The essay offers lyrical and philosophical-aesthetic reflections on the power and unpredictability of the feeling of love, as celebrated in different times in the “Song of Songs,” in Russian philosopher Vladimir Soloviev's sophiology, and in the poetic work of Oscar Wilde and Russian religious poet Nikolai Klyuev.
Le livre de Yana Grinshpun est consacré à une particule qui a peu attiré l’attention jusqu’ici, probablement parce que son usage est réservé au discours écrit littéraire. Dans une première partie historique, l’auteure présente sommairement l’emploi de la particule en grec ancien, en latin et en français puis analyse son traitement dans les grammaires depuis l’Antiquité et dans les dictionnaires français du XVIe-XIXe siècles. Outre la caractérisation incertaine de ô – tantôt considéré comme in..
The article reveals the peculiarities of spreading Reformation ideas in Slovakia during the first half of the sixteenth century. It is emphasized that Reformation ideas were being distributed on the territory of Slovakia in three ways; the Quirinal, in particular, Queen Mary played a significant role in these processes. Leonard Stöckel, a distinguished teacher, theologian, humanist, nevertheless, contributed greatly to the development of these processes. He is the author of «Confessio Pentapolitana», which is one of the oldest documents on the (...) history of Hungarian Protestantism serving as the basis for accepting the forthcoming Symbols of Faith. Stöckel’s outlook was formed under the influence of the European Enlightenment. He established new contacts: Stöckel made friends with an eminent European humanist – Philipp Melanchthon, who was his teacher. The proof of it is a joint edition of Melanchthon’s «Loci communes» and Comments on «Loci communes», which was published posthumously in Basel in 1561. Consequently, at the request of residents of Bardejov L. Stöckel became the headmaster of the town school. In the summer of 1539 he left Wittenberg. L. Stöckel’s return to his hometown Bardejov marked the beginning of a new period in his life. He deceased in 1560. (shrink)
Ockhamlı William’dan bu yana çeşitli biçim alışlarla karşımıza çıkan dilde sadeleşme hareketi, 20. Yüzyılda analitik dil felsefesinin kurucuları tarafından farklı bir boyuta taşınmış, mantıksal pozitivizmde ise zirveye ulaşmıştır. Doğa bilimsel yöntemlerin etkisiyle şekillenen ve modern mantık alanında yapılan özgün ve nitelikli çalışmaların etkisiyle yetkinleşen bu anlayış, felsefenin metafizik problemlerini dil bağlamında ele almaktadır. Bu görüşün savunucuları, getirmiş oldukları bir dizi ölçüt aracılığıyla anlamlı olan ve olmayan ifadeler arasında ayrım yapmayı hedeflemişlerdir. Felsefi gelenekteki çözümsüz görünen “anlamsız” metafizik tartışmaları “elimine etmeyi” (...) amaçlayan bu hareketin vardığı son noktada, olgusal bir karşılığı bulunmayan ve mantıksal sözdizimi kurallarına uymayan her ifade, metafiziğin kalıntısı olmakla itham edilmektedir. Adorno ve Horkheimer’a göre spekülatif felsefeye yönelik gerçekleştirilen bu saldırı, Aydınlanma’nın dili mitostan arındırma çabalarının doruk noktasıdır. Onlara göre analitik dil felsefesinin olgucu filozoflarının felsefelerinde dilin anlam taşımasına müsaade edilmemekte ve yalnızca gösterge işlevi dikkate alınmaktadır. Dil, bir formül olarak katılaşarak soyutlaşmakta ve formüle uymayan her düşünce solup gitmektedir. Bu anlayış, spekülatif felsefe geleneğindeki felsefi sistemlerin unsurları olan etik, estetik, yaşamın anlamı gibi konuların felsefeden tasfiye edilmesine yol açmıştır. Adorno ve Horkheimer’a göre varlık alanındaki niteliksel farklılıkların göz ardı edilmesi, insanın şeyleşmesi ve kendi özüne yabancılaşmasına sebep olmuş, bireyin gizilgüçlerini kaybettiği bu ortamda toplumsal dönüşümün imkanı da ortadan kalkmıştır. (shrink)
Mantık tarihi ondokuzuncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısından bu yana matematiğin temelleriyle ilgili soruların yanıtlanmasına sahne olmuştur. Bugün tarihsel gelişiminin bir sonucu olarak mantık bilgisayar kullanımı aracılığıyla yaşam ile etkileşmektedir. Bu yazıda söz konusu etkileşimin geleceğine ilişkin bilgisel ufukların geçmişte hangi soruları yanıtlamak amacıyla belirlendiği çok kısaca özetlenmektedir.
Tarihte Aydınlanma adıyla bilinen dönemden bu yana metafizik, “bilimsel” olanın karşısına konumlandırılmıştır. Kabaca söyleyecek olursak Aydınlanma düşüncesi, bir zamanlar dünyayı açıklama ve onu anlamlandırmanın yegane yolu olan metafiziği hurafe ve safsata olarak görme, buna karşılık deneyime ve olgulara itibar etme eğilimindedir. Biz bu çalışmada, metafiziğe mesafeli olmak konusunda birleşen ve felsefelerinde genel olarak deneyimden ve olgulardan yana tavır takındığını söyleyebileceğimiz iki filozof olan Ludwig Wittgenstein ve William James’i karşılaştırdık. Herhangi iki şey arasında kıyaslama yapabilmek, ortak unsurların asgari düzeyde (...) varlığını gerektirir. Biz bahsi geçen iki düşünürü onların “doğruluk” anlayışları ve buna paralel olarak metafiziği değerlendirme biçimleri bağlamında ele aldık. Wittgenstein’a göre dünya hakkında öznellikten arınmış objektif bilgiye erişmek mümkündür. Ona göre psikoloji, epistemolojiden kesin olarak ayrılmalıdır. Doğruluğun süzgeci dildeki mantıksal form, nesneleri de olgulardır. Bu koşulları yerine getirmeyen tümceler anlamdan yoksundur. Metafiziğin kendisine konu edindiği nesneler, üzerine konuşulamayanlardır. Onlar “gösterilebilir” fakat dile getirilemezler. Oysa James için durum farklıdır. Ona göre olgular kendi başlarına doğru veya yanlış olamazlar. Doğruluk James’e göre zihnin deneyim süreçleriyle şekillenmektedir ve esnek bir yapıdadır. Mevcut inanç stokumuz ile uyumlu olan ve pratik olarak bir fark yaratabilen her türden düşünce doğruluk vasfını yerine getirmeye hak kazanacaktır. James’e göre psikoloji, doğrulanma süreçlerinden ve doğrunun kendisinden bağımsız değildir. (shrink)
The present collection brings together for the first time Rowe's most significant contributions to the philosophy of religion. This diverse but representative selection of Rowe's writings will provide students, professional scholars as well as general readers with stimulating and accessible discussions on such topics as the philosophical theology of Paul Tillich, the problem of evil, divine freedom, arguments for the existence of God, religious experience, life after death, and religious pluralism.
This is a collection of essays on themes of legal philosophy which have all been generated or affected by Hart's work. The topics covered include legal theory, responsibility, and enforcement of morals, with contributions from Ronald Dworkin, Rolf Sartorius, Neil MacCormach, David Lyons, Kent Greenawalt, Michael Moore, Joseph Raz, and C.L. Ten, among others.
In this volume, Savas L. Tsohatzidis brings together a team of leading experts to provide up-to-date perspectives on the work of J. L. Austin, a major figure in twentieth-century philosophy and an important contributor to theories of language, truth, perception, and knowledge. Focusing on aspects of Austin's writings in these four areas, the volume's ten original essays critically examine central elements of his philosophy, exploring their interrelationships, their historical context, their reception, and their implications for key issues of contemporary philosophical (...) research. The volume deepens our understanding of Austin's philosophy while illustrating its continuing significance, and will appeal to students and scholars of modern philosophy, particularly to those interested in the philosophy of language and epistemology. (shrink)
This cutting-edge monograph has extensively demonstrated that allegoresis was part and parcel of philosophy, and more specifically a tool of philosophical theology, in Stoicism and Middle and Neoplatonism, “pagan” and Christian alike. Many Stoics and ‘pagan’ Platonists applied philosophical allegoresis to theological myths, and this operation provided the link between theology and physics (in the case of the Stoics) or metaphysics (in the case of the Platonists). Many Christian Platonists in turn, starting from Clement and Origen, applied philosophical allegoresis to (...) the theological discourse in Scripture. [Arguments in this monograph, and further in more recent essays in English in International Journal of the Classical Tradition, Jahrbuch für Religionsphilosophie, Mnemosyne Supplements, the Brill Companion to the Reception of Homer, etc.]. This research is also extremely relevant to the intertwining of philosophy and religion in antiquity and late antiquity. It investigates one of the ways in which religion became part of the philosophical discourse, and at the same time philosophy became indispensable to religion, be this traditional “pagan” mythology and cults or newly expanding Christianity. Monograph in nine chapters plus bibliography. Chaps. I (before Stoicism), II (Ancient Stoa), III (Apollodorus and Crates of Mallus), IV (Palaephatus, his followers, and Conon), V (Cicero, Philodemus, Lucretius and other Epicureans; Philo and Josephus), VI (Cornutus and other Roman Stoics; Cornutus and Heraclitus: a comparison), VII (Chaeremon, Cebetis Tabula, Ecphantus, De vita et poësi Homeri, Plutarch), and IX (conclusions) and Bibliography by I. Ramelli; chap. VIII (Heraclitus Rhetor) by G. Lucchetta. Pp. 550. (shrink)
Il libro, diviso in quattro sezioni, mette in luce un'indagine storica del tutto originale di documenti noti e meno noti sulla figura di Gesù in fonti non cristiane del I secolo; su come il cristianesimo fu conosciuto a Roma già nel I secolo; sulle allusioni al cristianesimo nei romanzi e nelle satire pagane del I-II secolo; su alcuni esempi della prima diffusione del cristianesimo dal Vicino Oriente all'India.
Over the past years, various accounts of ethical consumption have been produced which identify certain concepts as central to mediating the ethical relationship between the consumer and the consumed. Scholars across disciplinary fields have explored how individuals construe their ethical consumption responsibilities and commitments through the notions of identity, taking care and doing good, proximity and distance, suggesting the centrality of these themes to consumer engagement in ethical practices. This paper contributes to the body of research concerned with unravelling consumers’ (...) conceptually mediated relationship to moral and ethical issues in the sphere of consumption by revealing a new set of ideas through which people interpret and relate to consumption ethics. Drawing upon findings from an empirical study on self-perceived ethical food consumers, I demonstrate that people’s perceptions and views of ethical problems around consumption are bound up with notions of vulnerability, suffering, and harm, and that these notions permeate and impact all aspects of ethical consumer behaviour. The paper concludes by arguing that we need to further explore the conceptual underpinnings of ethical consumer commitments and practices, and expand the conceptual toolkit of research on ethical consumption to account for a wider range of ideas and notions that shape individual as well as collective motivations, intentions, and actions throughout the process of becoming and being an ethical consumer. Finally, the paper suggests a specific analytical framework to facilitate such research. (shrink)
I explore some of the ways that assumptions about the nature of substance shape metaphysical debates about the structure of Reality. Assumptions about the priority of substance play a role in an argument for monism, are embedded in certain pluralist metaphysical treatments of laws of nature, and are central to discussions of substantivalism and relationalism. I will then argue that we should reject such assumptions and collapse the categorical distinction between substance and property.
In the late 1830s and early 1840s Hans. L. Martensen helped to introduce the thought of G.W.F. Hegel to the intellectual world of Copenhagen. Between Hegel and Kierkegaard offers the first English translations of three important early writings of Martensen in the philsophy of religion. These treatises evidence an original and critical interpretation of Hegel's thought from a speculative theological point of view. The heart of Martensen's philosophy of religion is the idea of freedom or personality grounded in its relation (...) to the divine. These writings exercised an important and formative influence on the young Kierkegaard, Martensen's student, even though Kierkegaard later became a formidable opponent and critic of Martensen. (shrink)
The interconnections, common interests, and other linkages between the Jewish and Islamic traditions have long been a matter of interest to academics. Today the need to understand these relationships, and to emphasize commonalities rather than conflicts, is of the greatest public interest. The present volume of studies, likely the first such collection in the scholarly literature, explores the full range of interconnections between Jews and Muslims in all fields (intellectual history, religion, philosophy, social history, etc.) and in all periods, from (...) the Middle Ages till today. The essays have been written by some twenty distinguished scholars from North America, Europe, and Israel. The volume is dedicated to our esteemed colleague Joel L. Kraemer, John Barrows Professor Emeritus in the Divinity School and on the Committee on Social Thought of the University of Chicago. In the course of his distinguished career Professor Kraemer has made major contributions to our understanding of the intellectual and cultural history of the Jews in the Arabic world, Islamic and Jewish philosophy and their sources in ancient philosophy, the humanistic renaissance in Islam (on which he published two seminal monographs), and Maimonides (on which he has published many important papers and is completing a biography and a translation of Maimonides' letters, to appear in the Yale Judaica Series). (shrink)
We prove that modal definability with respect to the class of all structures with two commuting equivalence relations is an undecidable problem. The construction used in the proof shows that the same is true for the subclass of all finite structures. For that reason we prove that the first-order theories of these classes are undecidable and reduce the latter problem to the former.
This is an extremely thorough revision of the leading textbook of bioethics. The authors have made many improvements in style, organization, argument and content. These changes reflect advances in the bioethics literature over the past five years. The most dramatic expansions of the text are in the comprehensiveness with which the authors treat different currents in ethical theory and the greater breadth and depth of their discussion of public policy and public health issues. In every chapter, readers will find new (...) material and refinements of old discussions. This is evident in the many new sections on topics like communitarianism, ethics of care, relationship-based accounts, casuistry, case-based reasoning, principle-based common-morality theories, the justification of assistance in dying, rationing through priorities in the health care budget, and virtues in professional roles. The most extensive revisions are in chapters 1, 2 and 8. (shrink)
Knud Ejler Løgstrup’s _The Ethical Demand_ is the most original influential Danish contribution to moral philosophy in this century. This is the first time that the complete text has been available in English translation. Originally published in 1956, it has again become the subject of widespread interest in Europe, now read in the context of the whole of Løgstrup’s work. _The Ethical Demand_ marks a break not only with utilitarianism and with Kantianism but also with Kierkegaard’s Christian existentialism and with (...) all forms of subjectivism. Yet Løgstrup’s project is not destructive. Rather, it is a presentation of an alternative understanding of interpersonal life. The ethical demand presupposes that all interaction between human beings involves a basic trust. Its content cannot be derived from any rule. For Løgstrup, there is not Christian morality and secular morality. There is only human morality. _The Ethical Demand _is of the highest relevance to contemporary debate, especially around those issues raised by Levinas. It will exert a steadily increasing influence both in theology and philosophy. (shrink)
У статті досліджено взаємозв'язок проблеми самотності та самогубства. Встановлено, що причиною виникнення самотності є втрата почуття єдності людини зі світом та нерозв'язність екзистенційних потреб людського буття. Визначено, що умовою подолання стану самотності й запобігання самогубству є формування почуття єдності людини зі світом.
This paper provides a detailed comparison between discourse representation theory and dependent type semantics, two frameworks for discourse semantics. Although it is often stated that DRT and those frameworks based on dependent types are mutually exchangeable, we argue that they differ with respect to variable handling, more specifically, how substitution and other operations on variables are defined. This manifests itself in two recalcitrant problems posed for DRT; namely, the overwrite problem and the duplication problem. We will see that these problems (...) still pose a challenge for various extended compositional systems based on DRT, while they do not arise in a framework of DTS where substitution and other operations are defined in the standard type-theoretic manner without stipulating any additional constraints. We also compare the notions of contexts underlying these two kinds of frameworks, namely, contexts represented as assignment functions and contexts represented as proof terms, and see what different predictions they make for some linguistic examples. (shrink)
Results of marketing studies of consumption motivations and preferences at choosing bread for special dietary consumption are presented. It has been established, that 18 % of questioned give advantage to bread with a decreased amount of carbohydrates; 17 % of respondents consume bread without gluten; 13 % give preference to products, including nutrients; 10 % by iodine-containing bread; 7 % and 6 % of questioned give preference to bread with a content of soya and entersorbents. It has been established, that (...) bread with a content of carotene and lecithin is not widely demanded among respondents as 3 % for each one. Studies of % of preferences by flour types in the bread composition allowed to make conclusions that 19 and 17 % of respondents give preference to corn and buckwheat flour due to a higher content of healthy substances, it is also an important advantage that these flour types don’t contain cellulose complexes, present in the composition of wheat and barley flour, preferred by 14 and 11 % of questioned, respectively. It has been established by the experimental way, that 20 % of questioned persons feel a lack of bread with an increased content of protein at the market. 15, 12 and 10 % of respondents want widening the assortment of bread with an increased content of macroelements, vitamins and microelements. 13 and 10 % of questioned feel a lack at the market in such physiological-functional ingredients as polyunsaturated fatty acids and products of gluten-free flour. 8 % of respondents want to see in the retail network products with a content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. 9 % feel a lack of bread with a content of probiotics, 3 % of oligosaccharides. Based on the obtained results, there have been determined consumption advantages: a modern consumer gives preference to products with the improved content, usual organoleptic parameters, long storage term, low price. He/she is guided by the following criteria at buying bread: food value, caloric value, prophylactic properties. (shrink)
Robert Stern has argued that Levinas is a kind of command theorist and that, for this reason, Løgstrup can be understood to have provided an argument against Levinas. In this paper, I discuss Levinas’s use of the vocabulary of demand, order, and command in the light of Jewish philosophical accounts of such notions in the work of Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and Emil Fackenheim. These accounts revise the traditional Jewish idea of command and I show that Levinas’s use of this (...) vocabulary is also revisionary. I show that in light of this tradition of discussion, Levinas’s use is not susceptible to the interpretation Stern proposes and thus that the Løgstrup-style argument cannot be used against Levinas. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the problem of the distribution of intergovernmental transfers in Ukraine, taking into account fiscal decentralization trends. To perform the delegated functions, local governments need to have sufficient funding. However, the revenues of local budgets are insufficient to cover all necessary expenses. Therefore, inter-budget transfers, which in Ukraine are the main instrument of financial equalization, play an important role in ensuring the implementation of delegated powers by local governments. The aim of the article is determination of (...) the priorities for the distribution of intergovernmental transfers in Ukraine in the context of fiscal decentralization. The research methodology combines quantitative and qualitative methods. Using quantitative methods, the principles of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine are observed through the mechanism of distribution of intergovernmental transfers. Using high-quality methods and based on the analysis, the priorities of the distribution of inter-budget transfers in the context of fiscal decentralization are formulated. An analysis of foreign publications on fiscal decentralization has shown that the uncertainty of priorities in this area reduces the effectiveness of fiscal decentralization and inhibits the economic development of regions. Prioritization of the distribution of intergovernmental transfers is preceded by the definition of principles for the distribution of intergovernmental transfers. Based on the results of a quantitative analysis, namely, the identified dynamics of fiscal decentralization indicators and the impact of the distribution of intergovernmental transfers on economic development, the following priorities for the distribution of intergovernmental transfers in fiscal decentralization are identified: supporting the prevalence of targeted transfers over non-targeted transfers, increasing the share of capital transfers, increasing the accountability of local authorities self-government regarding the use of funds received in the form of intergovernmental budget transfers. (shrink)
Le théisme est la position métaphysique au cœur des religions monothéistes : il est l’affirmation qu’il existe un Dieu omniscient, omnipotent, parfaitement bon et créateur. Penser l’objet de ces croyances, à savoir Dieu, suppose donc une étude des catégories métaphysiques nécessaires à l’explicitation du théisme. Loin de tout rationalisme étroit et de toute exaltation mystique, le présent ouvrage mobilise les outils de la philosophie contemporaine afin de mettre au jour les choix théoriques qui sont requis pour concevoir un Dieu compris (...) comme l’être ayant toutes les perfections. Les questions du réalisme, de la vérité, du premier principe, du possible et du nécessaire sont étudiées aussi bien à partir du contenu des croyances religieuses que de la métaphysique analytique contemporaine, en réponse aux critiques de Kant et de Heidegger. Car avant même de s’interroger sur l’existence ou sur l’inexistence d’un tel Dieu, ou encore de discuter de la rationalité ou de l’irrationalité des croyances religieuses, ce sont les outils conceptuels pour penser un Dieu qu’il nous faut examiner philosophiquement. (shrink)