We offer a proof of the duality theorem for finitely presented MV-algebras and rational polyhedra, a folklore and yet fundamental result. Our approach develops first a general dual adjunction between MV-algebras and subspaces of Tychonoff cubes, endowed with the transformations that are definable in the language of MV-algebras. We then show that this dual adjunction restricts to a duality between semisimple MV-algebras and closed subspaces of Tychonoff cubes. The duality theorem for finitely presented objects is obtained by a further specialisation. (...) Our treatment is aimed at showing exactly which parts of the basic theory of MV-algebras are needed in order to establish these results, with an eye towards future generalisations. (shrink)
We prove that the unification type of Łukasiewicz logic and of its equivalent algebraic semantics, the variety of MV-algebras, is nullary. The proof rests upon Ghilardiʼs algebraic characterisation of unification types in terms of projective objects, recent progress by Cabrer and Mundici in the investigation of projective MV-algebras, the categorical duality between finitely presented MV-algebras and rational polyhedra, and, finally, a homotopy-theoretic argument that exploits lifts of continuous maps to the universal covering space of the circle. We discuss the background (...) to such diverse tools. In particular, we offer a detailed proof of the duality theorem for finitely presented MV-algebras and rational polyhedra—a fundamental result that, albeit known to specialists, seems to appear in print here for the first time. (shrink)
We investigate a recently devised polyhedral semantics for intermediate logics, in which formulas are interpreted inn-dimensional polyhedra. An intermediate logic ispolyhedrally completeif it is complete with respect to some class of polyhedra. The first main result of this paper is a necessary and sufficient condition for the polyhedral completeness of a logic. This condition, which we call the Nerve Criterion, is expressed in terms of Alexandrov’s notion of the nerve of a poset. It affords a purely combinatorial characterisation of polyhedrally (...) complete logics. Using the Nerve Criterion we show, easily, that there are continuum many intermediate logics that are not polyhedrally complete but which have the finite model property. We also provide, at considerable combinatorial labour, a countably infinite class of logics axiomatised by the Jankov–Fine formulas of ‘starlike trees’ all of which are polyhedrally complete. The polyhedral completeness theorem for these ‘starlike logics’ is the second main result of this paper. (shrink)
We obtain an algorithm to compute finite coproducts of finitely generated Gödel algebras, i.e. Heyting algebras satisfying the prelinearity axiom =1. We achieve this result using ordered partitions of finite sets as a key tool to investigate the category opposite to finitely generated Gödel algebras . We give two applications of our main result. We prove that finitely presented Gödel algebras have free products with amalgamation; and we easily obtain a recursive formula for the cardinality of the free Gödel algebra (...) over a finite number of generators first established by A. Horn. (shrink)
The problem of artificial precision is a major objection to any theory of vagueness based on real numbers as degrees of truth. Suppose you are willing to admit that, under sufficiently specified circumstances, a predication of “is red” receives a unique, exact number from the real unit interval [0, 1]. You should then be committed to explain what is it that determines that value, settling for instance that my coat is red to degree 0.322 rather than 0.321. In this note (...) I revisit the problem in the important case of Łukasiewicz infinite-valued propositional logic that brings to the foreground the rôle of maximally consistent theories. I argue that the problem of artificial precision, as commonly conceived of in the literature, actually conflates two distinct problems of a very different nature. (shrink)
Gödel algebras form the locally finite variety of Heyting algebras satisfying the prelinearity axiom =. In 1969, Horn proved that a Heyting algebra is a Gödel algebra if and only if its set of prime filters partially ordered by reverse inclusion–i.e. its prime spectrum–is a forest. Our main result characterizes Gödel algebras that are free over some finite distributive lattice by an intrisic property of their spectral forest.
In the context of truth-functional propositional many-valued logics, Hájek’s Basic Fuzzy Logic BL  plays a major rôle. The completeness theorem proved in  shows that BL is the logic of all continuous t -norms and their residua. This result, however, does not directly yield any meaningful interpretation of the truth values in BL per se . In an attempt to address this issue, in this paper we introduce a complete temporal semantics for BL. Specifically, we show that BL formulas (...) can be interpreted as modal formulas over a flow of time, where the logic of each instant is Łukasiewicz, with a finite or infinite number of truth values. As a main result, we obtain validity with respect to all flows of times that are non-branching to the future, and completeness with respect to all finite linear flows of time, or to an appropriate single infinite linear flow of time. It may be argued that this reduces the problem of establishing a meaningful interpretation of the truth values in BL logic to the analogous problem for Łukasiewicz logic. (shrink)
Mundici has recently established a characterization of free finitely generated MV-algebras similar in spirit to the representation of the free Boolean algebra with a countably infinite set of free generators as any Boolean algebra that is countable and atomless. No reference to universal properties is made in either theorem. Our main result is an extension of Mundici’s theorem to the whole class of MV-algebras that are free over some finite distributive lattice.