the group over 22 years of age ; International students living in big cities had a higher incidence of anxiety than those living in rural areas ; international students who socialized 3 times or less monthly had a higher incidence of anxiety than those who socialized more than 3 times per month ; international students who expected purely online teaching had a higher incidence of anxiety than those who expected purely offline teaching or dual-track teaching ; international students with a subjective score of online learning experience of 6 or less had a higher incidence of anxiety than those with subjective scores of more than 6. However, gender, emotional status, BMI, major of study, vaccination status, and degree type had no significant difference in the incidence of anxiety among international students who studied online during the COVID-19 pandemic.ConclusionDuring COVID-19, international students who were younger, came from big cities, had low social frequency, expected purely online teaching, and had poor experience of online classes were risk factors for anxiety during online classes. (shrink)
In this selective overview of scholarship generated by _The Hunger Games_—the young adult dystopian fiction and film series which has won popular and critical acclaim—Zhange Ni showcases various investigations into the entanglement of religion and the arts in the new millennium.
Examines the myriad ways contemporary residents of Beijing understand and nurture the good life, practice the embodied arts of everyday well-being, and in doing so draw on cultural resources ranging from ancient metaphysics to modern media.