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William O. Stephens [65]William Stephens [10]William N. Stephens [1]William Olen Stephens [1]
  1. The Stoics and their Philosophical System.William O. Stephens - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 22-34.
    An overview of the ancient philosophers and their philosophical system (divided into the fields of logic, physics, and ethics) comprising the living, organic, enduring, and evolving body of interrelated ideas identifiable as the Stoic perspective.
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  2. Epictetus's Encheiridion: A new translation and guide to Stoic ethics.Scott Aikin & William O. Stephens - 2023 - London and New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. Edited by William O. Stephens & Epictetus.
    For anyone approaching the Encheiridion of Epictetus for the first time, this book provides a comprehensive guide to understanding a complex philosophical text. Including a full translation and clear explanatory commentaries, Epictetus's 'Encheiridion' introduces readers to a hugely influential work of Stoic philosophy. Scott Aikin and William O. Stephens unravel the core themes of Stoic ethics found within this ancient handbook. Focusing on the core themes of self-control, seeing things as they are, living according to nature, owning one's roles and (...)
  3. Stoicism and Food Ethics.William O. Stephens - 2022 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 9 (1):105-124.
    The norms of simplicity, convenience, unfussiness, and self-control guide Diogenes the Cynic, Zeno of Citium, Chrysippus, Seneca, Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius in approaching food. These norms generate the precept that meat and dainties are luxuries, so Stoics should eschew them. Considerations of justice, environmental harm, anthropogenic global climate change, sustainability, food security, feminism, harm to animals, personal health, and public health lead contemporary Stoics to condemn the meat industrial complex, debunk carnism, and select low input, plant-based foods.
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  4. How Might a Stoic Eat in Accordance with Nature and “Environmental Facts”?Kai Whiting, William O. Stephens, Edward Simpson & Leonidas Konstantakos - 2020 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 33 (3-6):369-389.
    This paper explores how to deliberate about food choices from a Stoic perspective informed by the value of environmental sustainability. This perspective is reconstructed from both ancient and contemporary sources of Stoic philosophy. An account of what the Stoic goal of “living in agreement with Nature” would amount to in dietary practice is presented. Given ecological facts about food production, an argument is made that Stoic virtue made manifest as wisdom, justice, courage, and temperance compel Stoic practitioners to select locally (...)
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  5. Stoicism and Food.William O. Stephens - 2018 - Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.
    The ancient Stoics believed that virtue is the only true good and as such both necessary and sufficient for happiness. Accordingly, they classified food as among the things that are neither good nor bad but "indifferent." These "indifferents" included health, illness, wealth, poverty, good and bad reputation, life, death, pleasure, and pain. How one deals with having or lacking these things reflects one’s virtue or vice and thus determines one’s happiness or misery. So, while the Stoics held that food in (...)
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  6. Epictetus on How the Stoic Sage Loves.William O. Stephens - 1996 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:193-210.
    I show that in Epictetus’ view (1) the wise man genuinely loves (στέργειv) and is affectionate (φιλόστoργoς) to his family and friends; (2) only the Stoic wise man is, properly speaking, capable of loving—that is, he alone actually has the power to love; and (3) the Stoic wise man loves in a robustly rational way which excludes passionate, sexual, ‘erotic’ love (’έρως). In condemning all ’έρως as objectionable πάθoς Epictetus stands with Cicero and with the other Roman Stoics, Seneca and (...)
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  7. Five Arguments for Vegetarianism.William O. Stephens - 1994 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (4):25-39.
    Five different arguments for vegetarianism are discussed: the system of meat production deprives poor people of food to provide meat for the wealthy, thus violating the principle of distributive justice; the world livestock industry causes great and manifold ecological destruction; meat-eating cultures and societal oppression of women are intimately linked and so feminism and vegetarianism must both be embraced to transform our patriarchal culture; both utilitarian and rights-based reasoning lead to the conclusion that raising and slaughtering animals is immoral, and (...)
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  8. Stoic Naturalism, Rationalism, and Ecology.William O. Stephens - 1994 - Environmental Ethics 16 (3):275-286.
    Cheney’s claim that there is a subtextual affinity between ancient Stoicism and deep ecology is historically unfounded, conceptually unsupported, and misguided from a scholarly viewpoint. His criticisms of Stoic thought are thus merely ad hominem diatribe. A proper examination of the central ideas of Stoic ethics reveals the coherence and insightfulness of Stoic naturalism and rationalism. While not providing the basis for a contemporary environmental ethic, Stoicism, nonetheless, contains some very fruitful ethical concepts.
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  9.  52
    Stoic Ethics: Epictetus and Happiness as Freedom.William O. Stephens - 2007 - London, UK: Continuum.
    The impact of Stoicism on Roman culture and early Christianity was considerable. Unfortunately, little survives of the early writings on Stoicism. Our knowledge of it comes largely from a few later Stoics. In this unique book, William O. Stephens explores the moral philosophy of the late Stoic Epictetus, a former slave and dynamic Stoic teacher. His philosophy, as recorded by one of his students, is the most earnest and most compelling defense of ancient Stoicism that exists. Epictetus' teachings dramatically capture (...)
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  10. Fake meat.William O. Stephens - 2018 - Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.
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  11.  97
    Epictetus on Beastly Vices and Animal Virtues.William Stephens - April 2014 - In Dane R. Gordon & David B. Suits (eds.), Epictetus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance. Rochester, NY, USA: Rochester Institute of Technology Press. pp. 207–239.
    It is curious that the imperial Stoics, following a precedent of Diogenes the Cynic, employ so many wide-ranging examples of animal behavior. For example, what are we to make of the rigid dichotomy Seneca and Epictetus draw between rational and nonrational beings in relation to the diverse comparisons they make between human virtues and vices on the one hand and animal excellences and "bestial'behaviors on the other? Why are the most potent, diverse, and philosophically significant animal exempla found in Seneca (...)
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  12. Refugees, Exiles, and Stoic Cosmopolitanism.William O. Stephens - 2018 - Journal of Religion and Society 16:73-91.
    The Roman imperial Stoics were familiar with exile. This paper argues that the Stoics’ view of being a refugee differed sharply from their view of what is owed to refugees. A Stoic adopts the perspective of a cosmopolitēs, a “citizen of the world,” a rational being everywhere at home in the universe. Virtue can be cultivated and practiced in any locale, so being a refugee is an “indifferent” that poses no obstacle to happiness. Other people are our fellow cosmic citizens, (...)
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  13. Stoic ethics.William O. Stephens - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The tremendous influence Stoicism has exerted on ethical thought from early Christianity through Immanuel Kant and into the twentieth century is rarely understood and even more rarely appreciated. Throughout history, Stoic ethical doctrines have both provoked harsh criticisms and inspired enthusiastic defenders. The Stoics defined the goal in life as living in agreement with nature. Humans, unlike all other animals, are constituted by nature to develop reason as adults, which transforms their understanding of themselves and their own true good. The (...)
     
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  14. Wise woman versus manic man : Diotima and Alcibiades in Plato's Symposium.William O. Stephens - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love, 1993-2003. New York, NY: Rodopi.
    This paper argues that Plato recognized that Socrates’ rational, reflective love, learned from the wise Diotima, is the only means of achieving secure, self-sufficient happiness and so the only way to avoid tragedy in human life.
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  15. Midwest Stoicism, Agrarianism, and Environmental Virtue Ethics: Interdisciplinary Approaches.William O. Stephens - 2022 - In Ian Smith & Matt Ferkany (eds.), Environmental Ethics in the Midwest: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Michigan State University Press. pp. 1-42.
    First, the thorny problem of locating the Midwest is treated. Second, the ancient Stoics’ understanding of nature is proposed as a fertile field of ecological wisdom. The significance of nature in Stoicism is explained. Stoic philosophers (big-S Stoics) are distinguished from stoical non-philosophers (small-s stoics). Nature’s lessons for living a good Stoic life are drawn. Are such lessons too theoretical to provide practical guidance? This worry is addressed by examining the examples of Cincinnatus and Cato the Elder—ancient Romans lauded for (...)
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  16.  88
    The Ideal of the Stoic Sportsman.William Stephens & Randolph Feezell - 2004 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 31 (2):196-211.
    Philosophers of sport have debated whether supporting one team over others is commendable or morally suspect. We show how Stoicism sheds light on this controversy. Several caricature views of Stoic sportsmanship are studied. Stoics learn how to enjoy the blessings that come their way without mistakenly judging challenges to be hardships that detract from their happiness. Stoic sportsmen celebrate the successes of their teams while exercising the virtues of patience, endurance, loyalty, and appreciation of athletic excellence when their teams flounder. (...)
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  17.  31
    Marcus Aurelius: A Guide for the Perplexed.William O. Stephens - 2012 - London, UK: Bloomsbury (Continuum).
    This book is a clear and concise introduction to the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. His one major surviving work, often titled 'meditations' but literally translated simply as 'to himself', is a series of short, sometimes enigmatic reflections divided seemingly arbitrarily into twelve books and apparently written only to be read by him. For these reasons Marcus is a particularly difficult thinker to understand. His musings, framed as 'notes to self' or 'memoranda', are the exhortations of an earnest, conscientious Stoic (...)
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  18.  68
    The Ethics of the Stoic Epictetus: an English Translation.Adolf Friedrich Bonhöffer & William O. Stephens - 1996 - New York, USA: Peter Lang. Edited by William O. Stephens.
    Born a slave, but later earning his freedom and founding a school for teaching Stoicism to the sons of Roman noblemen, Epictetus has been a popular source of Stoic philosophy for centuries. Originally published in 1894 by the German scholar Adolf Bonhoeffer and here translated into English for the first time, this work remains the most systematic and detailed study of Epictetus' ethics. The basis, content, and acquisition of virtue are methodically described, while important related points in Stoic ethics are (...)
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  19. Separated spouses and equal partners : Cicero, Ovid, and marriage at a distance.William O. Stephens - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love, 1993-2003. New York, NY: Rodopi.
    These comments on Sabine Grebe, "The Transformation of the Husband/Wife Relationship during Exile: Letters from Cicero and Ovid" raise questions about the similarities and dissimilarities of marriage and friendship examined in the marriages of Cicero and Ovid.
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  20. Can a stoic love?William O. Stephens - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love, 1993-2003. New York, NY: Rodopi.
  21. Introduction.Scott Aikin & William O. Stephens - 2022 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 9 (1):7-10.
  22. Refugees, Stoicism, and Cosmic Citizenship.William O. Stephens - 2020 - Pallas: Revue d'Etudes Antiques 112:289-307.
    The Roman imperial Stoics were familiar with exile. I argue that the Stoics’ view of being a refugee differed sharply from their view of what is owed to refugees. A Stoic adopts the perspective of a cosmopolitēs, a ‘citizen of the world’, a rational being everywhere at home in the universe. Virtue can be cultivated and practiced in any locale, so being a refugee is an ‘indifferent’ that poses no obstacle to happiness. But other people are our fellow cosmic citizens (...)
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  23. Stoicism in the Stars: Yoda, the Emperor, and the Force.William Stephens - 2005 - In Kevin Decker & Jason Eberl (eds.), Star Wars and Philosophy. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. pp. 16-28.
    Stoic analysis of the characters of Yoda and the Emperor reveals the opposing logics of the Force. Yoda initially appears to be a jester, but shares with the Stoic wise man the virtues of timely action, patience, commitment, seriousness, calmness, peacefulness, caution, benevolence, joyful mirth, passivity, and wisdom. The logic of the Dark Side is: Anger leads to hatred. Hatred leads to aggressive mastery of others, which is true power, which is irresistibly desirable. The Emperor uses terror and cruelty to (...)
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  24. The Simile of the Talus in Cicero De Finibus 3.54.William O. Stephens & Brian S. Hook - 1996 - Classical Philology 91 (1):59-61.
    Two principal questions are addressed: In De Finibus 3.54 what position does Cicero imagine the talus to fall and lie? How does this talus simile shed light on the problematic relationship between the Stoics’ doctrine of ‘preferred indifferents’ and their definition of the Good as virtue?
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  25. Real Men are Stoics: An Interpretation of Tom Wolfe's A Man in Full.William O. Stephens - 2000 - Stoic Voice Journal 1 (3).
    Charlie Croker, a self-made real estate tycoon, ex-Georgia Tech football star, horseback rider, quail-hunter, snakecatcher, and good old boy from Baker county Georgia, is the protagonist in Tom Wolfe’s latest novel, the deliciously provocative A Man in Full (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1998).  In this article I examine the evolving conception of manhood in Wolfe’s novel.  Two different models of manliness will be delineated and compared. The first model—represented by Charlie Croker—gradually weakens and is replaced by the (...)
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  26. Marcus Aurelius.William O. Stephens - 2005 - In Patricia F. O'Grady (ed.), Meet the philosophers of Ancient Greece: everything you always wanted to know about ancient Greek philosophy but didn't know who to ask. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. pp. 211-213.
    How putrid is the matter which underlies everything. Water, dust, bones, stench. Again, fine marbles are calluses of the earth; gold and silver, its sediments; our clothes, animal-hair; their purple, blood from a shellfish. Our very breath is something similar and changes from this to that. Meditations, 9 36).
     
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  27.  12
    What's Love Got to Do with It?William O. Stephens - 2010-09-24 - In Fritz Allhoff, Michael Bruce & Robert M. Stewart (eds.), College Sex ‐ Philosophy for Everyone. Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 75–90.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Epicureans and Pleasure Freedom from Anxiety and Types of Desires Sex, Shoes, and the Needs of College Students The Dangers of Sex Sex and Sensibility Romance, Beautiful Illusions, and Sound Minds Skip the Sex and Keep the Friend.
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  28. Lukrez, der Kepos und die Stoiker: Untersuchungen zur Schule Epikurs und zu den Quellen von De rerum natura.William O. Stephens - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):461-463.
    Schmidt's main thesis is that Lucretius did not exclusively use the writings of Epicurus in composing De rerurn natura, and that it is emphatically doubtful that Epicurus was even his principal source. Rather, Schmidt argues that it is virtually certain that early Epicurean writings are used in several passages, and that they are the most probable sources for the whole poem. Schmidt sees Lucretius as closely caught up with the current polemics between the Stoic and Epicurean schools of his time. (...)
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  29. Response: Straying and Spaying: What Do Cats Care About?William O. Stephens - 1995 - Between the Species 11 (3):8.
    This paper is a reply to Lilly-Marlene Russow's paper "What do animals care about?" It articulates several skeptical concerns about how even someone with over a decade of experience closely observing the behavior of cats can ascertain with confidence what specific cats in specific circumstances care about and desire.
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  30. Bryn mawr classical review 97.6.12.William Stephens - manuscript
    Oxford Studies vol. XIV contains five free-standing articles (on Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics), an exchange between Job van Eck and Christopher Rowe about a key passage in the Phaedo, and three lengthy review articles: Michael Wedin on David Bostock's Aristotle: Metaphysics Z and ; Gail Fine on R.J. Hankinson's The Sceptics ; and Anne Sheppard on John Dillon's Alcinous. Only the briefest sketch of the volume is possible.
     
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  31.  8
    A. A. Long, Epictetus : a Stoic and Socratic guide to life (review).William Stephens - 2002 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
    Up to now scholars have not approached E[pictetus] as author, stylist, educator, and thinker, according to the eminent scholar of Stoicism Tony L[ong]. The aim of this book is to fill precisely this gap. L wants "to provide an accessible guide to reading E, both as a remarkable historical figure and as a thinker whose recipe for a free and satisfying life can engage our modern selves, in spite of our cultural distance from him" (2). This goal is met admirably. (...)
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  32. By William O. Stephens.William Stephens - manuscript
    More than 2,200 years have passed since a group of sober people gathered in a covered colonnade, or stoa, in the marketplace of Athens to discuss the good life – a life of virtue and honor. They became known as Stoics, and their ancient creed is enjoying a renaissance today in, of all things, popular culture.
     
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  33. College bans Nietzsche quote on prof's door.William O. Stephens - unknown
    Kerry Laird, a literature and composition professor who does not have tenure, is in his first year at Temple. He said that, as a student and instructor, he always enjoyed the way professors use their office doors to reveal bits of their personality and to challenge students with cartoons, artwork, and various phrases. So when he started at Temple, he put a cartoon up showing Smokey the Bear, a girl scout and a boy scout and the tag line: “Kids — (...)
     
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  34. Hypotheses and evidence.William N. Stephens - 1968 - New York,: Crowell.
  35. If friendship hurts, an Epicurean deserts : a reply to Andrew Mitchell.William O. Stephens - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love, 1993-2003. New York, NY: Rodopi. pp. 7.
    In “Friendship Amongst the Self-Sufficient: Epicurus” (this Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, June 2001), Andrew Mitchell explores the Epicurean view of the relationship between self-sufficiency and friendship by contrasting it with the views of Aristotle and the Stoics. Epicurus, Aristotle, and the Stoics do indeed have interestingly different views on friendship that are well worth comparing. Yet Mitchell’s characterization of Aristotelian friendship is misleading, his account of Stoic friendship is inaccurate, and his interpretation of Epicurean friendship is curiously imaginative but (...)
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  36.  16
    If Friendship Hurts, an Epicurean Deserts: A Reply to Andrew Mitchell.William O. Stephens - 2002 - Essays in Philosophy 3 (1):70-72.
    Mitchell defends the Epicurean account of friendship. I argue that since Epicureans are hedonists who hold that all pleasures are good and all pains are bad, Epicureans would desert their friends in circumstances in which standing by their friends causes them pain.
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  37. If friendship hurts, an Epicurean deserts : a reply to Andrew Mitchell.William O. Stephens - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love, 1993-2003. New York, NY: Rodopi.
     
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  38. Stoic Lessons in Liberation: Epictetus as Educator.William O. Stephens - manuscript
    My project examines the pedagogical approach of the Stoic Epictetus by focusing on seven vital lessons he imparts. This study will deepen our understanding of his vocation as a Stoic educator striving to free his students from the fears and foolishness that hold happiness hostage. These lessons are (1) how freedom, integrity, self-respect, and happiness interrelate; (2) real versus fake tragedy and real versus fake heroism; (3) the instructive roles that various animals play in Stoic education; (4) athleticism, sport, and (...)
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  39.  23
    The Ethics of the Stoic Epictetus: An English Translation, Revised Edition.William O. Stephens - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Peter Lang.
    This text remains the only English translation of Bonhöffer’s classic, definitive examination of Epictetus’s ethics. Thorough, knowledgeable, perceptive, and accessible, the unity of this book and its thematic presentation make it an invaluable resource for both scholars and general readers eager to apply Stoic thinking in their daily lives. The translation is crisp, clear, consistent, and very readable. Careful attention to the details and nuances of the German as well as the Greek of Epictetus make this an excellent achievement. This (...)
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  40.  10
    Taking Ourselves Seriously.William O. Stephens - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law 6 (1):5-20.
    The advances that have been made in the area of genetic technology over the past several years have caused a reflection into the grounds for emerging policy decisions that have emerged as a result of these stunning scientific breakthroughs. Inevitably, controversies have emerged as a result of these rapidly developing genetic discoveries. Recent British judicial decisions in this area have appeared to avoid directly dealing with the accompanying ethical issues. Instead they have appeared to take an ad hoc approach, by (...)
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  41.  8
    The Person: Readings in Human Nature.William O. Stephens (ed.) - 2006 - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458, USA: Pearson.
    The vitally important concept of the "person" is featured in this anthology of readings from the history of Western philosophy. This text which is philosophically more serious yet still reader-friendly, offers a variety of authors and a wide historical scope in the Philosophy of Human Nature market that generally neglects this topic.
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  42. How to Think Like a Roman Emperor: The Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius, by Donald Robertson. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (2):516-519.
    A review of Donald Robertson, How to Think Like a Roman Emperor: The Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius. St. Martin's Press, 2019.
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  43. The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology. By Jack Visnjic. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):690-692.
    This provocative study presents philological, philosophical, and historical arguments that with the Greek term καθῆκον and its Latin equivalent officium the ancient Stoics invented a new concept that anticipated the modern notion of moral duty, for example, Pflicht in Kant. Scholars began to shift from translating kathēkon as "duty" to translating it as "appropriate or fitting action" in the late 1800s, according to Visnjic. The usage of the verb kathēkein in Greek literature prior to the Stoics suggests to him that (...)
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  44. One True Life: The Stoics and Early Christians as Rival Traditions. By C. Kavin Rowe. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (2):477-481.
    A sloppy, smug, conceptually muddled, and tendentious Christian apologist's comparison of narrowly selected texts from Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, Paul, Luke, and Justin Martyr. Following Alasdair MacIntyre, Rowe defends the traditionist view according to which Spirit-enhanced ‘supernatural’ discourse is intelligible only to those on the inside of Christian faith. Rowe argues that morality and religion are abstractions. Rowe presents his translations of Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus, Paul, Luke, and Justin into modern English while also being committed to the traditionist view that (...)
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  45. Epictetus and prayer - (k.M.) Landefeld die gebetslehre Epiktets. Form, inhalt und funktionen der gebete epiktets im kontext der antiken gebetstradition. (Orbis antiquus 54.) pp. VIII + 224. Münster: Aschendorff, 2020. Paper, €36. Isbn: 978-3-402-14463-3. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2021 - The Classical Review 71 (1):72-74.
    Landefeld need not be faulted for not cobbling together a unified doctrine of prayer compatible with Stoic physics and logic where none exists in Epictetus. Perhaps this ex-slave fervently needed to unseat contempt for and defiance in the faces of his cruel, abusive human masters with praise of and obedient devotion to a maximally beneficent and providential divine master.
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  46. Food for Thought: The Debate over Eating Meat. Edited by S. F. Sapontzis. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy Science and Law 6 (1):1-4.
    Are animals our domestic companions, fellow citizens of the ecosystems we inhabit, mobile meals and resources for us, or some combination thereof? This well chosen collection of essays written by recognized scholars addresses many of the intriguing aspects concerning the controversy over meat consumption. These aspects include not only eating meat, but also hunting animals, breeding, feeding, killing, and shredding them for our use, buying meat, the economics of the meat industry, the understanding of predation and food webs in ecology, (...)
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  47.  94
    Logic and the Imperial Stoa. By Jonathan Barnes. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 1999 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (2):357-359.
    This quirky monograph focuses on comments on logic made by Marcus Aurelius, who is said to "introduce the comedy," Seneca, who "features in the second act," and Epictetus, who is "the hero." Barnes denies that the ethical part of philosophy was the only part which was of any account in the social and intellectual debates of their time. Since he views logic as in itself neutral, Seneca is portrayed as a logical utilitarian and so a philistine (21). Despite casting Epictetus (...)
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  48. Die Funktion der Dialogstruktur in Epiktets Diatriben. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2003 - Ancient Philosophy 23 (2):472-481.
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  49. Food for Thought: The Debate over Eating Meat Edited by Steve F. Sapontzis. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law 6 (1):1-4.
    This well chosen collection of essays written by recognized scholars addresses many of the intriguing aspects concerning the controversy over meat consumption. These aspects include not only eating meat, but also hunting animals, breeding, feeding, killing, and shredding them for our use, buying meat, the economics of the meat industry, the understanding of predation and food webs in ecology, and the significance of animals for issues about nutrition, gender, wealth, and cultural autonomy. Dombrowski rightly notes that the contemporary debate regarding (...)
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  50. Forgiveness and Revenge. By Trudy Govier. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2003 - Essays in Philosophy 4 (2).
    Govier conceives of forgiveness as “a process of overcoming attitudes of resentment and anger that may persist when one has been injured by wrongdoing” (viii). She offers an account of bilateral, unilateral, and mutual forgiveness. Her work has pronounced political import in that she argues that attitudes and dispositions can be attributed to groups, that groups can suffer harm, and that groups can be responsible agents of wrongdoing. As a consequence, Govier contends that groups can forgive. Her method is to (...)
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