Results for 'Yasha Sapir'

165 found
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  1. Hedging and the ignorance norm on inquiry.Yasha Sapir & Peter van Elswyk - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):5837-5859.
    What sort of epistemic positions are compatible with inquiries driven by interrogative attitudes like wonder and puzzlement? The ignorance norm provides a partial answer: interrogative attitudes directed at a particular question are never compatible with knowledge of the question’s answer. But some are tempted to think that interrogative attitudes are incompatible with weaker positions like belief as well. This paper defends that the ignorance norm is exhaustive. All epistemic positions weaker than knowledge directed at the answer to a question are (...)
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  2.  59
    Justifying an Intentional Species Extinction: The Case of Anopheles gambiae.Daniel Edward Callies & Yasha Rohwer - 2022 - Environmental Values 31 (2):193-210.
    Each year, over 200 million people are infected with the malaria parasite, nearly half a million of whom succumb to the disease. Emerging genetic technologies could, in theory, eliminate the burden of malaria throughout the world by intentionally eradicating the mosquitoes that transmit the disease. In this paper, we offer an ethical examination of the intentional eradication of Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector of sub-Saharan Africa. In our evaluation, we focus on two main considerations: the benefit of alleviating the (...)
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  3. Hypothetical Pattern Idealization and Explanatory Models.Yasha Rohwer & Collin Rice - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (3):334-355.
    Highly idealized models, such as the Hawk-Dove game, are pervasive in biological theorizing. We argue that the process and motivation that leads to the introduction of various idealizations into these models is not adequately captured by Michael Weisberg’s taxonomy of three kinds of idealization. Consequently, a fourth kind of idealization is required, which we call hypothetical pattern idealization. This kind of idealization is used to construct models that aim to be explanatory but do not aim to be explanations.
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  4. How are Models and Explanations Related?Yasha Rohwer & Collin Rice - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (5):1127-1148.
    Within the modeling literature, there is often an implicit assumption about the relationship between a given model and a scientific explanation. The goal of this article is to provide a unified framework with which to analyze the myriad relationships between a model and an explanation. Our framework distinguishes two fundamental kinds of relationships. The first is metaphysical, where the model is identified as an explanation or as a partial explanation. The second is epistemological, where the model produces understanding that is (...)
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  5.  41
    Thought Manipulation: The Use and Abuse of Psychological Trickery.Sapir Handelman - 2009 - Praeger Publishers.
    This thoroughly intriguing volume explains the many ways our thoughts are manipulated through temptation, distraction, misdirection, and more.
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  6.  17
    Infringing upon Environmental Autonomy with the Aim of Enabling It.Yasha Rohwer - 2022 - Environmental Ethics 44 (1):47-59.
    Part of what makes the environment valuable is its autonomy. There are some who think that any human influence on an environment is necessarily autonomy-compromising because it is a form of human control. In this article, I will assume human influence on the environment necessarily undermines autonomy. However, I will argue, even given this assumption, it is still possible for the intervention to enable autonomy in the long run. My focus is on genetic intervention into organisms, because some might think (...)
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  7.  23
    Language.Edward Sapir - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    A seminal 1921 work by the linguist Edward Sapir, outlining his influential ideas and hypotheses on language and its speakers.
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  8. Lucky understanding without knowledge.Yasha Rohwer - 2014 - Synthese 191 (5):1-15.
    Can one still have understanding in situations that involve the kind of epistemic luck that undermines knowledge? Kvanvig (The value of knowledge and the pursuit of understanding, 2003; in: Haddock A, Miller A, Pritchard D (eds) Epistemic value, 2009a; in: Haddock A, Miller A, Pritchard D (eds) Epistemic value, 2009b) says yes, Prichard (Grazer Philos Stud 77:325–339, 2008; in: O’Hear A (ed) Epistemology, 2009; in: Pritchard D, Millar A, Haddock A (eds) The nature and value of knowledge: three investigations, 2010) (...)
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  9.  33
    Evolution Is Not Good.Yasha Rohwer - 2023 - Environmental Ethics 45 (3):209-221.
    Many environmental ethicists think evolutionary processes are good or, put differently, that they are morally valuable. Furthermore, many claim this value can be compromised when humans disrupt or cause a break in these processes. In this paper, I argue this account is mistaken. Evolution is not good. Furthermore, evolution cannot be “broken” by mere human involvement. There is no preordained trajectory in evolution; randomness, genetic drift, and historical contingency influence all evolutionary histories. Additionally, to think humans necessarily undermine so-called “natural” (...)
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  10.  65
    An Analysis of Potential Ethical Justifications for Mammoth De-extinction And a Call for Empirical Research.Yasha Rohwer & Emma Marris - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (1):127-142.
    We argue that the de-extinction of the mammoth cannot be ethically grounded by duties to the extinct mammoth, to ecosystem health or to individual organisms in ecosystems missing the mammoth. However, the action can be shown to be morally permissible via the goods it will afford humans, including advances in scientific knowledge, valuable experiences of awe and pleasure, and perhaps improvements to our moral character or behaviour—if and only if suffering is minimal. Finally, we call for empirical research into how (...)
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  11.  53
    Is There a Prima Facie Duty to Preserve Genetic Integrity in Conservation Biology?Yasha Rohwer & Emma Marris - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):233-247.
    Some conservation biologists invoke the concept of ‘genetic integrity,’ which they generally assume is a good worth preserving without explicit justification. We examine the question of whether or not there is a prima facie duty to preserve genetic integrity in conservation biology. We examine several possible justifications for the potential duty found in the conservation biology literature. We argue, contra a dominant trend of thought in conservation biology, that there is no prima facie duty to preserve genetic integrity and that (...)
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  12.  39
    A Duty to Cognitively Enhance Animals.Yasha Rohwer - 2018 - Environmental Values 27 (2):137-158.
    In this article I argue that humans have a pro tanto duty to cognitively enhance some animals threatened with extinction. I will use as a case study a particular set of animals: smaller Australian marsupials. Many of these animals are on the brink of extinction thanks to the introduction of the fox and the domestic cat to the continent of Australia. Ecologists conjecture that these marsupials do not have the behavioural flexibility to cope with these introduced predators. By introducing predators, (...)
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  13.  16
    The discovery of Gramicidin S: the Intellectual Transformation of G.F. Gause from Biologist to Researcher of Antibiotics and on its Meaning for the Fate of Russian Genetics.Yasha M. Gall & Mikhail B. Konashev - 2001 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (1):137 - 150.
    The discovery of Gramicidin S is considered to be the outcome of the intellectual transformation of Russian biologist G.F. Gause from simply a biologist to a researcher of antibiotics. Different historical conditions of this change as well as the development of experimental biology itself at this time are analysed in detail. The meaning of Gause's occupation of a new 'niche' in soviet science for the fate of Russian post-war genetics is defined as well.
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  14.  12
    bOOkS IN SUmmary.Sapir Abulafia, Howard Hotson & Richard A. Muller - 2010 - History and Theory 49 (2):447-450.
    James A. Diefenbeck, Wayward Reflections on the History ofPhilosophyThomas R. Flynn Sartre, Foucault and Historical Reason. Volume 1:Toward an Existential Theory of HistoryMark Golden and Peter Toohey Inventing Ancient Culture:Historicism, Periodization and the Ancient WorldZenonas Norkus Istorika: Istorinis IvadasEverett Zimmerman The Boundaries of Fiction: History and theEighteenth‐Century British Novel.
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  15.  91
    The Russian Financial Crisis as it Points up the Failures of Liberalization.Jacques Sapir - 2002 - Diogenes 49 (194):95-104.
    The Russian financial crisis of August 1998, which occurred between the Asian recession and the devaluation of the Brazilian real in January 1999, put a question-mark over many certainties. It demonstrated that the most destructive speculative activities of financial players can only have free rein when there is a collapse of the state. The crisis proved that the markets need a state and cannot replace it. It was also the moment when people became aware of the dynamics of a globalized (...)
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  16.  75
    Hierarchy maintenance, coalition formation, and the origins of altruistic punishment.Yasha Rohwer - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):802-812.
    Game theory has played a critical role in elucidating the evolutionary origins of social behavior. Sober and Wilson model altruism as a prisoner's dilemma and claim that this model indicates that altruism arose from group selection pressures. Sober and Wilson also suggest that the prisoner's dilemma model can be used to characterize punishment; hence, punishment too originated from group selection pressures. However, empirical evidence suggests that a group selection model of the origins of altruistic punishment may be insufficient. I argue (...)
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  17.  88
    Explanatory schema and the process of model building.Collin Rice, Yasha Rohwer & André Ariew - 2019 - Synthese 196 (11):4735-4757.
    In this paper, we argue that rather than exclusively focusing on trying to determine if an idealized model fits a particular account of scientific explanation, philosophers of science should also work on directly analyzing various explanatory schemas that reveal the steps and justification involved in scientists’ use of highly idealized models to formulate explanations. We develop our alternative methodology by analyzing historically important cases of idealized statistical modeling that use a three-step explanatory schema involving idealization, mathematical operation, and explanatory interpretation.
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  18. And the theory of evolution.Yasha Gall - 2011 - Ludus Vitalis 19 (35):1-15.
     
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  19. Bases conceptuales de la síntesis entre ecología de poblaciones, genética y teoría de la evolución.Yasha Gall - 1994 - Ludus Vitalis 2 (3):5-14.
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  20. Special Issue in Honour of the late Mirko D. Grmek-The Discovery of Gramicidin S: The Intellectual Transformation of GF Gause from Biologist to Researcher of Antibiotics and on its Meaning for the.Yasha M. Gall & Mikhail B. Konashev - 2001 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (1):137-150.
     
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  21. The botanist vn Sukachev and the development of Darwin's ideas in russia1.Yasha Gall - 2009 - Ludus Vitalis 17 (31):25-32.
     
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  22.  35
    Gene Drives, Species, and Compassion for Individuals in Conservation Biology.Yasha Rohwer - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 23 (3):243-260.
    1. Traditional conservation biology has focused on two goals: preserving and protecting biodiversity and ecosystem integrity (e.g., Noss, 2001; Soulé, 1985). When species go extinct, this reduces b...
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  23.  53
    Galton, reversion and the quincunx: The rise of statistical explanation.André Ariew, Yasha Rohwer & Collin Rice - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 66:63-72.
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  24. Grading, a study in semantics.Edward Sapir - 1944 - Philosophy of Science 11 (2):93-116.
    The first thing to realize about grading as a psychological process is that it precedes measurement and counting. Judgments of the type “A is larger than B” or “This can contains less milk than that” are made long before it is possible to say, e.g., “A is twice as large as B” or “A has a volume of 25 cubic feet, B a volume of 20 cubic feet, therefore A is larger than B by 5 cubic feet,” or “This can (...)
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  25. A study in phonetic symbolism.E. Sapir - 1929 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 12 (3):225.
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  26. Measuring away an attentional confound?Jorge Morales, Yasha Mouradi, Claire Sergent, Ned Block, Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, David Rosenthal, Piercesare Grimaldi & Hakwan Lau - 2017 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 3 (1):1-3.
    A recent fMRI study by Webb et al. (Cortical networks involved in visual awareness independent of visual attention, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113:13923–28) proposes a new method for finding the neural correlates of awareness by matching atten- tion across awareness conditions. The experimental design, however, seems at odds with known features of attention. We highlight logical and methodological points that are critical when trying to disentangle attention and awareness.
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  27. General causal propensities, classical and quantum probabilities.David Sapire - 1992 - Philosophical Papers 21 (3):243-258.
  28.  35
    Metaphysical relativism: The universe as a bottomless pit.David Sapire - 1979 - Philosophical Papers 8 (2):66-68a.
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  29.  14
    Using Plant Biotechnology to Save ʻŌhiʻa Lehua: Western and Indigenous Conservation Perspectives.Yasha Rohwer - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment.
    1. In this paper I will explore the moral permissibility of a possible genetic intervention to save the ʻōhiʻa lehua tree from fungal pathogens from two different metaphysical perspectives: western...
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  30.  95
    How to Reconcile a Unified Account of Explanation with Explanatory Diversity.Collin Rice & Yasha Rohwer - 2020 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1025-1047.
    The concept of explanation is central to scientific practice. However, scientists explain phenomena in very different ways. That is, there are many different kinds of explanation; e.g. causal, mechanistic, statistical, or equilibrium explanations. In light of the myriad kinds of explanation identified in the literature, most philosophers of science have adopted some kind of explanatory pluralism. While pluralism about explanation seems plausible, it faces a dilemma Explanation beyond causation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 39–56, 2018). Either there is nothing that (...)
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  31.  54
    10. Referees for Philosophy of Science Referees for Philosophy of Science (pp. 479-482).Justin Garson, Yasha Rohwer, Collin Rice, Matteo Colombo, Peter Brössel, Davide Rizza, Simon M. Huttegger, Richard Healey, Alyssa Ney & Kathryn Phillips - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (3):334-355.
    Highly idealized models, such as the Hawk-Dove game, are pervasive in biological theorizing. We argue that the process and motivation that leads to the introduction of various idealizations into these models is not adequately captured by Michael Weisberg’s taxonomy of three kinds of idealization. Consequently, a fourth kind of idealization is required, which we call hypothetical pattern idealization. This kind of idealization is used to construct models that aim to be explanatory but do not aim to be explanations.
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  32.  12
    La variación geográfica y la evolución: la síntesis: la síntesis.Igor Popoff & Yasha Gall - 1999 - Ludus Vitalis 7 (12):7-26.
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  33.  14
    Gibt es ein sprachliches Relativitätsprinzip?Helmut Gipper, Edward Sapir & Benjamin Lee Whorf - 1972 - S. Fischer.
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  34.  80
    Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language, Culture, and Personality. Edited by David G. Mandelbaum. [With a Bibliography of the Writings of E. Sapir.].Edward Sapir & David Goodman Mandelbaum - 1949 - University of California Press.
  35. The Optimality of the Expert and Majority Rules Under Exponentially Distributed Competence.Luba Sapir - 1998 - Theory and Decision 45 (1):19-36.
    We study the uncertain dichotomous choice model. In this model a set of decision makers is required to select one of two alternatives, say ‘support’ or ‘reject’ a certain proposal. Applications of this model are relevant to many areas, such as political science, economics, business and management. The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare the probabilities that different decision rules may be optimal. We consider the expert rule, the majority rule and a few in-between rules. The information (...)
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  36.  13
    The Protection of Holy Places.Gideon Sapir & Daniel Statman - 2016 - The Law and Ethics of Human Rights (1).
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  37.  4
    Reading Citizen Ruth Her Rights.Al-Yasha Ilhaam - 2009 - In Sandra Shapshay (ed.), Bioethics at the movies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 32.
  38. Toward a methodology for technocratic transformation : feminist bioethics, midwifery, and women's health in the twenty-first century.Al-Yasha Ilhaam & Ina May Gaskin - 2010 - In Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel Baldwin-Ragaven & Petya Fitzpatrick (eds.), Feminist Bioethics: At the Center, on the Margins. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  39.  23
    The nature of the future: An ecocritical model.Al-Yasha Ilhaam - 2009 - Ethics and the Environment 14 (2):pp. 139-151.
    Sociopolitical philosophies such as feminism, postcolonialism, and environmentalism can interact with traditional African cultural practices in dynamic and complex ways. This paper employs Val Plumwood's ecofeminist deconstruction of dualism to analyze the relationship between traditional and modern culture in postcolonial African literature, with a focus on the practice of bride price as depicted in the 1974 play, The Challenge of Fende by Cameroonian author Victor Musinga.
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  40.  6
    State and Religion in Israel: A Philosophical-Legal Inquiry.Gideon Sapir & Daniel Statman - 2018 - New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Daniel Statman.
    State and Religion in Israel begins with a philosophical analysis of the two main questions regarding the role of religion in liberal states: should such states institute a 'Wall of Separation' between state and religion? Should they offer religious practices and religious communities special protection? Gideon Sapir and Daniel Statman argue that liberalism in not committed to Separation, but is committed to granting religion a unique protection, albeit a narrower one than often assumed. They then use Israel as a (...)
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  41.  59
    General causation.David Sapire - 1991 - Synthese 86 (3):321 - 347.
    This paper outlines a general theory of efficient causation, a theory that deals in a unified way with traditional or deterministic, indeterministic, probabilistic, and other causal concepts. Theorists like Lewis, Salmon, and Suppes have attempted to broaden our causal perspective by reductively analysing causal notions in other terms. By contrast, the present theory rests in the first place on a non-reductive analysis of traditional causal concepts — into formal or structural components, on the one hand, and a physical or metaphysical (...)
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  42.  11
    Histoires de temps.Jacques Sapir - forthcoming - Rhuthmos.
    Ce texte a déjà paru sur RussEurope le 6 mars 2015. Nous remercions Jacques Sapir de nous avoir autorisé à le reproduire ici. L'analyse des formes économiques qui commencent à se coaguler en Russie depuis 2000 suggère le retour à un modèle de développement où le poids de l'État sera particulièrement important, que ce soit sous des formes directes ou indirectes. Dans le même temps, ces formes économiques ne sont pas sans rappeler celles que l'on trouvait dans le modèle (...)
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  43.  12
    Réponse à Deleplace et Orléan.Jacques Sapir - 2002 - Multitudes 2 (2):196-201.
    In responding to G. Delplace, J. Sapir specifies that he defends a methodological « holist-subjectivist » position, in which the individual behaviours are influenced by collective contexts, constituting an alternative to the Theory of General Balance. In responding to A. Orléan, he confirms his opposition to a vision that rends currency the economical institution or the central social relation. The monetary crisis expressed by the return of barter et the fragmentation off the subsisting monetary space will find no other (...)
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  44.  19
    The Protection of Holy Places.Gideon Sapir & Daniel Statman - 2016 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 10 (1):135-155.
    Journal Name: The Law & Ethics of Human Rights Issue: Ahead of print.
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  45. Why freedom of religion does not include freedom from religion.Gidon Sapir & Daniel Statman - 2004 - Law and Philosophy 24 (5):467-508.
  46.  25
    κν́βδα, a Karian Glossknbda, a Karian Gloss.Edward Sapir - 1936 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 56 (1):85.
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  47.  18
    Baroque Science, Experimental Art? Jusepe de Ribera and other Neapolitan Sceptics.Itay Sapir - 2021 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 44 (1):26-43.
    Current attempts by historians of science to revise the narrative of the Scientific Revolution by using the concept of the Baroque have important implications for art history. Correspondences between baroque art and baroque science gain new complexity when the rational, epistemologically optimistic image of the New Science is put in doubt. Rather than a method of objective observation, early seventeenth‐century science and art share an acceptance of the constructed nature of reality, of human epistemological limitations and of the role of (...)
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  48.  29
    Comparison of the Polar Decision Rules for Various Types of Distributions.Luba Sapir - 2004 - Theory and Decision 56 (3):325-343.
    We focus on the dichotomous choice model, which goes back as far as Condorcet (1785; Essai sur l'application de l'analyse a la probabilité des décisions rendues a la pluralité des voix, Paris). A group of experts is required to select one of two alternatives, of which exactly one is regarded as correct. The alternatives may be related to a wide variety of areas. A decision rule translates the individual opinions of the members into a group decision. A decision rule is (...)
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  49.  57
    Determinism, the remote past, and the causal or determinational structure of the universe.David Sapire - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (3):474-483.
    Łukasiewicz and, more recently, other philosophers have cast doubts on arguments from one version of determinism to another: roughly, from the view that every event (condition, state) has a cause or is determined, to the view that the remotest possible past determines the present and future. This paper defends a special class of such arguments. It identifies constraints on the relation of determination under which the arguments concerned are valid. And, by reference to the overall causal or determinational structure of (...)
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  50. Freedom; a psychiatrist's approach.Milton Richard Sapirśtein - 1950 - [New York,: New York Society for Ethical Culture.
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