Before and during the times of Confucius and Aristotle, the concept of friendship had very different implications. This paper compares Confucius’ with Aristotle’s thoughts on friendship from two perspectives: xin 信 (fidelity, faithfulness) and le 乐 (joy). The Analects emphasizes the xin as the basis of friendship. Aristotle holds that there are three kinds of friends and corresponding to them are three types of friendship. In the friendship for the sake of pleasure, there is no xin; in the legal form (...) of friendship for the sake of utility, xin is guaranteed by law; and in the moral form of friendship for the sake of utility, xin is guaranteed by morality; in the friendship for the sake of virtue, xin is an indispensable part. Both thinkers believe friends can bring joy to human life. According to Confucius, it is the joy of rendao 仁道 (benevolence), whereas for Aristotle, it is the joy of Reason. There are many commonalities and differences between the two. The commonalities reveal some inner links between Confucian rendao and Aristotelian Reason. It seems that the differences between rendao and Reason are the differences between moral reason and logical reason. The comparative study is helpful for us to understand the two masters’ ethics, politics and philosophy. (shrink)
I am broadly sympathetic to Dale Matthew’s analysis concerning phenotypic devaluation and disadvantage. However, in what follows, I restrict my remarks to a few areas where I think he either lacks empirical precision, or overstates his case.
The Lower Permian He 8 Member in the Ordos Basin is a typical producing zone of tight lithologic gas reservoirs. Analyses of sedimentary characteristics, electrofacies, and sand-body distributions of P1h8, conducted on modern fluvial deposits, outcrops, cores, and well logs, revealed that braided rivers that developed in the Lower P1h8 and Upper P1h8 are characterized by meandering river. Within these fluvial deposits, the procedure consists of analyzing high-resolution sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary dynamics defined from calibrated logging curve signatures and depositional (...) studies. According to modern and ancient fluvial deposits, we have developed a process-based sedimentary conceptual model for interpreting and predicting the distribution and geometries of sand bodies in braided and meandering deposits. The main sand body of the braided river system was bars and channel fill deposits. The braided river sand bodies are distributed over multiple vertical superimpositions and overlapping horizontal connections. The meandering river sand bodies are mainly point-bar deposits, which are bead-shaped and exhibit scattered development in the vertical direction. This comparison indicates that there were significant differences between braided and meandering deposystems. The sand bodies in the Lower P1h8 were multidirectionally connected and primarily distributed in a stacked pattern. In contrast, the sand bodies in the Upper P1h8 were distributed in an isolated manner, and fine grains were deposited between the sand bodies with poor connectivity. We interpreted the fluvial deposits that control the distributions of the sand body of the He8 Member in the eastern Sulige gas field and constructed a corresponding prediction model of a braided-meandering reservoir. This model will promote understanding of the extent of fluvial deposits and sand-body distribution of P1h8, thus elucidating hydrocarbon-bearing sand units of the Ordos Basin for future exploration. (shrink)
In this paper, we defend two main claims. The first is a moderate claim: we have a negative duty to not use binary gender-specific pronouns he or she to refer to genderqueer individuals. We defend this with an argument by analogy. It was gravely wrong for Mark Latham to refer to Catherine McGregor, a transgender woman, using the pronoun he; we argue that such cases of misgendering are morally analogous to referring to Angel Haze, who identifies as genderqueer, as he (...) or she. The second is a radical claim: we have a negative duty to not use any gender-specific pronouns to refer to anyone, regardless of their gender identity. We offer three arguments in favor of this claim (which appeal to concerns about inegalitarianism and risk, invasions of privacy, and reinforcing essentialist ideologies). We also show why the radical claim is compatible with the moderate claim. Before concluding, we examine common concerns about incorporating either they or a neologism such as ze as a third-person singular gender-neutral pronoun. These concerns, we argue, do not provide sufficient reason to reject either the moderate or radical claim. (shrink)
These two long essays make up, with "The Descent of the Dove," Williams' principal theological writing. With these books and with "The Figure of Beatrice" the reader is fully equipped for studying the religious thought of this brilliant poet, novelist, essayist and historian.
In order to comprehensively study and identify the electromagnetic torque difference among the single static air-gap eccentricity fault, the single stator interturn short circuit fault, and the combined fault composed of these two, this article investigates the EMT ripple properties due to the mentioned three faults. Different from other studies, this paper considers not only the effect of the single fault types but also the impact of the single fault combinations on the EMT ripple characteristics. Detailed EMT expressions for each (...) fault are firstly derived on the basis of the magnetic flux density analysis. Then, finite element calculation and experimental study on a CS-5 prototype generator with two poles at 3000 rpm, which is specifically designed and manufactured ourselves, are carried out to validate the analysis result. It is found that the three faults will induce different ripple components in EMT. The combined faults have the most intensive impact sensitivity on the EMT ripples, while the single SAGE fault ranks the last in the impact effect. (shrink)
The grey system model with time power, which is often called the GM, appeals considerable interest of research due to its effectiveness in time series forecasting. Aimed to improve further the GM model, this paper introduces a new whitening equation with variable coefficient into the original whitening equation which extends applicable scope; as a result, an improved grey model with time power, namely, OGM, is proposed. Firstly, the time response function of the novel model and the restored values of original (...) series are deduced through grey modelling techniques. Secondly, the variable coefficient in the whitening equation and the time power are determined by particle swarm optimization algorithm. Two empirical examples are then used to verify the validity of the novel model. Finally, the novel model is applied to predict the oil consumption of China from 2004 to 2018. Results show the novel model outperforms other commonly-used competitive models, which can well serve a benchmark model for scholars and decision-makers. (shrink)
This study investigates the status quo and influencing factors of death attitudes and death anxiety among medical interns in China as measured by the Death Attitude Scale and Death Anxiety Scale following the outbreak of “Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia” in China in early 2020. Results of this study show that under the influence of COVID-19, in terms of death attitude, medical interns scored the highest in neutral acceptance and the lowest in escape acceptance. There were significant differences in death attitude and (...) anxiety among the groups with different backgrounds, including their families’ approaches to discussions of death, the number of funeral experiences, and other factors. There were two additional factors affecting attitudes that were related to the epidemic situation: whether the individual had participated in work to treat COVID-19 and whether their close friends or relatives had been diagnosed with COVID-19. The study reveals the ways that the epidemic had an impact on death attitude and death anxiety. (shrink)