27 found
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  1.  19
    Propositional reasoning by model.Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. Byrne & Walter Schaeken - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (3):418-439.
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  2.  22
    Disentangling Metaphor from Context: An ERP Study.Valentina Bambini, Chiara Bertini, Walter Schaeken, Alessandra Stella & Francesco Di Russo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  3.  47
    Processing Conversational Implicatures: Alternatives and Counterfactual Reasoning.Bob van Tiel & Walter Schaeken - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S5):1119-1154.
    In a series of experiments, Bott and Noveck (2004) found that the computation of scalar inferences, a variety of conversational implicature, caused a delay in response times. In order to determine what aspect of the inferential process that underlies scalar inferences caused this delay, we extended their paradigm to three other kinds of inferences: free choice inferences, conditional perfection, and exhaustivity in “it”‐clefts. In contrast to scalar inferences, the computation of these three kinds of inferences facilitated response times. Following a (...)
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  4.  18
    Some scales require cognitive effort: A systematic review on the role of working memory in scalar implicature derivation.Bojan Luc Nys, Wai Wong & Walter Schaeken - 2024 - Cognition 242 (C):105623.
  5.  12
    The Understanding of Scalar Implicatures in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Dichotomized Responses to Violations of Informativeness.Walter Schaeken, Marie Van Haeren & Valentina Bambini - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:348157.
    This study investigated the understanding of underinformative sentences like “Some elephants have trunks” by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The scalar term ‘some’ can be interpreted pragmatically, ‘Not all elephants have trunks’, or logically, ‘Some and possibly all elephants have trunks’. Literature indicates that adults with ASD show no real difficulty in interpreting scalar implicatures, i.e., they often interpret them pragmatically, as controls do. This contrasts with the traditional claim of difficulties of people with ASD in other pragmatic domains, (...)
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  6.  35
    A dual-process specification of causal conditional reasoning.Niki Verschueren, Walter Schaeken & Géry D'Ydewalle - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (3):239-278.
  7.  48
    Mental models and temporal reasoning.Walter Schaeken, P. N. Johnson-Laird & Gery D'Ydewalle - 1996 - Cognition 60 (3):205-234.
  8.  24
    Why models rather than rules give a better account of propositional reasoning: A reply to Bonatti and to O'Brien, Braine, and Yang.P. N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Walter Schaeken - 1994 - Psychological Review 101 (4):734-739.
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  9.  71
    The processing of negations in conditional reasoning: A meta-analytic case study in mental model and/or mental logic theory.Walter J. Schroyens, Walter Schaeken & Géry D'Ydewalle - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):121-172.
    We present a meta-analytic review on the processing of negations in conditional reasoning about affirmation problems (Modus Ponens: “MP”, Affirmation of the Consequent “AC”) and denial problems (Denial of the Antecedent “DA”, and Modus Tollens “MT”). Findings correct previous generalisations about the phenomena. First, the effects of negation in the part of the conditional about which an inference is made, are not constrained to denial problems. These inferential-negation effects are also observed on AC. Second, there generally are reliable effects of (...)
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  10.  73
    Working memory and everyday conditional reasoning: Retrieval and inhibition of stored counterexamples.Wim De Neys, Walter Schaeken & Géry D'Ydewalle - 1995 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):349-381.
    Two experiments examined the contribution of working memory (WM) to the retrieval and inhibition of background knowledge about counterexamples (alternatives and disablers, Cummins, ) during conditional reasoning. Experiment 1 presented a conditional reasoning task with everyday, causal conditionals to a group of people with high and low WM spans. High spans rejected the logically invalid AC and DA inferences to a greater extent than low spans, whereas low spans accepted the logically valid MP and MT inferences less frequently than high (...)
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  11.  41
    Strategies during complex conditional inferences.Kristien Dieussaert, Walter Schaeken, Walter Schroyens & Gery D'Ydewalle - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (2):125 – 160.
    In certain contexts reasoners reject instances of the valid Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens inference form in conditional arguments. Byrne (1989) observed this suppression effect when a conditional premise is accompanied by a conditional containing an additional requirement. In an earlier study, Rumain, Connell, and Braine (1983) observed suppression of the invalid inferences "the denial of the antecedent" and "the affirmation of the consequent" when a conditional premise is accompanied by a conditional containing an alternative requirement. Here we present three (...)
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  12.  13
    Development of Quantitative and Temporal Scalar Implicatures in a Felicity Judgment Task.Walter Schaeken, Bojoura Schouten & Kristien Dieussaert - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:407241.
    Experimental investigations into children’s interpretation of scalar terms show that children have difficulties with scalar implicatures in tasks. In contrast with adults, they are for instance not able deriving the pragmatic interpretation that “some” means “not all” (Noveck, 2001; Papafragou & Musolino, 2003). However, there is also substantial experimental evidence that children are not incapable of drawing scalar inferences and that they are aware of the pragmatic potential of scalar expressions. In these kinds of studies, the prime interest is to (...)
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  13.  43
    Strategies in temporal reasoning.Walter Schaeken & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (3):193 – 219.
    This paper reports three studies of temporal reasoning. A problem of the following sort, where the letters denote common everyday events: A happens before B. C happens before B. D happens while B. E happens while C. What is the relation between D and EEfficacylls for at least two alternative models to be constructed in order to give the right answer for the right reason. However, the first premise is irrelevant to this answer, and so if reasoners were to ignore (...)
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  14.  3
    The Role of Working Memory in the Processing of Scalar Implicatures of Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders.Walter Schaeken, Linde Van de Weyer, Marc De Hert & Martien Wampers - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    A number of studies have demonstrated pragmatic language difficulties in people with Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders. However, research about how people with schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders understand scalar implicatures is surprisingly rare, since SIs have generated much of the most recent literature. Scalar implicatures are pragmatic inferences, based on linguistic expressions like some, must, or, which are part of a scale of informativeness. Logically, the less informative expressions imply the more informative ones, but pragmatically people usually (...)
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  15.  13
    The wording of conclusions in relational reasoning.Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst & Walter Schaeken - 2005 - Cognition 97 (1):1-22.
  16.  3
    ‘But’ Implicatures: A Study of the Effect of Working Memory and Argument Characteristics.Leen Janssens & Walter Schaeken - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  17.  50
    Truth table tasks: Irrelevance and cognitive ability.Aline Sevenants, Kristien Dieussaert & Walter Schaeken - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (3):213 - 246.
    Two types of truth table task are used to examine people's mental representation of conditionals. In two within-participants experiments, participants either receive the same task-type twice (Experiment 1) or are presented successively with both a possibilities task and a truth task (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 examines how people interpret the three-option possibilities task and whether they have a clear understanding of it. The present study aims to examine, for both task-types, how participants' cognitive ability relates to the classification of the (...)
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  18.  54
    Conditional reasoning with negations: Implicit and explicit affirmation or denial and the role of contrast classes.Walter Schroyens, Niki Verschueren, Walter Schaeken & Gery D'Ydewalle - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (3):221 – 251.
    We report two studies on the effect of implicitly versus explicitly conveying affirmation and denial problems about conditionals. Recently Evans and Handley (1999) and Schroyens et al. (1999b, 2000b) showed that implicit referencing elicits matching bias: Fewer determinate inferences are made, when the categorical premise (e.g., B) mismatches the conditional's referred clause (e.g., A). Also, the effect of implicit affirmation (B affirms not-A) is larger than the effect of implicit denial (B denies A). Schroyens et al. hypothesised that this interaction (...)
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  19.  66
    Truth table tasks: The relevance of irrelevant.Géry D'Ydewalle, Walter Schaeken, Kristien Dieussaert, Walter Schroyens & Aline Sevenants - 2008 - Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):409-433.
    Two types of truth table tasks are used investigating mental representations of conditionals: a possibilities-based and a truth-based one. In possibilities tasks, participants indicate whether a situation is possible or impossible according to the conditional rule. In truth tasks participants evaluate whether a situation makes the rule true or false, or is irrelevant with respect to the truth of the rule. Comparing the two-option version of the possibilities task with the truth task in Experiment 1, the possibilities task yields logical (...)
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  20.  45
    Pronounced inferences: A study on inferential conditionals.Sara9 Verbrugge, Kristien3 Dieussaert, Walter Schaeken, Hans5 Smessaert & William Van Belle - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (2):105 – 133.
    An experimental study is reported which investigates the differences in interpretation between content conditionals (of various pragmatic types) and inferential conditionals. In a content conditional, the antecedent represents a requirement for the consequent to become true. In an inferential conditional, the antecedent functions as a premise and the consequent as the inferred conclusion from that premise. The linguistic difference between content and inferential conditionals is often neglected in reasoning experiments. This turns out to be unjustified, since we adduced evidence on (...)
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  21.  43
    Working memory and counterexample retrieval for causal conditionals.Wim De Neys, Walter Schaeken & Géry D'Ydewalle - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (2):123-150.
  22. The processing of negations in conditional reasoning: A meta-analytic case study in mental model and/or mental logic theory.Walter J. Schroyens, Walter Schaeken & G. - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):121 – 172.
    We present a meta-analytic review on the processing of negations in conditional reasoning about affirmation problems (Modus Ponens: "MP", Affirmation of the Consequent "AC") and denial problems (Denial of the Antecedent "DA", and Modus Tollens "MT"). Findings correct previous generalisations about the phenomena. First, the effects of negation in the part of the conditional about which an inference is made, are not constrained to denial problems. These inferential-negation effects are also observed on AC. Second, there generally are reliable effects of (...)
     
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  23. Why do participants draw non-valid inferences in conditional reasoning?Niki Verschueren, Walter Schroyens, Walter Schaeken & Géry D’Ydewalle - 2001 - Cognition 16:238-246.
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  24.  33
    Is the truth table task mistaken?Aline Sevenants, Kristien Dieussaert & Walter Schaeken - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (2):119 - 132.
    There is ample evidence that in classical truth table task experiments false antecedents are judged as ?irrelevant?. Instead of interpreting this in support of a suppositional representation of conditionals, Schroyens (2010a, 2010b) attributes it to the induction problem: the impossibility of establishing the truth of a universal claim on the basis of a single case. In the first experiment a truth table task with four options is administered and the correlation with intelligence is inspected. It is observed that ?undetermined? is (...)
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  25.  57
    The relevance of selecting what's relevant: A dual process approach to transitive reasoning with spatial relations.Eef Ameel, Niki Verschueren & Walter Schaeken - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (2):164 – 187.
    The present paper focuses on the heuristic selection process preceding the actual transitive reasoning process. A part of the difficulty of transitive reasoning lies in the selection of the relevant problem aspects. Two experiments are presented using the paradigm introduced by Markovits, Dumas, and Malfait (1995), in which children were asked to make “higher than” inferences about arrays of coloured blocks. In order to discriminate between genuine transitive inference and a simple strategy of relative position, Markovits et al. interspersed white (...)
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  26.  6
    Schoolchildren’s transitive reasoning with the spatial relation ‘is left/right of’.Kevin Demiddele, Tom Heyman & Walter Schaeken - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-31.
    We examine schoolchildren’s reasoning with spatial relations, such as ‘is to the left of’. Our aims are to obtain a more precise account of the effect of working memory on reasoning, a more detaile...
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  27. Processing time evidence for a default-interventionist model of probability judgments.Ellen Gillard, Wim Van Dooren, Walter Schaeken & Lieven Verschaffel - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
     
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