Despite the size and thanks to the rich brown coal reserves, the Czech Republic is one of the leading energy producers in Europe, and the 7th biggest exporter of electricity in the world. However, following the climate change mitigation, the novel energy policy that enhances the reduction of coal mining is about to be implemented. A preliminary material flow analysis of the Czech energy sector was carried out. The data obtained confirmed that this government act would result in a dramatic (...) reduction of revenues from electricity sales. Conversely, increased costs would be necessary in order to modernize nuclear power plants and promote the production of renewable energy. In addition, the economic analysis revealed that the act might be prejudicial to economic relations in Central and Western-European countries as some of them are significantly dependent on the electricity imported from the Czech Republic. Disputes between engineers and politicians were highlighted. The aforementioned interrelations were subsequently analyzed and a conclusion was made stating that global interests should have the highest moral priority. (shrink)
El Banquete de Platón escenifica una subversión lúdica de la paiderastía por parte de la philosophía a través de sucesivos discursos interconectados. Fedro y Agatón elogian a Érōs como un dios que preside las relaciones homoeróticas, ya sea en la guerra o en la paz. Pausanias y Erixímaco distinguen entre dos Érōtes, ansiosos por supervisar estas comunidades pederásticas e incluso la armonía cósmica. Pero Aristófanes subvierte su perspectiva al introducir al Andrógino, una combinación de hombre y mujer, el cual, siendo (...) expuesto por Sócrates-Diotima, dará finalmente a luz al Érōs-Daímōn. Solo él nos asegurará una verdadera comunidad humana al permitirnos una verdadera comunión con lo divino, como atestigua el elogio final de Alcibíades a Sócrates. (shrink)
The classic form of Hamilton’s variational principle does not hold for circuits with dissipative elements. It is shown in the paper that this may not be true in the case of systems consisting of the so-called higher-order elements. Hamilton’s principle is then extended to circuits containing the classical resistors and Frequency Dependent Negative Resistors. The extension is also made to any pair of elements which are the nearest neighbours on any Σ-diagonal of Chua’s table.
A survey is presented showing an above-average performance by candidates of several Central/Eastern European countries in the world-wide competition for the Alexander von Humboldt fellowships in the period before 1989, in spite of various administrative obstacles imposed by their countries. The success rate can be linked to the traditionally relatively high level of educational standards there. The administrative obstacles are illustrated by taking the former Czechoslovakia as an example, and also by way of a personal case study.
This paper argues that the Turing test is based on a fixed and de-contextualized view of communicative competence. According to this view, a machine that passes the test will be able to communicate effectively in a variety of other situations. But the de-contextualized view ignores the relationship between language and social context, or, to put it another way, the extent to which speakers respond dynamically to variations in discourse function, formality level, social distance/solidarity among participants, and participants' relative degrees of (...) power and status. In the case of the Loebner Contest, a present day version of the Turing test, the social context of interaction can be interpreted in conflicting ways. For example, Loebner discourse is defined 1) as a friendly, casual conversation between two strangers of equal power, and 2) as a one-way transaction in which judges control the conversational floor in an attempt to expose contestants that are not human. This conflict in discourse function is irrelevant so long as the goal of the contest is to ensure that only thinking, human entities pass the test. But if the function of Loebner discourse is to encourage the production of software that can pass for human on the level of conversational ability, then the contest designers need to resolve this ambiguity in discourse function, and thus also come to terms with the kind of competence they are trying to measure. (shrink)
This article investigates whether editorial board members of selected economic journals publish their research papers in their ‘own’ journal. Journals were selected from the Journal Citation Report® from the categories Business; Business, Finance; and Economics. Only research articles published between 2012 and 2015 were included in the analysis. We recorded ratios concerning the share of articles authored by editorial board members, the share of editorial board members publishing in their own journals and ratios representing their publication output. The average share (...) of articles authored by editorial board members ranges from 0.6 to 17.5%. The average share of editorial board members publishing in their own journals ranges from 5.6 to 24.4%. Considering only editorial board members publishing in their own journals, the share of their articles in their journals ranges from 8.2 to 71.4%. While the share of board members publishing only in their own journals, to the number of board members publishing in their own journals, the ratio in a quarter of journals is equal to zero, with a maximum reach of 85.7%. All observed ratios are significantly positively correlated with the gap between impact factor and impact factor without Journal Self Cites; and negatively correlated with the Article Influence Score. A cluster of journals in which a high proportion of editorial board members publish and simultaneously these members publish in their own journal at a high rate was identified. (shrink)
In this paper, I explore some of the ways in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) is mediated discursively. I assume that AI is informed by an “ancestral dream” to reproduce nature by artificial means. This dream drives the production of “cyborg discourse”, which hinges on the belief that human nature (especially intelligence) can be reduced to symbol manipulation and hence replicated in a machine. Cyborg discourse, I suggest, produces AI systems by rhetorical means; it does not merely describe AI systems or (...) reflect a set of prevailing attitudes about technology. To support this argument, I analyse a set of research articles about an “embodied conversational agent” called the Real Estate Agent (REA). The articles about REA mobilise a set of rhetorical strategies that systematically downplay the system’s artificiality and bolster its humanlike qualities. Within the context of the dream of AI to produce humanlike machines, and given our strong bias for human-human interaction, the designers’ claim to REA’s humanness in their research articles, as I argue in the final section of this paper, needs little justification. (shrink)
In this paper, we discuss the problem of communist power in so called totalitarian regimes. Inspired by strategies of explanation in contemporary science studies and by the ethnomethodological conception of social order, we suggest that the power of communists is not to be taken as an unproblematic source of explanation; rather, we take this power as something that is itself in need of being explained. We study personal narratives on political screenings that took place in Czechoslovakia in 1970 and analyze (...) how the power of communists obtained its strength from ordinary and “unremarkable” interactions between participants. The screenings are interpreted, in the terms of Bruno Latour, as “trials of strength.” We show that it was crucial for all the participants that associations, translations or mobilizations involved in making the regime real, remained partial and multiple, and not exclusive and “total” as is often assumed within dominant discourses on totalitarianism. (shrink)
In this paper, we discuss the problem of communist power in so called totalitarian regimes. Inspired by strategies of explanation in contemporary science studies and by the ethnomethodological conception of social order, we suggest that the power of communists is not to be taken as an unproblematic source of explanation; rather, we take this power as something that is itself in need of being explained. We study personal narratives on political screenings that took place in Czechoslovakia in 1970 and analyze (...) how the power of communists obtained its strength from ordinary and "unremarkable" interactions between participants. The screenings are interpreted, in the terms of Bruno Latour, as "trials of strength." We show that it was crucial for all the participants that associations, translations or mobilizations involved in making the regime real, remained partial and multiple, and not exclusive and "total" as is often assumed within dominant discourses on totalitarianism. (shrink)
The spheres of communication theory, semiotics, linguistics and partly also the modern information technologies had in Bohemia and, especially, in Prague, a city with one of the first European universities, good traditions, very stimulating conditions and a good interdisciplinary atmosphere. This atmosphere had its foundations in traditions of one of the European intellectual and cultural cross-roads connecting Slavic, German and Jewish values. In the period between the two world wars Prague had a Czech university, a German university and many years (...) a Russian university for Russian emmigrants. Simultaneously, this country represented an island of democracy in the period of the rise of totalitarian regimes and ideologies. The researchers working in Prague participated together with intellectuals in Vienna, Warsaw and Berlin in the rise of the analytical philosophy, in establishing new conceptions of linguistics and in other scientific initiatives. Some of these traditions and centres of scientific initatives were strongly damaged by two occupations during and then after the second world war. Therefore, the re-establishment of these traditions and centres belonged to the important tasks of the social, cultural and intellectual transformations after the democratic changes and the fall of totalitarian systems and ideologies at the end of the eighties. The fruitful collaboration of the old and the young generations in the attempts to re-establish the old traditions in connections with the topical scientific trends belongs to the important tasks of contemporary scientific activities in the research institutes and university departments. (shrink)