Results for 'Zachary Smith'

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  1.  32
    Hopeful and Concerned: Public Input on Building a Trustworthy Medical Information Commons.Patricia A. Deverka, Dierdre Gilmore, Jennifer Richmond, Zachary Smith, Rikki Mangrum, Barbara A. Koenig, Robert Cook-Deegan, Angela G. Villanueva, Mary A. Majumder & Amy L. McGuire - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):70-87.
    A medical information commons is a networked data environment utilized for research and clinical applications. At three deliberations across the U.S., we engaged 75 adults in two-day facilitated discussions on the ethical and social issues inherent to sharing data with an MIC. Deliberants made recommendations regarding opt-in consent, transparent data policies, public representation on MIC governing boards, and strict data security and privacy protection. Community engagement is critical to earning the public's trust.
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  2. Emma Smith, This is Shakespeare: How to Read the World’s Greatest Playwright[REVIEW]Zachary T. Harned - 2021 - Moreana 58 (1):129-132.
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  3.  4
    Zachary Dorner. Merchants of Medicines: The Commerce and Coercion of Health in Britain’s Long Eighteenth Century. 280 pp., halftones, tables. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2020. $50 (cloth); ISBN 9780226706801. E-book available. [REVIEW]Leonard Smith - 2022 - Isis 113 (2):440-441.
  4.  23
    The Theory of Moral Sentiments: The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith.Adam Smith - 1976 - Indianapolis: Oxford University Press UK. Edited by D. D. Raphael & A. L. Macfie.
    A scholarly edition of a work by Adam Smith. The edition presents an authoritative text, together with an introduction, commentary notes, and scholarly apparatus.
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  5.  18
    The Case against Ethics Review in the Social Sciences.Zachary M. Schrag - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (4):120-131.
    For decades, scholars in the social sciences and humanities have questioned the appropriateness and utility of prior review of their research by human subjects' ethics committees. This essay seeks to organize thematically some of their published complaints and to serve as a brief restatement of the major critiques of ethics review. In particular, it argues that 1) ethics committees impose silly restrictions, 2) ethics review is a solution in search of a problem, 3) ethics committees lack expertise, 4) ethics committees (...)
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  6. The Knowledge Norm of Belief.Zachary Mitchell Swindlehurst - 2020 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):43-50.
    Doxastic normativism is the thesis that norms are constitutive of or essential to belief, such that no mental state not subject to those norms counts as a belief. A common normativist view is that belief is essentially governed by a norm of truth. According to Krister Bykvist and Anandi Hattiangadi, truth norms for belief cannot be formulated without unpalatable consequences: they are either false or they impose unsatisfiable requirements on believers. I propose that we construe the fundamental norm of belief (...)
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  7. Blind Rule-Following and the Regress of Motivations.Zachary Mitchell Swindlehurst - 2023 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 66 (6):1170-1183.
    Normativists about belief hold that belief formation is essentially rule- or norm-guided. On this view, certain norms are constitutive of or essential to belief in such a way that no mental state not guided by those norms counts as a belief, properly construed. In recent influential work, Kathrin Glüer and Åsa Wikforss develop novel arguments against normativism. According to their regress of motivations argument, not all belief formation can be rule- or norm-guided, on pain of a vicious infinite regress. I (...)
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  8.  42
    The reformulation argument: reining in Gricean pragmatics.Zachary Miller - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (2):525-546.
    A semantic theory aims to make predictions that are accurate and comprehensive. Sometimes, though, a semantic theory falls short of this aim, and there is a mismatch between prediction and data. In such cases, defenders of the semantic theory often attempt to rescue it by appealing to Gricean pragmatics. The hope is that we can rescue the theory as long as we can use pragmatics to explain away its predictive failures. This pragmatic rescue strategy is one of the most popular (...)
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  9.  93
    Oil Heritage in the Golden Triangle. Spindletop-Gladys City Boomtown.Zachary S. Casey & Asma Mehan - 2023 - In Joeri Januarius (ed.), TICCIH Bulletin No. 101. TICCIH (The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage). pp. 38-40.
    In the heart of southeast Texas, an industrial powerhouse often referred to as the 'Golden Triangle', the oil refineries and petrochemical plants stand as stalwart testaments to the region's economic evolution. Interestingly, before the discovery of oil at Spindletop, the lumber and cattle industries powered this region's economy. A profound shift occurred when the Lucas Gusher, a fountain of oil spurting thousands of feet into the air, struck the lands of Spindletop Hill on January 10, 1901. This remarkable discovery of (...)
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  10. Mind-wandering is unguided attention: accounting for the “purposeful” wanderer.Zachary C. Irving - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (2):547-571.
    Although mind-wandering occupies up to half of our waking thoughts, it is seldom discussed in philosophy. My paper brings these neglected thoughts into focus. I propose that mind-wandering is unguided attention. Guidance in my sense concerns how attention is monitored and regulated as it unfolds over time. Roughly speaking, someone’s attention is guided if she would feel pulled back, were she distracted from her current focus. Because our wandering thoughts drift unchecked from topic to topic, they are unguided. One motivation (...)
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  11. The Catch-22 of Forgetfulness: Responsibility for Mental Mistakes.Zachary C. Irving, Samuel Murray, Aaron Glasser & Kristina Krasich - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    Attribution theorists assume that character information informs judgments of blame. But there is disagreement over why. One camp holds that character information is a fundamental determinant of blame. Another camp holds that character information merely provides evidence about the mental states and processes that determine responsibility. We argue for a two-channel view, where character simultaneously has fundamental and evidential effects on blame. In two large factorial studies (n = 495), participants rate whether someone is blameworthy when he makes a mistake (...)
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  12.  46
    Dysfunction, Disease, and the Limits of Selection.Zachary Ardern - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (1):4-9.
    Paul Griffiths and John Matthewson argue that selected effects play the key role in determining whether a state is pathological. In response, it is argued that a selected effects account faces a number of difficulties in light of modern genomic research. Firstly, a modern history approach to selection is problematic as a basis for assigning function to human traits in light of the small population sizes in the hominin lineage, which imply that selection has played a limited role in shaping (...)
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  13.  8
    Unsettling Carbon-Colonialism, Renewing Resistance.Zachary T. King - 2020 - Radical Philosophy Review 23 (2):427-430.
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  14. Richard D. Mohr, The Long Arc of Justice: Lesbian and Gay Marriage, Equality, and Rights Reviewed by.Zachary A. Kramer - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26 (4):276-278.
  15.  11
    Montaigne and the Rise of Skepticism in Early Modern Europe: A Reappraisal.Zachary S. Schiffman - 1984 - Journal of the History of Ideas 45 (4):499.
  16.  7
    A History of the Arab Peoples.Zachary Lockman & Albert Hourani - 1992 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (2):307.
  17.  13
    Making ends meet on disability benefits: How well do programs decommodify?Zachary A. Morris - 2021 - Alter- European Journal of Disability Research 15 (1):15-28.
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  18.  14
    Descartes on intellectual joy and the intellectual love of god.Zachary Agoff - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-19.
    Descartes maintains that we can love God and that it is pleasant and morally beneficial to do so. In this essay, I examine the necessary conditions for such an intellectual love of God. I argue that the intellectual love of God is incited by a judgment that we are joined to God in reality, which is constitutive of an intellectual joy. I go on to show that the intellectual love of God is, itself, constituted by a stripping of our private (...)
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  19. Sustaining the Individual in the Collective: A Kantian Perspective for a Sustainable World.Zachary Vereb - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (3):405-420.
    Individualist normative theories appear inadequate for the complex moral challenges of climate change. In climate ethics, this is especially notable with the relative marginalization of Kant. I argue that Kant’s philosophy, understood through its historical and cosmopolitan dimensions, has untapped potential for the climate crisis. First, I situate Kant in climate ethics and evaluate his marginalization due to perceived individualism, interiority and anthropocentrism. Then, I explore aspects of Kant’s historical and cosmopolitan writings, which present a global, future-orientated picture of humanity. (...)
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  20.  74
    Moral Rationalism and the Normativity of Constitutive Principles.Zachary Bachman - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (1):1-19.
    Recently, Christine Bratu and Mortiz Dittmeyer have argued that Christine Korsgaard’s constitutive project fails to establish the normativity of practical principles because it fails to show why a principle’s being constitutive of a practice shows that one ought to conform to that principle. They argue that in many cases a principle’s being constitutive of a practice has no bearing on whether one ought to conform to it. In this paper I argue that Bratu and Dittmeyer’s argument fails in three important (...)
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  21.  77
    Drifting and Directed Minds: The Significance of Mind-Wandering for Mental Agency.Zachary C. Irving - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy 118 (11):614-644.
    Perhaps the central question in action theory is this: what ingredient of bodily action is missing in mere behavior? But what is an analogous question for mental action? I ask this: what ingredient of active, goal-directed thought is missing in mind-wandering? My answer: attentional guidance. Attention is guided when you would feel pulled back from distractions. In contrast, mind-wandering drifts between topics unchecked. My unique starting point motivates new accounts of four central topics about mental action. First, its causal basis. (...)
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  22.  11
    Academic Honesty, Linguistic Dishonesty: Analyzing the Readability and Translation of Academic Integrity and Honesty Policies at U.S. Postsecondary Institutions.Zachary W. Taylor & Ibrahim Bicak - 2019 - Journal of Academic Ethics 17 (1):1-15.
    A large body of research has indicated international students in the United States and abroad experience difficulties understanding what academic integrity is and how to avoid academic misconduct, 159–172 2011; Brown & Howell, 2001; Gullifer and Tyson Studies in Higher Education, 39, 1202-1218 2014). While most studies focus on academic misconduct and academic corruption in research ethics, 339-358 2014), this study analyzes the length, English-language readability, and translation of academic integrity policies of 453 four-year U.S. institutions of higher education. Findings (...)
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  23.  30
    Machines and Non-Identity Problems.Zachary Biondi - 2019 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 29 (2):12-25.
    A number of thinkers have been wondering about the moral obligations humans have, or will have, to intelligent technologies. An underlying assumption is that “moral machines” are decades in the offing, and thus we have no pressing obligations now. But, in the context of technology, we are yet to consider that we might owe moral consideration to something that is not a member of the moral community but eventually will be as an outcome of human action. Do we have current (...)
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  24. Philosophical Dialogue for Beginners.Zachary Odermatt & Robert Weston Siscoe - 2023 - American Association of Philosophy Teachers Studies in Pedagogy 8:6-29.
    Inspired by the practice of dialogue in ancient philosophical schools, the Philosophy as a Way of Life (PWOL) Project at the University of Notre Dame has sought to put dialogue back at the center of philosophical pedagogy. Impromptu philosophical dialogue, however, can be challenging for students who are new to philosophy. Anticipating this challenge, the Project has created a series of manuals to help instructors conduct dialogue groups with novice philosophy students. Using these guidelines, we incorporated PWOL-style dialogue groups into (...)
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  25. Kant’s Pre-critical Ontology and Environmental Philosophy.Zachary Vereb - 2021 - Environmental Philosophy 18 (1):81-102.
    In this paper I argue that Kant’s pre-critical ontology, though generally dismissed by environmental philosophers, provides ecological lessons by way of its metaphysical affinities with environmental philosophy. First, I reference where environmental philosophy tends to place Kant and highlight his relative marginalization. This marginalization makes sense given focus on his critical works. I then outline Kant’s pre-critical ontological framework and characterize the ways in which it is ecological. Finally, I conclude with some ecological reflections on the pre-critical philosophy and its (...)
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  26. Religion and Arguments from Silence.Zachary Milstead - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (3):155-169.
    Arguments from Silence have been used many times in attempts to discredit the foundations of religions. In this project, I demonstrate how one might judge the epistemic value of such arguments. To begin, I lay out for examination a specific argument from silence given by Walter Richard Cassels in his work Supernatural Religion. I then discuss a recently developed Bayesian approach for dealing with arguments from silence. Finally, using Cassels’s work and the work of some of the critics who replied (...)
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  27.  55
    Mind‐wandering: A philosophical guide.Zachary C. Irving & Aaron Glasser - 2020 - Philosophy Compass 15 (1):e12644.
    Philosophers have long been fascinated by the stream of consciousness – thoughts, images, and bits of inner speech that dance across the inner stage. Yet for centuries, such ‘mind‐wandering' was deemed private and thus resistant to empirical investigation. Recent developments in psychology and neuroscience have reinvigorated scientific interest in the stream of thought. Despite this flurry of progress, scientists have stressed that mind‐wandering research requires firmer philosophical foundations. The time is therefore ripe for the philosophy of mind‐wandering. Our review begins (...)
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  28.  14
    Freeze or flee? Negative stimuli elicit selective responding.Zachary Estes & Michelle Verges - 2008 - Cognition 108 (2):557-565.
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  29.  18
    Cultural Nationalism and Modern Manuscripts: Kingsley Amis, Saul Bellow, Franz Kafka.Zachary Leader - 2013 - Critical Inquiry 40 (1):160-193.
  30.  20
    IIResponse to Marcel Lepper.Zachary Leader - 2014 - Critical Inquiry 41 (1):160-162.
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  31.  12
    Flatness and smooth points of p-adic subanalytic sets.Zachary Robinson - 1997 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 88 (2-3):217-225.
    We give a new proof of the subanalyticity of the regular locus of a p-adic subanalytic set, replacing use of an approximation theorem by a more natural argument based on the flatness of certain homomorphisms given by Taylor expansions of strictly convergent power series at a non-standard point of Zmp.
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  32. Mind-Wandering: A Philosophical Guide.Zachary C. Irving & Aaron Glasser - forthcoming - Philosophical Compass.
    Philosophers have long been fascinated by the stream of consciousness––thoughts, images, and bits of inner speech that dance across the inner stage. Yet for centuries, such “mind-wandering” was deemed private and thus resistant to empirical investigation. Recent developments in psychology and neuroscience have reinvigorated scientific interest in the stream of thought, leading some researchers to dub this “the era of the wandering mind”. Despite this flurry of progress, scientists have stressed that mind-wandering research requires firmer philosophical foundations. The time is (...)
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  33.  6
    Vexed Again: Social Scientists and the Revision of the Common Rule, 2011-2018.Zachary M. Schrag - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (2):254-263.
    In revising the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects between 2009 and 2018, regulators devoted the vast bulk of their attention to debates over biomedical research. They lacked both expertise in and concern about the social sciences and humanities, yet they imposed their will on experts in those fields. The revision process was secretive, spasmodic, and unrepresentative, especially compared to rulemaking in Canada, where social scientists participate in the process, and revisions take place every few years. The result (...)
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  34.  17
    Evolutionary Models of Leadership.Zachary H. Garfield, Robert L. Hubbard & Edward H. Hagen - 2019 - Human Nature 30 (1):23-58.
    This study tested four theoretical models of leadership with data from the ethnographic record. The first was a game-theoretical model of leadership in collective actions, in which followers prefer and reward a leader who monitors and sanctions free-riders as group size increases. The second was the dominance model, in which dominant leaders threaten followers with physical or social harm. The third, the prestige model, suggests leaders with valued skills and expertise are chosen by followers who strive to emulate them. The (...)
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  35. A song turned sideways would sound as sweet.Zachary Ferguson - 2021 - Analysis 81 (1):14-18.
    Markosian presents an argument against certain theories of time based on the aesthetic value of music. He argues that turning a piece of music sideways in time destroys its intrinsic value, which would not be possible if the Spacetime Thesis were true. In this paper I show that sideways music poses no problems for any theory of time by demonstrating that turning a piece of music sideways does not affect its intrinsic value. I do this by appealing to spatial analogies (...)
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  36. Sustainability of What? Recognizing the Diverse Values that Sustainable Agriculture Works to Sustain.Zachary Piso, Ian Werkheiser, Samantha Noll & Christina Leshko - 2016 - Environmental Values 25 (2):195-214.
    The contours of sustainable systems are defined according to communities’ goals and values. As researchers shift from sustainability-in-the-abstract to sustainability-as-a-concrete-research-challenge, democratic deliberation is essential for ensuring that communities determine what systems ought to be sustained. Discourse analysis of dialogue with Michigan direct marketing farmers suggests eight sustainability values – economic efficiency, community connectedness, stewardship, justice, ecologism, self-reliance, preservationism and health – which informed the practices of these farmers. Whereas common heuristics of sustainability suggest values can be pursued harmoniously, we discuss (...)
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  37. Decision Theory Unbound.Zachary Goodsell - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Countenancing unbounded utility in ethics gives rise to deep puzzles in formal decision theory. Here, these puzzles are taken as an invitation to assess the most fundamental principles relating probability and value, with the aim of demonstrating that unbounded utility in ethics is compatible with a desirable decision theory. The resulting theory frames further discussion of Expected Utility Theory and of principles concerning symmetries of utility.
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  38.  28
    Carbon Offsetting and Justice: A Kantian Response.Zachary Vereb - 2022 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 25 (3):253-257.
    ABSTRACT In ‘Should I offset or should I do more good?’, H. Orri Stefansson defends an argument that calls into question the belief that we can discharge our duties to prevent harm by carbon offsetting. Stefansson suggests that other actions, such as donations, should be preferred. This paper questions aspects of that analysis by evaluating the normative assumptions underlying it. It does so from a broadly Kantian perspective. I begin by highlighting assumptions that could benefit from elaboration and defense. These (...)
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  39.  4
    Discovering agents.Zachary Kenton, Ramana Kumar, Sebastian Farquhar, Jonathan Richens, Matt MacDermott & Tom Everitt - 2023 - Artificial Intelligence 322 (C):103963.
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  40. The October 2014 United States treasury bond flash crash and the contributory effect of mini flash crashes.Zachary S. Levine, Scott A. Hale & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - PLoS ONE 12 (11):e0186688..
    We investigate the causal uncertainty surrounding the flash crash in the U.S. Treasury bond market on October 15, 2014, and the unresolved concern that no clear link has been identified between the start of the flash crash at 9:33 and the opening of the U.S. equity market at 9:30. We consider the contributory effect of mini flash crashes in equity markets, and find that the number of equity mini flash crashes in the three-minute window between market open and the Treasury (...)
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  41. Moral epistemology.Aaron Zachary Zimmerman - 2010 - New York: Routledge.
    How do we know right from wrong? Do we even have moral knowledge? Moral epistemology studies these and related questions about our understanding of virtue and vice. It is one of philosophy’s perennial problems, reaching back to Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Locke, Hume and Kant, and has recently been the subject of intense debate as a result of findings in developmental and social psychology. Throughout the book Zimmerman argues that our belief in moral knowledge can survive sceptical challenges. He also draws (...)
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  42.  8
    Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology.Barbara Smith - 2000 - Rutgers University Press.
    The pioneering anthology Home Girls features writings by Black feminist and lesbian activists on topics both provocative and profound. Since its initial publication in 1983, it has become an essential text on Black women's lives and writings. This edition features an updated list of contributor biographies and an all-new preface that provides a fresh assessment of how Black women's lives have changed-or not-since the book was first published. Contributors are Tania Abdulahad, Donna Allegra, Barbara A. Banks, Becky Birtha, Julie Carter, (...)
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  43.  13
    What it Means to Reject Monogamy.Zachary Biondi - 2023 - Sexuality and Culture 27 (6).
    As various forms of nonmonogamy have grown in social visibility, the subject has received academic treatment across a range of literatures, including philosophy. To aid in philosophical treatment, the paper addresses the narrow but fundamental topic of the meaning of nonmonogamy. By engaging with recent literature, it examines nonmonogamy as the rejection of or opposition to monogamy. After exploring the nature of opposition in this case, the paper develops the beginnings of a more detailed theory of nonmonogamy. How do monogamy (...)
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  44.  12
    Essays on Philosophical Subjects: The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith: Iii.Adam Smith (ed.) - 1980 - Oxford University Press UK.
    A scholarly edition of a work by Adam Smith. The edition presents an authoritative text, together with an introduction, commentary notes, and scholarly apparatus.
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  45.  87
    Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments (ed. K. Haakonssen).Adam Smith - 2002 (1759) - Cambridge University Press.
    A new edition of Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, an important text in the history of moral and political thought.
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  46. Explaining the social contract.Zachary Ernst - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):1-24.
    Brian Skyrms has argued that the evolution of the social contract may be explained using the tools of evolutionary game theory. I show in the first half of this paper that the evolutionary game-theoretic models are often highly sensitive to the specific processes that they are intended to simulate. This sensitivity represents an important robustness failure that complicates Skyrms's project. But I go on to make the positive proposal that we may none the less obtain robust results by simulating the (...)
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  47. LF: a Foundational Higher-Order Logic.Zachary Goodsell & Juhani Yli-Vakkuri - manuscript
    This paper presents a new system of logic, LF, that is intended to be used as the foundation of the formalization of science. That is, deductive validity according to LF is to be used as the criterion for assessing what follows from the verdicts, hypotheses, or conjectures of any science. In work currently in progress, we argue for the unique suitability of LF for the formalization of logic, mathematics, syntax, and semantics. The present document specifies the language and rules of (...)
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  48.  24
    Kierkegaard and divine-command theory: Replies to Quinn and Evans: R. Zachary Manis.R. Zachary Manis - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (3):289-307.
    One of the most important recent developments in the discussion of Kierkegaard's ethics is an interpretation defended, in different forms, by Philip Quinn and Stephen Evans. Both argue that a divine-command theory of moral obligation is to be found in Works of Love . Against this view, I argue that, despite significant overlap between DCT and the view of moral obligation found in Works of Love , there is at least one essential difference between the two: the former, but not (...)
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  49. Arithmetic is Determinate.Zachary Goodsell - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (1):127-150.
    Orthodoxy holds that there is a determinate fact of the matter about every arithmetical claim. Little argument has been supplied in favour of orthodoxy, and work of Field, Warren and Waxman, and others suggests that the presumption in its favour is unjustified. This paper supports orthodoxy by establishing the determinacy of arithmetic in a well-motivated modal plural logic. Recasting this result in higher-order logic reveals that even the nominalist who thinks that there are only finitely many things should think that (...)
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  50.  9
    Monitoring Uncharted Communities of Crowdsourced Plagiarism.Zachary Dixon & Kelly George - 2020 - Journal of Academic Ethics 19 (2):291-301.
    This paper reports on a study of crowd-sourcing ‘study aid’ web platforms. Students are sharing completed academic coursework through a growing network of ‘study aid’ web platforms like CourseHero.com. These websites facilitate the crowd-sourced exchange of coursework, and effectively support plagiarism. However, virtually no data exists concerning the scope or extent of coursework being shared through these platforms. This paper reports on two experiments to monitor the frequency of coursework from a sample university uploaded onto CourseHero.com. Ultimately, both experiments failed (...)
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