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Zenon W. Pylyshyn [47]Zenon Pylyshyn [30]
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Zenon Pylyshyn
Rutgers University - New Brunswick
  1. Computation and Cognition: Toward a Foundation for Cognitive Science.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1984 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    This systematic investigation of computation and mental phenomena by a noted psychologist and computer scientist argues that cognition is a form of computation, that the semantic contents of mental states are encoded in the same general way as computer representations are encoded. It is a rich and sustained investigation of the assumptions underlying the directions cognitive science research is taking. 1 The Explanatory Vocabulary of Cognition 2 The Explanatory Role of Representations 3 The Relevance of Computation 4 The Psychological Reality (...)
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  2. Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis.Jerry A. Fodor & Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1988 - Cognition 28 (1-2):3-71.
    This paper explores the difference between Connectionist proposals for cognitive a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e s o r t s o f m o d e l s t hat have traditionally been assum e d i n c o g n i t i v e s c i e n c e . W e c l a i m t h a t t h (...)
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  3. Computation and cognition: Issues in the foundation of cognitive science.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):111-32.
    The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they derive from the fact that computers and human organisms are both physical systems whose behavior is correctly described as being governed by rules acting on symbolic representations. Some of the implications of this view are discussed. It is suggested that a fundamental hypothesis of this approach is that there is a natural domain of (...)
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  4.  40
    Seeing and Visualizing: It's Not What You Think.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2003 - Bradford.
    How we see and how we visualize: why the scientific account differs from our experience.
  5. Is vision continuous with cognition?: The case for cognitive impenetrability of visual perception.Zenon Pylyshyn - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):341-365.
    Although the study of visual perception has made more progress in the past 40 years than any other area of cognitive science, there remain major disagreements as to how closely vision is tied to general cognition. This paper sets out some of the arguments for both sides and defends the position that an important part of visual perception, which may be called early vision or just vision, is prohibited from accessing relevant expectations, knowledge and utilities - in other words it (...)
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  6.  36
    Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2007 - MIT Press.
    In "Things and Places," Zenon Pylyshyn argues that the process of incrementally constructing perceptual representations, solving the binding problem (determining which properties go together), and, more generally, grounding perceptual ...
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  7. How direct is visual perception? Some reflections on Gibson's 'ecological approach'.Jerry A. Fodor & Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1981 - Cognition 9 (2):139-96.
    Examines the theses that the postulation of mental processing is unnecessary to account for our perceptual relationship with the world, see turvey etal. for a criticque.
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  8. Tracking multiple independent targets: Evidence for a parallel tracking mechanism.Zenon Pylyshyn - manuscript
  9.  32
    The imagery debate: Analog media vs. tacit knowledge.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1981 - Psychological Review 88 (December):16-45.
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  10. The Robot's Dilemma: The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence.Zenon W. Pylyshyn (ed.) - 1987 - Ablex.
    Each of the chapters in this volume devotes considerable attention to defining and elaborating the notion of the frame problem-one of the hard problems of artificial intelligence. Not only do the chapters clarify the problems at hand, they shed light on the different approaches taken by those in artificial intelligence and by certain philosophers who have been concerned with related problems in their field. The book should therefore not be read merely as a discussion of the frame problem narrowly conceived, (...)
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  11.  64
    The role of location indexes in spatial perception: A sketch of the FINST spatial-index model.Zenon Pylyshyn - 1989 - Cognition 32 (1):65-97.
    Marr (1982) may have been one of the rst vision researchers to insist that in modeling vision it is important to separate the location of visual features from their type. He argued that in early stages of visual processing there must be “place tokens” that enable subsequent stages of the visual system to treat locations independent of what specic feature type was at that location. Thus, in certain respects a collinear array of diverse features could still be perceived as a (...)
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  12. What the mind's eye tells the mind's brain: A critique of mental imagery.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1973 - Psychology Bulletin 80:1-24.
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  13. Mental imagery: In search of a theory.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):157-182.
    It is generally accepted that there is something special about reasoning by using mental images. The question of how it is special, however, has never been satisfactorily spelled out, despite more than thirty years of research in the post-behaviorist tradition. This article considers some of the general motivation for the assumption that entertaining mental images involves inspecting a picture-like object. It sets out a distinction between phenomena attributable to the nature of mind to what is called the cognitive architecture, and (...)
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  14.  11
    On computation and cognition: Toward a foundation of cognitive science.Zenon Pylyshyn - 1989 - Artificial Intelligence 38 (2):248-251.
  15. Visual indexes, preconceptual objects, and situated vision.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2001 - Cognition 80 (1-2):127-158.
    This paper argues that a theory of situated vision, suited for the dual purposes of object recognition and the control of action, will have to provide something more than a system that constructs a conceptual representation from visual stimuli: it will also need to provide a special kind of direct (preconceptual, unmediated) connection between elements of a visual representation and certain elements in the world. Like natural language demonstratives (such as `this' or `that') this direct connection allows entities to be (...)
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  16.  15
    Validating computational models: A critique of Anderson's indeterminacy of representation claim.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1979 - Psychological Review 86 (4):383-394.
  17. Tracking Multiple Items Through Occlusion: Clues to Visual Objecthood.Brian J. Scholl & Zenon W. Pylyshyn - unknown
    In three experiments, subjects attempted to track multiple items as they moved independently and unpredictably about a display. Performance was not impaired when the items were briefly (but completely) occluded at various times during their motion, suggesting that occlusion is taken into account when computing enduring perceptual objecthood. Unimpaired performance required the presence of accretion and deletion cues along fixed contours at the occluding boundaries. Performance was impaired when items were present on the visual field at the same times and (...)
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  18.  24
    Computational models and empirical constraints.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):98-128.
    It is argued that the traditional distinction between artificial intelligence and cognitive simulation amounts to little more than a difference in style of research - a different ordering in goal priorities and different methodological allegiances. Both enterprises are constrained by empirical considerations and both are directed at understanding classes of tasks that are defined by essentially psychological criteria. Because of the different ordering of priorities, however, they occasionally take somewhat different stands on such issues as the power/generality trade-off and on (...)
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  19.  15
    Why are small and large numbers enumerated differently? A limited-capacity preattentive stage in vision.Lana M. Trick & Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1994 - Psychological Review 101 (1):80-102.
  20.  67
    The ‘causal power’ of machines.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):442-444.
  21.  18
    Cognitive representation and the process-architecture distinction.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):154-169.
  22. Imagery.Zenon Pylyshyn - 2004 - In R. L. Gregory (ed.), Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford University Press.
    In Gregory, Richard. Oxford Companion to the Mind (Second Edition, 2006) Oxford University Press.
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  23. Return of the mental image: Are there really pictures in the brain?Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):113-118.
    In the past decade there has been renewed interest in the study of mental imagery. Emboldened by new findings from neuroscience, many people have revived the idea that mental imagery involves a special format of thought, one that is pictorial in nature. But the evidence and the arguments that exposed deep conceptual and empirical problems in the picture theory over the past 300 years have not gone away. I argue that the new evidence from neural imaging and clinical neuropsychology does (...)
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  24. When is attribution of beliefs justified? [P&W].Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):592-593.
  25. S eeingand visualizing: I T' S n otwhaty ou T hink.Zenon Pylyshyn - unknown
    6. Seeing With the Mind’s Eye 1: The Puzzle of Mental Imagery .................................................6-1 6.1 What is the puzzle about mental imagery?..............................................................................6-1 6.2 Content, form and substance of representations ......................................................................6-6 6.3 What is responsible for the pattern of results obtained in imagery studies?.................................6-8..
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  26.  75
    Meaning And Cognitive Structure: Issues In The Computational Theory Of Mind.Zenon W. Pylyshyn (ed.) - 1986 - Norwood: Ablex.
    Few areas of study have led to such close and intense interactions among computer scientists, psychologists, and philosophers as the area now referred to as cognitive science. Within this discipline, few problems have inspired as much debate as the use of notions such as meaning, intentionality, or the semantic content of mental states in explaining human behavior. The set of problems surrounding these notions have been viewed by some observers as threatening the foundations of cognitive science as currently conceived, and (...)
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  27.  77
    Situating vision in the world.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (5):197-207.
  28. Computing and cognitive science.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1989 - In Michael I. Posner (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Science. MIT Press.
    influence. One of the principal characteristics that distinguishes Cognitive Science from more traditional studies of cognition within Psychology, is the extent to which it has been influenced by both the ideas and the techniques of computing. It may come as a surprise to the outsider, then, to discover that there is no unanimity within the discipline on either (a) the nature (and in some cases the desireabilty) of the influence and (b) what computing is –- or at least on its.
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  29.  19
    Do mental events have durations?Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):277-278.
  30.  73
    The Robot's Dilemma Revisited: The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence.Kenneth M. Ford & Zenon W. Pylyshyn (eds.) - 1996 - Ablex.
    The chapters in this book have evolved from talks originally presented at The First International Workshop on Human and Machine Cognition.
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  31. Some puzzling findings in multiple object tracking: I. Tracking without keeping track of object identities.Zenon Pylyshyn - manuscript
    The task of tracking a small number (about four or five) visual targets within a larger set of identical items, each of which moves randomly and independently, has been used extensively to study object-based attention. Analysis of this multiple object tracking (MOT) task shows that it logically entails solving the correspondence problem for each target over time, and thus that the individuality of each of the targets must be tracked. This suggests that when successfully tracking objects, observers must also keep (...)
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  32.  65
    Some primitive mechanisms of spatial attention.Zenon Pylyshyn - 1994 - Cognition 50 (1-3):363-384.
  33. Imagery and artificial intelligence.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1978 - In W. Savage (ed.), Perception and Cognition. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 105-115.
  34. What is Cognitive Science.Ernest Lepore & Zenon Pylyshyn (eds.) - 1999 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Written by an assembly of leading researchers in the field, this volume provides an innovative and non-technical introduction to cognitive science, and the key issues that animate the field.
  35. Rules and representations: Chomsky and representational realism.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1988
    called,_ Cognitive Science_ was to bring back scienti?c realism. This may strike you as a very odd claim, for one does not usually think of science as needing to be talked into scienti?c realism. Science is, after all, the study of reality by the most precise instruments of measurement and.
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  36. Perception, Representation and the World: The FINST that binds.Zenon Pylyshyn - unknown
    I recently discovered that work I was doing in the laboratory and in theoretical writings was implicitly taking a position on a set of questions that philosophers had been worrying about for much of the past 30 or more years. My clandestine involvement in philosophical issues began when a computer science colleague and I were trying to build a model of geometrical reasoning that would draw a diagram and notice things in the diagram as it drew it (Pylyshyn, Elcock, Marmor, (...)
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  37. Some puzzling findings in multiple object tracking (MOT): II. Inhibition of moving nontargets.Zenon Pylyshyn - manuscript
    We present three studies examining whether multiple-object tracking (MOT) benefits from the active inhibition of nontargets, as proposed in (Pylyshyn, 2004). Using a probedot technique, the first study showed poorer probe detection on nontargets than on either the targets being tracked or in the empty space between objects. The second study used a matching nontracking task to control for possible masking of probes, independent of target tracking. The third study examined how localized the inhibition is to individual nontargets. The result (...)
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  38. Complexity and the study of artificial and human intelligence.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1979 - In Martin Ringle (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence. Humanities Press.
  39.  27
    Attentional resources in visual tracking through occlusion: The high-beams effect.Jonathan I. Flombaum, Brian J. Scholl & Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):904-931.
  40. Vision and cognition: How do they connect?Zenon Pylyshyn - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):401-414.
    The target article claimed that although visual apprehension involves all of general cognition, a significant component of vision (referred to as early vision) works independently of cognition and yet is able to provide a surprisingly high level interpretation of visual inputs, roughly up to identifying general shape-classes. The commentators were largely sympathetic, but frequently disagreed on how to draw the boundary, on exactly what early vision delivers, on the role that attention plays, and on how to interpret the neurophysiological data (...)
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  41. Computers and the Symbolization of Knowledge.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - unknown
    I’m one of those who is awed and impressed by the potential of this field and have devoted some part of my energy to persuading people that it is a positive force. I have done so largely on the grounds of its economic benefits and it potential for making the fruits of computer technology more generally available to the public — for example, to help the overworked physician; to search for oil and minerals and help manage our valuable resources; to (...)
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  42.  42
    Seeing, acting, and knowing.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):999-999.
    The target article proposes that visual experience arises when sensorimotor contingencies are exploited in perception. This novel analysis of visual experience fares no better than the other proposals that the article rightly dismisses, and for the same reasons. Extracting invariants may be needed for recognition, but it is neither necessary nor sufficient for having a visual experience. While the idea that vision involves the active extraction of sensorimotor invariants has merit, it does not replace the need for perceptual representations. Vision (...)
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  43. Roundtable discussion.Nicholas Asher, Lee R. Brooks, Fred Dretske, Jerry Fodor, David Israel, John Perry, Zenon Pylyshyn & Brian Cantwell Smith - 1990 - In Philip P. Hanson (ed.), Information, Language and Cognition. University of British Columbia Press. pp. 198--216.
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  44. Selective Nontarget Inhibition in Multiple Object Tracking (MOT).Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Charles E. King & James E. Reilly - unknown
    We previously reported that in the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task, which requires tracking several identical targets moving unpredictably among identical nontargets, the nontargets appear to be inhibited, as measured by a probe-dot detection method. The inhibition appears to be local to nontargets and does not extend to the space between objects – dropping off very rapidly away from targets and nontargets. In the present three experiments we show that (1) nontargets that are identical to targets but remain in a (...)
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  45. Evidence against a speed limit in multiple object tracking.Zenon Pylyshyn, Franconeri, Lin, Fisher & Enns - manuscript
    in press, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.
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  46. Connecting vision with the world: Tracking the missing link.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2001 - In Joao Branquinho (ed.), The Foundations of Cognitive Science. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 183.
    You might reasonably surmise from the title of this paper that I will be discussing a theory of vision. After all, what is a theory of vision but a theory of how the world is connected to our visual representations? Theories of visual perception universally attempt to give an account of how a proximal stimulus (presumably a pattern impinging on the retina) can lead to a rich representation of a three dimensional world and thence to either the recognition of known (...)
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  47.  12
    The A.I. debate: generality, goals, and methodological parochialism.Zenon Pylyshyn - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):121-127.
  48. The Empirical Case for Bare Demonstratives in Vision.Zenon Pylyshyn - unknown
    1. Background: Representation in language and vision ................................................ 1 2. Some parallels between the study of vision and language......................................... 3..
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  49.  81
    Minds, machines and phenomenology: Some reflections on Dreyfus' What Computers Can't Do.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1974 - Cognition 3 (1):57-77.
  50. Can indexes be voluntarily assigned in multiple object tracking?Zenon Pylyshyn - manuscript
    In Multiple Object Tracking (MOT), an observer is able to track 4 – 5 objects in a group of otherwise indistinguishable objects that move independently and unpredictably about a display. According to the Visual Indexing Theory (Pylyshyn, 1989), successful tracking requires that target objects be indexed while they are distinct -- before tracking begins. In the typical MOT task, the target objects are briefly flashed resulting in the automatic assignment of indexes. The question arises whether indexes are only assigned automatically (...)
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