In this paper, we study the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the S-S equation and give the relationships between solutions and the Hamilton energy of their amplitudes. First, on the basis of the theory of dynamical system, we make qualitative analysis on the amplitudes of solutions. Then, by using undetermined hypothesis method, the first integral method, and the appropriate transformation, two bell-shaped solitary wave solutions and six exact periodic wave solutions are obtained. Furthermore, we discuss the (...) evolutionary relationships between these solutions and find that the appearance of these solutions for the S-S equation is essentially determined by the value which the Hamilton energy takes. Finally, we give some diagrams which show the changing process from the periodic wave solutions to the solitary wave solutions when the Hamilton energy changes. (shrink)
One Road One Belt has made a drastic change not only to the lives of people but also to their minds and future prospective. This initiative has connected not only countries but has consolidated trading patterns. It has not only impacted physical trade but has also boosted the e-commerce of China. Therefore, this study has tried to find the major patterns of trading across the globe and digital commerce considering the factors of production. China, being the cheapest country for manufacturing, (...) has excelled in the e-commerce as well. The targeted population for this study was contractors, marketers, logistic service providers, and engineers. The sample size in this study was 329. Data collection was done through a survey developed on the Likert scale. The software used for the data analysis was Smart-PLS for structural equation modeling. Findings of the study show that factors of production and international trade have an impact on e-commerce. Moreover, the foreign policy and international relations have also been found to have a significant role in e-commerce. (shrink)
In Mencius' theory of the original goodness in human nature, fate is the original source of xing (nature). Heart is the appearance of nature. There are two aspects to nature and heart: ti (form) and yong (function). From the perspective of form, nature is liangzhi (the goodness in conscience) and liangneng (the inborn ability to be good) in human beings and heart is human's conscience and original heart. From the perspective of function, nature is the four things of benevolence, righteousness, (...) propriety and wisdom, and heart consists in compassion, shame, respect, right and wrong. As the foundation for the theory of the original goodness in human nature, conscience and heart are a combination of human moral instinct, moral rationality and moral volition, whereas moral instinct gradually rises to moral volition and passes through moral rationality. Mencius' theory of the original goodness in human nature is not a theory of future goodness, but a theory of original goodness. /// 在孟子的性骨告中，命是性的本原 心是性的显现。性和心的含义都包括 "体" 和 "用" 两层:从体而言，性是人之所以为人的良知良能，心是人的良心和L'; 从用而 言，性是仁义礼智四端，心是恻隐、羞恶、恭敬、剧阳心。良心司马L作为性都色的立 论基础，是人的道德本能、道德理性和道德意志的集舍，其显现过程勘人道德本能出发 经过道德理性逐渐上升到道德意志的过程。孟子的性骨色不是向善论，而是性本善论。. (shrink)
This paper first extracted 11 indicators from four aspects of infrastructure, educational equity, teaching quality, and scientific research level and established a multidimensional higher education evaluation system. After that, according to TOPSIS and the entropy method, a comprehensive score of the development of higher education was obtained, and a comprehensive index of higher education was proposed. According to the level of the score, we divide the development status into 5 categories, and use discrete Hopfield neural network for verification. In addition, (...) we applied the model to many countries and chose Vietnam to conduct an in-depth analysis of the model, including reforming policies and evaluating policy effects based on cobweb model. Finally, we found that the application of the model is very universal, but in reality the reform is very difficult. (shrink)
In user cluster analysis, users with the same or similar behavior characteristics are divided into the same group by iterative update clustering, and the core and larger user groups are detected. In this paper, we present the formulation and data mining of the correlation rules based on the clustering algorithm through the definition and procedure of the algorithm. In addition, based on the idea of the K-mode clustering algorithm, this paper proposes a clustering method combining related rules with multivalued discrete (...) features. In this paper, we construct a method to calculate the similarity between users using Jaccard distance and combine correlation rules with Jaccard distances to improve the similarity between users. Next, we propose a clustering method suitable for MDF. Finally, the basic K-mode algorithm is improved by the similarity measure method combining the correlation rule with the Jaccard distance and the cluster center update method which is the ARMDKM algorithm proposed in this paper. This method solves the problem that the MDF cannot be effectively processed in the traditional model and demonstrates its theoretical correctness. This experiment verifies the correctness of the new method by clustering purity, entropy, contour, and other indicators. (shrink)
The purpose of the present work is to develop a quasi-3D numerical method that can be used to study the diffusion mechanism of grout injection in a rock fracture based on the collocated structured grid of the finite volume method. Considering the characteristics of fracture in geometry that the aperture is much less than its length and width, the Hele-Shaw model is introduced to deduce the z-derivatives of velocities u and v at walls, which is a function of the relevant (...) average velocity and the fracture aperture. The traditional difference scheme for the diffusive term is partly substituted with the derived analytical expressions; hence a three-dimensional problem of grout flow in the parallel fracture can be transformed into a two-dimensional one that concerns fracture aperture. The new model is validated by the analytical solution and experimental data on three cases of grouting in the parallel-plate fracture. Compared with the results from ANSYS-Fluent software, the present model shows better agreement with the analytical solution for the distribution of pressure and velocity. Furthermore, the new model needs less grid unit, spends less time, but achieves greater accuracy. The complexity of the grout flow field in the rock fracture is reduced; thus the computational efficiency can be improved significantly. (shrink)
Ben shu jie shao le liang shu ming xian sheng shi shang ge shi ji de zhong guo wen hua ming ren zhi yi, Shi 20 shi ji xin ru jia de kai chuang zhe, Shi si xiang jia, Zhe xue jia, Jiao yu jia, You shi po you ying xiang de she hui huo dong jia. You qi ta de du te de si xiang he xue shi, Ta de te li du xing de kan ke ren sheng jing (...) li, Yi bei zi jian chi jiang zhen hua, Shi bu tong xun chang de, Ye shi ruo gan tong shi dai de zhi ming ren shi suo bu ke qi ji de. (shrink)
Hao Wang was one of the few confidants of the great mathematician and logician Kurt Gödel. _A Logical Journey_ is a continuation of Wang's _Reflections on Gödel_ and also elaborates on discussions contained in _From Mathematics to Philosophy_. A decade in preparation, it contains important and unfamiliar insights into Gödel's views on a wide range of issues, from Platonism and the nature of logic, to minds and machines, the existence of God, and positivism and phenomenology. The impact of (...) Gödel's theorem on twentieth-century thought is on par with that of Einstein's theory of relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, or Keynesian economics. These previously unpublished intimate and informal conversations, however, bring to light and amplify Gödel's other major contributions to logic and philosophy. They reveal that there is much more in Gödel's philosophy of mathematics than is commonly believed, and more in his philosophy than his philosophy of mathematics. Wang writes that "it is even possible that his quite informal and loosely structured conversations with me, which I am freely using in this book, will turn out to be the fullest existing expression of the diverse components of his inadequately articulated general philosophy." The first two chapters are devoted to Gödel's life and mental development. In the chapters that follow, Wang illustrates the quest for overarching solutions and grand unifications of knowledge and action in Gödel's written speculations on God and an afterlife. He gives the background and a chronological summary of the conversations, considers Gödel's comments on philosophies and philosophers, and his attempt to demonstrate the superiority of the mind's power over brains and machines. Three chapters are tied together by what Wang perceives to be Gödel's governing ideal of philosophy: an exact theory in which mathematics and Newtonian physics serve as a model for philosophy or metaphysics. Finally, in an epilog Wang sketches his own approach to philosophy in contrast to his interpretation of Gödel's outlook. (shrink)
In this first extended treatment of his life and work, Hao Wang, who was in close contact with Godel in his last years, brings out the full subtlety of Godel's ideas and their connection with grand themes in the history of mathematics and ...
This cogent and knowledgeable critique of the tradition of modern analytic philosophy focuses on the work of its central figures -- Russell, Carnap, and Quine -- and finds it wanting. In its place, Hao Wang unfolds his own original view of what philosophy could and should be. The base of any serious philosophy, he contends, should take as its point of departure the actual state of human knowledge. He explains the relation of this new tradition to mathematical logic and (...) reveals the crucial transitions and mistakes in mainstream Anglo-American philosophy that make a new approach so compelling.Equally at home in philosophy and mathematics, Wang is uniquely qualified to take on the task of critically examining modern philosophy. He carefully traces the path of ideas from Russell and Wittgenstein through the Vienna Circle to modern British and American philosophy, and makes use of his familiarity with the profound thought of Kurt GÃ¶del with whom he has had numerous discussions. He also presents the broader significance of Russell's philosophy, provides a comprehensive and unified treatment of Quine's work in logic and in philosophy, and delineates what is common between Carnap and Quine. (shrink)
In (2011) McLeod suggested that the first century Chinese philosopher Wang Chong 王充 may have been a pluralist about truth. In this reply I contest McLeod's interpretation of Wang Chong, and suggest "quasi-pluralism" (albeit more as an alternative to pluralism than as an interpretation of Wang Chong), which combines primitivism about the concept of truth with pluralism about justification.
Within various contexts, such as politics and parenting, Confucianism has been criticized on the basis that it endorses ‘unquestioning obedience’ to authorities. In recent years, several philosophers have argued against this view by appealing to textual evidence from Classical Confucian philosophers. In this essay, I examine Wang Yangming’s views on this subject, arguing that Wang teaches that criticism of those who stand in a socially superior role relation is not only permitted, but encouraged. From this, I consider the (...) implications that Wang’s analysis has for contemporary discussions of disagreement between epistemic superiors and inferiors and epistemic peerhood. I will argue that Wang’s position is much closer to the total evidence view than the preemptive view. Relatedly, I will suggest that Wang provides a novel proposal about how to recognise or disregard epistemic ‘superiors’, especially in the context of moral knowledge. (shrink)
Through a comparative analysis of diverse texts and contexts, this book offers a cultural history of the interplay between the aesthetic and the political in the formation of personal and collective identity that crystallizes into the Chinese aesthetic of the sublime. It describes how various kinds of politics are aestheticized and how aesthetic manifestations are bound up with prevalent ideologies and politics. In this book, politics refers to various projects for fashioning a viable self, a workable personal and collective identity (...) in the crisis-ridden history of modern China. These projects include imagining a political subject adapted to the modern nation-state, mobilizing revolutionary masses as subjects of the Communist state, sustaining a unified self despite the challenges to traditional culture, erecting the sublime figure of the revolutionary hero, and, finally, debunking the grand images of the hero and history in post-Mao culture. Throughout, the author seeks to delineate the ways the political masquerades as aesthetic discourse and aesthetic experience. Covering a wide range of material from fiction, poetry, aesthetics, and political discourse to memoirs, film, and historical documents, the book reconsiders a number of prominent cultural figures, including Wang Guowei, Cai Yuanpei, Lu Xun, Eileen Chang, Mao Zedong, Zhu Guangqian, and Li Zehou. It also analyzes such important cultural features and events as Western influences on the formation of modern Chinese aesthetic discourse, modernist writings, Revolutionary Cinema, the Cultural Revolution, and New Wave Fiction. An East-West comparative approach informs the analysis, which engages in dialogue with Kant, Hegel, Freud, Marx, and Walter Benjamin, as well as Terry Eagleton and other contemporary critics. The author's interdisciplinary method, which emphasizes the interaction among text, context, and the psyche, both presents new materials and illuminates familiar texts and phenomena from the perspective of the political-aesthetic nexus. (shrink)
The activity of synsedimentary faults plays an important role in controlling the distribution of sand bodies in basins and furthermore the porosity and permeability of reservoirs. We have used fault interpretation, the method of image and granularity size analysis, and the seismic pumping effect to investigate the control of the activity of the Kongdong fault on the development degree of the dissolution pores and grain size, further studying the controlling mechanism of the activity of synsedimentary faults on reservoir quality. The (...) results showed that the slip rate of synsedimentary faults is one of the main factors in controlling reservoir quality. The slip rate controls the accommodation space and hydrodynamic conditions and it furthermore controls the grain size. The higher the slip rate, the bigger the grain size in the downthrow wall of synsedimentary faults; the seismic pump produced by synsedimentary faults activity also controls the development degree of dissolution pores. The development degree of dissolution pores in the downthrown wall of synsedimentary faults is greater than that in the upthrown wall. Dissolution pores are more developed in areas with a large slip rate of synsedimentary faults. Porosity increases gradually with the increase of plane porosity of dissolution pores, whereas the changes of permeability are not obvious. (shrink)
A fundamental way in which human thought has developed has been constantly to explain the earliest "classics" that are the source of that thought. All in all, the number of such classics is not very high, their explanations are past counting. Moreover, they are constantly increasing, giving rise to an explanatory chain deriving from the classics. In the development of Chinese philosophy, this aspect is particularly noticeable, so that one can describe Chinese philosophy as a continual explanation of the classics. (...) This holds for both Confucianism and Daoism. The main classics of Daoism are the Laozi and the Zhuangzi. These two works have been constantly reread and reinterpreted throughout history. From the late nineteenth century onward, Chinese philosophy came into closer contact with Western philosophy. Foreign concepts were brought in to provide philosophers with new "insight." Some thinkers applied this new insight or these foreign concepts to the Daoist classics. In this way, they brought a new explanation of the Daoist classics and enriched the ways of interpreting the texts.1 Paving the way in this direction were Yan Fu. Zhang Taiyan, Liang Qichao, Wang Guowei, and Hu Shi. (shrink)