Während die bisherige Forschung überwiegend auf Rekonstruktion und Analyse des philosophischen und pädagogischen Werkes von Theodor Litt bezogen war, konzentrieren sich gegenwärtige Untersuchungen bedingt durch die Zunahme von ...
Truth is one of the most debated topics in philosophy; Wolfgang Kunne presents a comprehensive critical examination of all major theories, from Aristotle to the present day. He argues that it is possible to give a satisfactory 'modest' account of truth without invoking problematic notions like correspondence, fact, or meaning. The clarity of exposition and the wealth of examples will make Conceptions of Truth an invaluable and stimulating guide for advanced students and scholars.
Die Reden des Studentenpfarrers Bolzano -- Von den Grausamkeiten der Christen an den Juden -- Über den Mut -- Über den Selbstmord -- Über das Verhältnis der beiden Volksstä̕mme in Böhmen -- Über Lug und Trug -- Die Edition der Reden in der Bolzano-Gesamtasugabe : Korrekturen, Konjekturen und Annotationen -- Anhang: Sprachliche Eigentümlichkeiten der Schriften Bolzanos und ihrer Editionen im 19. Jahrhundert.
Inhalt: Vorbemerkung Kommentar Titel Vorrede Erster Teil Zweiter Teil Dritter Teil Benutzte Literatur a)Zeitgenossen und Vorläufer Fichtes b)Moderne Interpreten Sachregister zum Fichte-Text Verzeichnis der zitierten Arbeiten Fichtes.
Nobel Laureate in physics Wolfgang Pauli studied philosophy and the history of ideas intensively, especially in his later years, to form an accurate ontology vis-à-vis quantum theory. Pauli's close contacts with the Swiss psychiatrist C.G. Jung gave him special qualifications for also understanding the basic problems of empirical knowledge. After Pauli's sudden death in 1958, this work was maintained mainly in his posthumously published correspondence, which so far extends only to 1939. Because Pauli's view differs essentially from the direction (...) physics research took after the deaths of the founding fathers of quantum theory, this article attempts to describe the main features in Pauli's revolutionary thought, which is based on nature's “epistemological lesson” as revealed by Pauli's atomic research. Pauli's conclusions have important implications for various issues in Western culture, not least with the limits of science and the relation of science to religion. (shrink)
An action-oriented perspective changes the role of an individual from a passive observer to an actively engaged agent interacting in a closed loop with the world as well as with others. Cognition exists to serve action within a landscape that contains both. This chapter surveys this landscape and addresses the status of the pragmatic turn. Its potential influence on science and the study of cognition are considered (including perception, social cognition, social interaction, sensorimotor entrainment, and language acquisition) and its impact (...) on how neuroscience is studied is also investigated (with the notion that brains do not passively build models, but instead support the guidance of action). A review of its implications in robotics and engineering includes a discussion of the application of enactive control principles to couple action and perception in robotics as well as the conceptualization of system design in a more holistic, less modular manner. Practical applications that can impact the human condition are reviewed (e.g., educational applications, treatment possibilities for developmental and psychopathological disorders, the development of neural prostheses). All of this foreshadows the potential societal implications of the pragmatic turn. The chapter concludes that an action-oriented approach emphasizes a continuum of interaction between technical aspects of cognitive systems and robotics, biology, psychology, the social sciences, and the humanities, where the individual is part of a grounded cultural system. (shrink)
The systems Kα of transfinite cumulative types up to α are extended to systems K∞α that include a natural infinitary inference rule, the so-called limit rule. For countable α a semantic completeness theorem for K∞α is proved by the method of reduction trees, and it is shown that every model of K∞α is equivalent to a cumulative hierarchy of sets. This is used to show that several axiomatic first-order set theories can be interpreted in K∞α, for suitable α.
Background: The Parkinsonian [i.e., Parkinson's disease ] gait disorder represents a therapeutical challenge with residual symptoms despite the use of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and medical and rehabilitative strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different DBS modes as combined stimulation of the STN and substantia nigra and environmental rehabilitative factors as footwear on gait kinematics.Methods: This single-center, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial assessed shod and unshod gait in patients with PD with (...) medication in different DBS conditions during different gait tasks and compared gait characteristics to healthy controls. Notably, 15 patients participated in the study, and 11 patients were analyzed after a dropout of four patients due to DBS-induced side effects.Results: Gait was modulated by both factors, namely, footwear and DBS mode, in patients with PD. Footwear impacted gait characteristics in patients with PD similarly to controls with longer step length, lower cadence, and shorter single-support time. Interestingly, DBS exerted specific effects depending on gait tasks with increased cognitive load. STN+SN DBS was the most efficient DBS mode compared to STIM OFF and STN DBS with intense effects as step length increment during dual task.Conclusion: The PD gait disorder is a multifactorial symptom, impacted by environmental factors as footwear and modulated by DBS. DBS effects on gait were specific depending on the gait task, with the most obvious effects with STN+SN DBS during gait with increased cognitive load. (shrink)
This paper investigates whether managerial rhetoric in the Management Discussion and Analysis section of 10-K filings can help gauge the level of managerial opportunism in a firm. We find that the use of trust-related words is connected to inefficient investment decisions and poor operating performance. Furthermore, firms making more frequent use of trust-related words are subject to less monitoring by institutional investors or analysts. Their accounting also relies more heavily on discretionary accruals. These results are consistent with the notion that (...) managerial rhetoric to advertise trustworthiness points towards agency problems plaguing the firm. (shrink)
BackgroundFreezing of gait is a disabling burden for Parkinson’s disease patients with poor response to conventional therapies. Combined deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra moved into focus as a potential therapeutic option to treat the parkinsonian gait disorder and refractory FoG. The mechanisms of action of DBS within the cortical-subcortical-basal ganglia network on gait, particularly at the cortical level, remain unclear.MethodsTwelve patients with idiopathic PD and chronically-implanted DBS electrodes were assessed on their regular dopaminergic medication in (...) a standardized stepping in place paradigm. Patients executed the task with DBS switched off, conventional STN DBS and combined STN+SN DBS and were compared to healthy matched controls. Simultaneous high-density EEG and kinematic measurements were recorded during resting-state, effective stepping, and freezing episodes.ResultsClinically, STN+SN DBS was superior to conventional STN DBS in improving temporal stepping variability of the more affected leg. During resting-state and effective stepping, the cortical activity of PD patients in STIM OFF was characterized by excessive over-synchronization in the theta, alpha, and high-beta band compared to healthy controls. Both active DBS settings similarly decreased resting-state alpha power and reduced pathologically enhanced high-beta activity during resting-state and effective stepping compared to STIM OFF. Freezing episodes during STN DBS and STN+SN DBS showed spectrally and spatially distinct cortical activity patterns when compared to effective stepping. During STN DBS, FoG was associated with an increase in cortical alpha and low-beta activity over central cortical areas, while with STN+SN DBS, an increase in high-beta was prominent over more frontal areas.ConclusionsSTN+SN DBS improved temporal aspects of parkinsonian gait impairment compared to conventional STN DBS and differentially affected cortical oscillatory patterns during regular locomotion and freezing suggesting a potential modulatory effect on dysfunctional cortical-subcortical communication in PD. (shrink)
BackgroundThe preferable position of Deep Brain Stimulation electrodes is proposed to be located in the dorsolateral subthalamic nucleus to improve general motor performance. The optimal DBS electrode localization for the post-operative improvement of balance and gait is unknown.MethodsIn this single-center, retrospective analyses, 66 Parkinson’s disease patients were assessed pre- and post-operatively by using MDS-UPDRS, freezing of gait score, Giladi’s gait and falls questionnaire and Berg balance scale. The clinical outcome was related to the DBS electrode coordinates in x, y, z (...) plane as revealed by image-based reconstruction. Binomial generalized linear mixed models with fixed-effect variables electrode asymmetry, parkinsonian subtype, medication, age class and clinical DBS induced changes were analyzed.ResultsSubthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation improved all motor, balance and FoG scores in MED OFF condition, however there were heterogeneous results in MED ON condition. DBS electrode reconstructed coordinates impacted the responsiveness of axial symptoms. FoG and balance responders showed slightly more medially located STN electrode coordinates and less medio-lateral asymmetry of the electrode reconstructed coordinates across hemispheres compared to non-responders.ConclusionDeep brain stimulation electrode reconstructed coordinates, particularly electrode asymmetry on the medio-lateral axis affected the post-operative responsiveness of balance and FoG symptoms in PD patients. (shrink)
Diese Biographie BERKELEYS beansprucht nicht, eine umfassende Darstellung aller Aspekte dieser faszinierenden Personlichkeit und des zugehorigen Werkes zu geben, sondern betont bewuGt die Seiten, die geeignet sind, das Verstiindnis seiner Beitriige zur Entwicklung der Wissenschaften im 18. lahrhundert zu fordern. Dabei wurde der Schwerpunkt auf die Diskussionen iiber die Grundlagen der Mathe matik gelegt. Die folgende Darstellung unterstreicht also gerade die Ziige BERKELEYS, die in den anderen Darstellungen nur beiliiufig behandelt werden, wenn man sie nicht ganz vernachliissigt. Vor allem im (...) deutschsprachigen Raum wurde BERKELEY immer wieder unter schiitzt oder miBachtet 1. Wiihrend der Vorbereitung zu diesem Buch erschien eine aus gezeichnete BERKELEY -Monographie von AREND K ULENKAMPFF 2. Leser, die sHirker an der Philosophie BERKELEYS interessiert sind, seien auf diese Schrift verwiesen. Ob es mehr als ein gliicklicher Zufall ist, daG innerhalb so kurzer Zeit nach fUnfzig lahren Pause gleich zwei deutschsprachige Biicher iiber BERKELEY erscheinen, wird sich in der Zukunft zeigen. Die Ubersetzungen der Zitate und der Texte im Teil III stam men, wenn nicht anders angegeben, von mir. Ich danke allen, die an der Entstehung dieses Buches direkt oder indirekt mitgewirkt haben, insbesondere DAVID BERMAN (Dub lin) und RAYMOND W. HOUGHTON (Dublin), die mir in so entgegen kommender Weise das Bildmaterial ihres Buches Images zur VerfU gung stellten und mir mit Informationen behilflich waren, und B. P. (shrink)
A brief introductory note to the special issue of the Journal of Philosophy on "Parts and Wholes", setting the background for the seven papers included in the rest of the issue (by K. Fine, H. Hudson, M. Johnston, K. Koslicki, C. Normore, P. M. Simons, and P. van Inwagen).