83 found
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  1.  94
    Editors' Introduction to Tasks, Tools, and Techniques.Wayne D. Gray, François Osiurak & Richard Heersmink - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science 13 (4):1-8.
    Tasks, tools, and techniques that we perform, use, and acquire, define the elements of expertise which we value as the hallmarks of goal-driven behavior. Somehow, the creation of tools enables us to define new tasks, or is it that the envisioning of new tasks drives us to invent new tools? Or maybe it is that new tools engender new techniques which then result in new tasks? This jumble of issues will be explored and discussed in this diverse collection of papers. (...)
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  2.  19
    The Soft Constraints Hypothesis: A Rational Analysis Approach to Resource Allocation for Interactive Behavior.Wayne D. Gray, Chris R. Sims, Wai-Tat Fu & Michael J. Schoelles - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (3):461-482.
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  3.  55
    Soft Constraints in Interactive Behavior: The Case of Ignoring Perfect Knowledge in‐the‐World for Imperfect Knowledge in‐the‐Head*,*.Wayne D. Gray & Wai-Tat Fu - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3):359-382.
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  4.  3
    Welcome to Cognitive Science: The Once and Future Multidisciplinary Society.Wayne D. Gray - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (4):838-844.
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  5.  10
    Plateaus, Dips, and Leaps: Where to Look for Inventions and Discoveries During Skilled Performance.Wayne D. Gray & John K. Lindstedt - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (7):1838-1870.
    The framework of plateaus, dips, and leaps shines light on periods when individuals may be inventing new methods of skilled performance. We begin with a review of the role performance plateaus have played in experimental psychology, human–computer interaction, and cognitive science. We then reanalyze two classic studies of individual performance to show plateaus and dips which resulted in performance leaps. For a third study, we show how the statistical methods of Changepoint Analysis plus a few simple heuristics may direct our (...)
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  6.  11
    An Integrated Model of Cognitive Control in Task Switching.Erik M. Altmann & Wayne D. Gray - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (3):602-639.
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  7.  23
    Interrogating Feature Learning Models to Discover Insights Into the Development of Human Expertise in a Real‐Time, Dynamic Decision‐Making Task.Catherine Sibert, Wayne D. Gray & John K. Lindstedt - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):374-394.
    Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning models to determine whether different goals result in (...)
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  8.  27
    Interrogating Feature Learning Models to Discover Insights Into the Development of Human Expertise in a Real‐Time, Dynamic Decision‐Making Task.Catherine Sibert, Wayne D. Gray & John K. Lindstedt - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning models to determine whether different goals result in (...)
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  9.  14
    Milliseconds Matter: An Introduction to Microstrategies and to Their Use in Describing and Predicting Interactive Behavior.Wayne D. Gray & Deborah A. Boehm-Davis - 2000 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 6 (4):322-335.
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  10. When, What, and How Much to Reward in Reinforcement Learning-Based Models of Cognition.Christian P. Janssen & Wayne D. Gray - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (2):333-358.
    Reinforcement learning approaches to cognitive modeling represent task acquisition as learning to choose the sequence of steps that accomplishes the task while maximizing a reward. However, an apparently unrecognized problem for modelers is choosing when, what, and how much to reward; that is, when (the moment: end of trial, subtask, or some other interval of task performance), what (the objective function: e.g., performance time or performance accuracy), and how much (the magnitude: with binary, categorical, or continuous values). In this article, (...)
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  11.  34
    Visual Working Memory Resources Are Best Characterized as Dynamic, Quantifiable Mnemonic Traces.Bella Z. Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W. Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth & Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):83-101.
    Visual working memory is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data. Questions remain regarding (...)
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  12.  8
    Melioration as Rational Choice: Sequential Decision Making in Uncertain Environments.Chris R. Sims, Hansjörg Neth, Robert A. Jacobs & Wayne D. Gray - 2013 - Psychological Review 120 (1):139-154.
  13.  4
    SpotLight on Dynamics of Individual Learning.Roussel Rahman & Wayne D. Gray - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (3):975-991.
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  14.  14
    Game‐XP: Action Games as Experimental Paradigms for Cognitive Science.Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):289-307.
    Why games? How could anyone consider action games an experimental paradigm for Cognitive Science? In 1973, as one of three strategies he proposed for advancing Cognitive Science, Allen Newell exhorted us to “accept a single complex task and do all of it.” More specifically, he told us that rather than taking an “experimental psychology as usual approach,” we should “focus on a series of experimental and theoretical studies around a single complex task” so as to demonstrate that our theories of (...)
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  15.  19
    Resolving the Paradox of the Active User: Stable Suboptimal Performance in Interactive Tasks.Wai-Tat Fu & Wayne D. Gray - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (6):901-935.
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  16.  1
    Introduction to Volume 12, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1050-1052.
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  17.  17
    The Nature and Processing of Errors in Interactive Behavior.Wayne D. Gray - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (2):205-248.
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  18.  1
    Constructing Expertise: Surmounting Performance Plateaus by Tasks, by Tools, and by Techniques.Wayne D. Gray & Sounak Banerjee - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science 13 (4):610-665.
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  19.  1
    Constructing Expertise: Surmounting Performance Plateaus by Tasks, by Tools, and by Techniques.Wayne D. Gray & Sounak Banerjee - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science 13 (4):610-665.
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  20. Cognitive Modeling for Cognitive Engineering.Wayne D. Gray - 2008 - In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 565--588.
  21.  2
    Introduction to Volume 11, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (4):590-591.
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  22.  17
    A Simple Heuristic Successfully Used by Humans, Animals, and Machines: The Story of the RAF and Luftwaffe, Hawks and Ducks, Dogs and Frisbees, Baseball Outfielders and Sidewinder Missiles—Oh My!Gerd Gigerenzer & Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):260-263.
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  23.  10
    Introduction to Volume 9, Issue 2 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):258-259.
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  24.  19
    Rational Task Analysis: A Methodology to Benchmark Bounded Rationality.Hansjörg Neth, Chris R. Sims & Wayne D. Gray - 2016 - Minds and Machines 26 (1-2):125-148.
    How can we study bounded rationality? We answer this question by proposing rational task analysis —a systematic approach that prevents experimental researchers from drawing premature conclusions regarding the rationality of agents. RTA is a methodology and perspective that is anchored in the notion of bounded rationality and aids in the unbiased interpretation of results and the design of more conclusive experimental paradigms. RTA focuses on concrete tasks as the primary interface between agents and environments and requires explicating essential task elements, (...)
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  25.  51
    Goal‐Proximity Decision‐Making.Vladislav D. Veksler, Wayne D. Gray & Michael J. Schoelles - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (4):757-774.
    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed mechanism, Goal-Proximity Decision-making (GPD), is implemented within the ACT-R cognitive framework. GPD is found to be more efficient than RL in three maze-navigation simulations. GPD advantages over RL seem to grow as task difficulty is increased. (...)
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  26.  79
    Great Debate on the Complex Systems Approach to Cognitive Science.Wayne D. Gray - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):2-2.
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  27.  35
    Introduction to Volume 4, Issue 3 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (3):331-331.
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  28.  22
    Introduction to Volume 5, Issue 4 oftopiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science:n/a-n/a.
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  29. Introduction to Volume 5, Issue 2 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):223-223.
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  30. Introduction to Volume 5, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):1-2.
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  31.  82
    Introduction to Volume 4, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):467-467.
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  32.  65
    Introduction to Volume 4, Issue 2 of Topics.Wayne D. Gray - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):165-165.
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  33.  77
    Introduction to Volume 5, Issue 3 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):387-387.
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  34.  56
    Introduction to Volume 5, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):671-671.
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  35.  56
    Introduction to Volume 3, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):1-2.
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  36.  57
    Introduction to Volume 1, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):597-597.
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  37.  52
    Introduction to Volume 1, Issue 3 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (3):411-411.
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  38.  39
    Introduction to Volume 8, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):5-6.
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  39.  41
    Introduction to Volume 3, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (4):627-627.
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  40.  45
    Introduction to Volume 2, Issue 2 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (2):181-181.
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  41.  66
    Introduction to Volume 2, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):597-597.
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  42.  37
    Introduction to Volume 6, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):1-1.
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  43.  56
    Introduction to Volume 4, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):1-1.
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  44.  35
    Introduction to Volume 7, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (1):1-1.
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  45.  56
    Introduction to Volume 3, Issue 3 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (3):445-445.
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  46.  34
    Introduction to Volume 6, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):559-559.
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  47. CogSci 2002, 24th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.Wayne D. Gray & Christian D. Schunn (eds.) - 2002 - Lawrence Erlbaum.
     
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  48.  41
    Does Cognition Deteriorate With Age or Is It Enhanced by Experience?Wayne D. Gray & Thomas Hills - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):2-4.
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  49.  33
    Introduction to Volume 2, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (1):1-2.
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  50.  33
    Introduction to Volume 6, Issue 3 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (3):343-343.
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